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  2. Earlier usage of the Sun in pagan religious worship:
  3. In Hellenic and Roman art, the sun-god Helios and Roman emperors are often depicted with a radiant crown. The latter was not used in primitive Christian art because of its pagan origins, but from the mid 4th Century, Christ is thus represented. It was only from the 6th Century onwards that the halo began to be seen in most representations of the Virgin Mary and other saints. “The halos that artists during the Middle Ages put around the heads of saints are a remnant of sun worship.” - Will Durant “From the 4th Century, Christian artists began to paint Jesus with a halo of light, and later Mary and the Apostles. It is also characteristic of the representations of Buddha and Mohammed.” - Sven Achen The halos, a remnant of sun worship Panel of Christ and Abbot Mena E 11565 Location in the Louvre: Denon Entresol room C showcase 6 The church of the monastery of Bawit is reconstructed in part in this room. Suspended from the wall of the altar is one of the oldest images of Christ, showing him in the company of an abbot. It is also one of the first appearances of a halo of light around the head of the saints. Icons form an integral part of the Orthodox world. The worship of these two-dimensional images of Christ or of the saints took effect in the religions of Babylon and Ancient Greece. Believers considered the image used for worship as a divinity in itself. Christian artists adapted this syncretism and used pagan symbols which they introduced in a new context without however totally purifying them. Source
  4. The Librarian

    Sun in the Bible

    In the Bible, the sun is never deified because, as an impersonal force, it was created by God as a great light to light up the Earth and set a calendar. The existence of sun worship in the Kingdom of Judah is reported by the Prophet Ezekiel. “They were bowing down to the east, to the sun.” (Ezekiel 8:16). This apostate behaviour went against the Law (Deuteronomy 4:19) and the words of the psalmist, “For Jehovah God is a sun and a shield; Favor and glory are what he gives.” (Psalm 84:11). Years earlier, the King Josiah had however abolished worship of the sun-god. - 2 Kings 23:5. The Temptation of Christ MI 285 Location in the Louvre: Ary Scheffer Sully 2nd room 63 The sun, source of life and fertility, is nevertheless revered in most cultures. A149 The incarnation of light in the form of the Egyptian god Ra, it would be Helios then Apollo among the Greeks. The worship of the Persian sun-god Mithra is at the origin of the feast of Christmas. The influence of this pagan worship of the sun also explains the presence of a ring of light, the halo, around the heads of icons of Christendom. Source
  5. God Shamash Louvre Location: Sb 7 Richelieu room 3 A sovereign pours libation on an altar before a seated god, recognisable by his tiara (crown) with several rows of horns. The god holds a ring and a rod, symbols of power and justice. A rayed sun disc dominates the scene. These symbols are often associated with Shamash, sun-god but also god of justice. The symbolism in the Bible is identical. Judah gives his signet ‘ring’ and the ‘staff that is in thy hand’, both personal and precious, as a pledge to Tamar (Genesis 38:18). The rod of Moses became a symbol of his authority. - (Exodus 14) In his blessing on his deathbed, Jacob said to Judah that ‘the ruler’s staff’ shall not depart from between his feet until Shiloh comes (Genesis 49:10) This detail is an indication of future extended authority. “The rod of your strength Jehovah will send out of Zion, [saying:] ‘Go subduing in the midst of your enemies’ ” (Psalm 110:1, 2). Paul the Apostle was to apply these verses to Jesus Christ who came as the representative of God (Hebrews 10:12, 13). It is said that this 'King of kings' made war with justice with a rod of iron (Revelation 19:15). In Babylon, the Hebrew form of the name Sheshbazzar, governor of the Jews returning from exile, meant: “Oh Shamash, protect the Father”. He is identified with Zerubbabel. - Ezra 1:8 Shamash and Code of Hammurabi
  6. FWIW, this part of the Temple of Herod where it was found was apparently from a strata of several items that more likely came from the time of the official Jewish Revolution in Judea which is dated to 66 CE. The wine bottle motif, was in fact a motif that was given prominence during the Jewish Revolution and is also found on Jewish Revolutionary coins dated to the 2nd and 3rd year of the Revolution. Pilate's stone inscription at the "Palestinian" port of Caesarea was in Latin not in Greek. Pilate was part of an occupying force which at the time, was already differentiating itself from previously Hellenized regions by using Latin instead of Greek. One of the goals of the Roman occupation was to impress the occupied regions with the splendor of Rome and the opulence, talent, finery, etc. Pilate, and other governors, were known for gold rings and expensive tastes, not cheap alloys. (Not only that but the cheap ring is further devalued because it already had a metallic defect when forged based on the way the lettering tries to avoid it, but then runs out of space to balance P I L - A T O, and ends up with P I - L A T O.) The skill of the craftsman who inscribed this ring was typical of what a local person, soldier, or freed slave might buy to show his family name. It is crude and awful. In my metal shop class back in 1968, half the class could easily have done a better job with crude equipment. To make it Pilate's ring, it is translated in the genitive, as if meaning "belonging to Pilate." But the last letter is not actually visible, and was only chosen to be an O as one method of making this appear to be a "seal ring" or "bulla." As a "bulla" it would have failed in its purpose, as no one would believe a sealed letter stamped with this "bulla" actually had come from Pilate. It would be the most embarrassing cheap bulla any governor ever had. Like a very bad counterfeit. (I was at the Jewish Museum in NYC about a year ago and saw perfectly executed jewelry designs from the first century that would have belonged to a well-to-do Jewish family. A rich Roman governor would have access to at least the same kind of "laser-accurate" lettering. There are additional problems with the artifact based on the political situation in Israel, which are harder to prove. But it has long been known that finding artifacts that are of interest to Christians (Westerners) are often timed to embarrassing news about Israel's atrocities. The US is covered from hearing about most of these, but there are English outlets of Israeli news, such as haaretz.com that do not hold much back. This can sound conspiratorial to many Americans, but finds in the disputed portion of Jerusalem with David's name on it are sometimes forged, but the very real, possible finds are often held back until the timing works better. Same goes for Gaza and West Bank. This particular find was from near Bethlehem and therefore the West Bank. The item has been known for many years, and was supposedly only recently cleaned up for publication. This is in the midst of a decision on Netanyahu's fate in court over a scandal, another scandal where the Israeli Defense Minister was just discovered to have been lying for the last several years about involvement in Syria, and a several other embarrassments from this week. haaretz.com reported on this particular artifact, but also just ran an article that telegraphs some upcoming fighting we can expect out of the West Bank now that Gaza has grown quiet: https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-with-gaza-border-quiet-next-challenge-could-come-from-west-bank-1.6701110 I don't know enough about Israeli happenings to evaluate any of these latter ideas. But my doubts are based on the first few ideas already mentioned above.
  7. 57 years after the stone inscription that proved Pilate existed they've found his ring seal. What doubts? Just curious
  8. The ancient theology of Egypt is full of mythological story that explain just about everything that happens in the world. Pharaohs, queens and commoners devoted their lives on worshiping and honoring a huge pantheon of deities: Ra, Horus, Isis, Set, Anubis and Osiris. Egyptians were highly polytheistic in their religion but when it comes to Ra, the Sun god that create everything, they show their monistic tendencies. Trace the lineage and relationships on this family tree of Egyptian gods and goddesses.
  9. A wine vessel and the Greek inscription “Pilatus” can be clearly seen on the ring, according to Haaretz.
  10. "...Even for Herod it was more than just a tomb site with a palace. It was also a significant site of government. You can see the unusual significance this site had." - Professor Danny Schwartz
  11. The Librarian

