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  2. "E-Tell is believed by some scholars, led by Prof. Rami Arav of the University of Nebraska in Omaha, to have been Geshur’s capital and is also thought to have been, centuries later, the village of Bethsaida, which features prominently in the New Testament. " ... "The preliminary analysis of the pottery dates the fort to the early Iron Age, specifically the 11th or 10th century B.C.E., Tzin says. This, according to the biblical chronology, would have been the time of the great united Israelite monarchy of David and Solomon, and Geshur is mentioned several times in the holy text in connection to this kingdom. For example, King David is said to have married Maakah, the daughter of the king of Geshur (2 Samuel 3:3) and it was to there that their son Absalom was exiled after killing his brother Amnon (2 Samuel 13:23-39)."
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  3. The city of Ur was a moongod city, Haran where Abraham lived until his father died was a moongod city. Sinai was also known to be a moongod region. Moon worship was as prevalent as sun worship. Many desert regions worshipped the moon because of the dew that came at night.
  4. An epitaph The inscription reads: "Si Gabbor, a priest of Shahar at Neirab. This is my image. Because I have served him with integrity, he [Shahar] has given me a good reputation and a long life. On the day of my death, my mouth could still speak and I saw with my eyes four generations of my descendants. They were weeping and grieving over me. They put no silver or bronze objects beside me; they put nothing but my clothes on me, so that my tomb would not be violated. Whoever thou may be, O thou who harmest me by moving me, may Shahar and Nikkal and Nusku make thy death shameful and may thy descendants perish."
  5. This funerary stele presents under a long inscription in Aramaic a figurative scene with a priest seated at the banquet. The cult of the moon god, Sîn in Akkadian, is already well established in the Aleppo region of Syria. In the long dedication the deceased takes stock of his life and says his desire for a beautiful death and to enjoy the rest in the Hereafter without its remains being desecrated. Material used basalt Location Room 302, Sully Wing, Louvre Palace, 1st arrondissement of Paris, Paris, Metropolis of Greater Paris, Île-de-France, Metropolitan France, France Collection Department of Near Eastern Antiquities of the Louvre
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  6. Tomb KV9 in Egypt's of the kings Powererd ( By VRTEEK )
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    ( 2 different links ) Please click so often you want.... you come in deeper and deeper >>>>>>>>> You can also click for left and right side, up and down! its so phenomenal - in 3D - a cool experience ! ENJOY😀
  7. What fascinates me the most about the first temple are its striking similarities (according to the bible's descriptions) to the polytheist temples of the Phoenicians:
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  8. Some other pictures make this clearer: The language is "Hebrew" and the writing is still using the"Paleo-Hebrew" letters that are associated with Phoenician and "pre-Hebrew" Mycenaean alphabets. Hebrew could have been much older as a spoken language, but in written form, Hebrew characters developed from earlier Mycenaean/Phoenician alphabets. In 10th century (BC) documents this is the alphabet still used, and over time the Hebrew characters began dropping some of these close association with Mycenaean. It might make one wonder what the alphabet on the stones of the 10 commandments looked like, perhaps half-a-millennium earlier. Also note that many of the actual items harvested (grapes, wheat, olives) are never actually mentioned, only assumed. The way this actually shortens the verses makes me think (maybe) that this might have been lyrics to a song. It's also interesting that the plural word for month is apparently used as a "dual." You get 12 months total, only if the word "months" must always mean TWO months. [Although consider the Hebrew leap year, of 13 months] Also of interest is that the Bible usually uses the word CHODESH for month, and the word used here is YERAHH (YERACH). An interesting development in the different uses is found here. But the Biblical plural for YERACH is YERACHIM. The plural (likley limited to dual) in the calendar is YRCHW (unknown pronunciation).