    King Herod

    So which one of these is the photo above? Herod the Great Herod Antipas, called "Herod the Tetrarch" or "Herod" in the Gospels and in Acts 4:27 Agrippa I, called "King Herod" or "Herod" in Acts 12
  12. The Librarian

    King Herod

    What is the most interesting factoid you know about this king?
  13. The Librarian

    King Herod

    King Herod, the biblical Roman-Jewish king who ruled Jerusalem from 37 to 4 BC
  14. This is NOT EVIDENCE that indicates the Bible is correct. It is a theory that MIGHT be evidence that the Bible is correct. There is a difference. a BIG difference! Do not become self deluded because you WANT something to be true. That is the difference between GOOD Detectives ... and bad detectives. Bad detectives base their conclusions on what they WANT to be true. Archaeologists very often base their conclusions on what will generate the most grant money, so that they can pay their mortgages, and get lil' Debbie's teeth fixed, and how maxed out their credit cards are.
  15. Reminds me of the videos of the SUPPOSED Moon Landing by Neil Armstrong, and others, on July 20, 1969. Since then, people have been accusing NASA of faking the whole Moon Landing thing on a Movie Lot in Hollywood California. I personally do not believe this, as it is clear to me it was faked on a Movie Lot on Mars.
  16. From: http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/religion-sumer.htm That source goes on to state that the Cain/Abel story may have been added to Genesis as late as the time of the Babylonian exile.
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