  9. A Year in “the Good Land” In 1908 an exciting discovery was made at the site of the Biblical city of Gezer, which lies toward the coastal plain west of Jerusalem: a small limestone plaque, or tablet, believed to be from the tenth century B.C.E. On it, in ancient Hebrew script, was found what is thought to be a simplified version of an agricultural year, or cycle, with its various operations. This tablet has come to be known as the Gezer Calendar. The tablet bears a signature: Abijah. Though not all archaeologists agree, many consider it to be a schoolboy’s exercise set in verse.*(see footnote below) Would you like to see the passing of seasons through the eyes of a boy who lived back then? Doing so might help you to recall some Bible events. Two Months of Ingathering The writer of this ancient calendar began with the general ingathering. While it was listed first in this calendar, you can understand why the Israelites considered this ingathering to be the climax, or the end, of the major part of the agricultural year. The month of Ethanim (later called Tishri) corresponds to September/October on our present calendar. With the bulk of the harvesting finished, this was a particularly festive time that would have involved young Abijah. Imagine his excitement while helping his father make the booth that would become their home for a week as they joyfully thanked Jehovah for the fruitage of their fields!—Deuteronomy 16:13-15. About this time, the olives were nearly ready for Abijah’s family to harvest them by beating the tree branches, a job that may have been too hard for young Abijah but fun to watch. (Deuteronomy 24:20) They would then pick up the olives and take them to the nearest stone press to make oil. Or a family might obtain some oil by a simpler method—that of placing beaten or cracked olives in water and scooping up any oil that floated to the surface. In any case, this precious liquid provided more than food. It was also used as fuel for lamps and to treat bruises and wounds, such as a lad like Abijah might get while playing. Two Months of Sowing When the early rains began, Abijah might have been happy to feel the cool shower on his skin. His father probably told him how important rain is for the land. (Deuteronomy 11:14) The soil, baked hard for months by the sun, would soften and become ready for plowing. The ancient plowman skillfully guided a wooden plow, perhaps one having a metal tip, as an animal pulled it along. The goal was to make straight furrows in the soil. The land was precious, so Israelite farmers even made use of small plots, including slopes. But there they might have to use handheld implements. Once the softened soil was plowed, wheat and barley could be sown. Interestingly, the next entry in the Gezer Calendar refers to two months of such planting. The sower might carry the grain in a fold in his clothes and spread the seed with a wide sweeping movement of his arm. Two Months of Late Sowing “The good land” never ceased producing food. (Deuteronomy 3:25) During December, the rainfall reached its peak and the land became green. It was the time for a late sowing of legumes, such as peas and chickpeas, as well as other vegetables. (Amos 7:1, 2) On the tablet, Abijah called this the “spring pasture” or, according to another rendering, the “late planting,” a time of delicious dishes made with many vegetables from this period. As the somewhat cold season warmed up, the almond tree, a harbinger of spring, blossomed with white and pink flowers. This could start at the slightest warming, as early as January.—Jeremiah 1:11, 12. One Month of Cutting Flax Abijah next mentioned flax. That might call to your mind an episode that happened centuries before Abijah’s time on the east side of the Judean hills. In the city of Jericho, Rahab hid two spies “among stalks of flax laid in rows” that had been put out to dry on her roof. (Joshua 2:6) Flax played an important part in the Israelites’ lives. To release the flax fibers, the plant material first had to rot. This would take place slowly with the dew or more rapidly by placing the flax in a pond or a stream. Once separated, the flax fibers were used to produce linen, which was then made into sails, tents, and clothes. Flax was also used for lamp wicks. Some object to the idea that flax was grown in the Gezer area, where water was somewhat scarce. Others maintain that flax was grown only later in the year. That is why some hold that in the Gezer Calendar, the word “flax” was a synonym for fodder “grass.” One Month of Barley Harvest Each year, close to the spring equinox, Abijah observed the green ears of barley, the crop he mentioned next on his calendar. The corresponding month in Hebrew is Abib, meaning “Green Ears,” possibly referring to the stage when the ears are ripe but still soft. Jehovah commanded: “Let there be an observing of the month of Abib, and you must celebrate the passover to Jehovah.” (Deuteronomy 16:1) Abib (later called Nisan) corresponds to parts of today’s March and April. The time of the ripening of barley may have played a role in determining the start of this month. Even today, Karaite Jews observe this ripening to establish their new year. In any case, barley firstfruits had to be waved before Jehovah on the 16th of Abib.—Leviticus 23:10, 11. Barley had a very important place in the everyday life of most Israelites. Cheaper than wheat, barley was often preferred for making bread, particularly by the poor.—Ezekiel 4:12. One Month of Harvest and Measure If you think back to Abijah’s time, you can imagine that early one morning he might have noticed the heavy clouds dissipating—no more rain for a while. The plants of the good land were now dependent on the dew. (Genesis 27:28; Zechariah 8:12) Israelite farmers were aware that many crops harvested during the sunniest months of the year needed a subtle balance of winds until Pentecost. The cold, wet wind coming from the north might have benefited developing cereals, but such were damaging to fruit trees once they blossomed. The hot, dry wind from the south helped the blossoms to open and pollinate.—Proverbs 25:23; Song of Solomon 4:16. Jehovah, the Master of the elements, had set in motion a finely tuned ecological system. In Abijah’s day, Israel was really “a land of wheat and barley and vines and figs and pomegranates, a land of oil olives and honey.” (Deuteronomy 8:8) Abijah’s grandfather may have told him about the extraordinary period of abundance under wise King Solomon’s rule—clear evidence of Jehovah’s blessing.—1 Kings 4:20. After mentioning harvesting, the calendar contained a word that some take to mean “measuring.” That might refer to measuring the harvest to give portions to the owners of the field and to the workers or even to pay as a tax. However, other scholars understand the Hebrew word to be “feasting” and see in this an allusion to the Festival of Weeks, which fell in the month of Sivan (May/June).—Exodus 34:22. Two Months of Leaf Plucking Abijah next wrote about two months of tending vines. Might he have helped to pluck the abundant foliage off the vines to allow the sun to reach the grapes? (Isaiah 18:5) Then came the time to gather the grapes, an exciting period for a youth back then. How delicious the first ripe grapes were! Abijah had likely heard about the 12 spies sent into the Promised Land by Moses. They went in the days of the first ripe fruits of the grapes to see how good the land was. On that occasion, one bunch of grapes was so large that it took two men to carry it!—Numbers 13:20, 23. One Month of Summer Fruit The last entry on Abijah’s calendar referred to summer fruit. In the ancient Middle East, summer was the part of the agricultural year that focused on fruit. After Abijah’s time, Jehovah used the expression “a basket of summer fruit” to illustrate that ‘the end had come to his people Israel,’ using a wordplay with “summer fruit” and “end” in Hebrew. (Amos 8:2) This should have reminded unfaithful Israel that it had reached its end and that Jehovah’s judgment was due. Figs were no doubt among the summer fruits that Abijah was referring to. Summer figs might be pressed into cakes to eat or used as a poultice for boils.—2 Kings 20:7. The Gezer Calendar and You Young Abijah was likely in direct contact with the agricultural life of the country. Farm activities were widespread among the Israelites in those days. Even if you are not in close contact with agricultural activities, the references in this tablet from Gezer can help to bring your Bible reading to life, making it more understandable and meaningful. *[Footnote] There is not full agreement about the correspondency between the list on the Gezer Calendar and the months generally followed in the Bible. Furthermore, some agricultural operations could take place at slightly different times in the various areas of the Promised Land. photos & info are from pgs 8-12 of the 06/15/07 Watchtower.
  10. Saw such toilets in Italy and in Portugal..... drain systems were quite advanced with water flowing. They washed the sponges in the little pools in front of them. I am not sure if people kept their own sponges or it was public sponges because public sponges could lead to the spread of disease. Must have been hard to come down from a 3 or 4 storey building (your rooms) to go to the toilet at night with a little oil lamp.... Thanks for modern conveniences! Yes, privacy was not cherished. The poor all had public facilities and the rich had slaves which could gape at all your private events going on.... We cannot imagine the life style...
  11. Darius the Great (550486 BCE) Under his reign, the Persian Empire reached the pinnacle of its power and the fullest extent of its size. His domain consisted of over 40 different ethnic tribes, and stretched from India to the Balkans covering almost three million square miles .
  12. The WC - Culture in the time of JESUS..... Jesus, I'm talking about the latrines This picture shows the latrines the Romans used in Jesus' time. You can see that they used a stick with a sponge on top that they use for washing. ( thats not my style, haha )
  13. In Hellenic and Roman art, the sun-god Helios and Roman emperors are often depicted with a radiant crown. The latter was not used in primitive Christian art because of its pagan origins, but from the mid 4th Century, Christ is thus represented. It was only from the 6th Century onwards that the halo began to be seen in most representations of the Virgin Mary and other saints. “The halos that artists during the Middle Ages put around the heads of saints are a remnant of sun worship.” - Will Durant “From the 4th Century, Christian artists began to paint Jesus with a halo of light, and later Mary and the Apostles. It is also characteristic of the representations of Buddha and Mohammed.” - Sven Achen The halos, a remnant of sun worship Panel of Christ and Abbot Mena E 11565 Location in the Louvre: Denon Entresol room C showcase 6 The church of the monastery of Bawit is reconstructed in part in this room. Suspended from the wall of the altar is one of the oldest images of Christ, showing him in the company of an abbot. It is also one of the first appearances of a halo of light around the head of the saints. Icons form an integral part of the Orthodox world. The worship of these two-dimensional images of Christ or of the saints took effect in the religions of Babylon and Ancient Greece. Believers considered the image used for worship as a divinity in itself. Christian artists adapted this syncretism and used pagan symbols which they introduced in a new context without however totally purifying them. Source
  14. In the Bible, the sun is never deified because, as an impersonal force, it was created by God as a great light to light up the Earth and set a calendar. The existence of sun worship in the Kingdom of Judah is reported by the Prophet Ezekiel. “They were bowing down to the east, to the sun.” (Ezekiel 8:16). This apostate behaviour went against the Law (Deuteronomy 4:19) and the words of the psalmist, “For Jehovah God is a sun and a shield; Favor and glory are what he gives.” (Psalm 84:11). Years earlier, the King Josiah had however abolished worship of the sun-god. - 2 Kings 23:5. The Temptation of Christ MI 285 Location in the Louvre: Ary Scheffer Sully 2nd room 63 The sun, source of life and fertility, is nevertheless revered in most cultures. A149 The incarnation of light in the form of the Egyptian god Ra, it would be Helios then Apollo among the Greeks. The worship of the Persian sun-god Mithra is at the origin of the feast of Christmas. The influence of this pagan worship of the sun also explains the presence of a ring of light, the halo, around the heads of icons of Christendom. Source
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