Jump to content

Kurt

British government will look to crack down on religious freedom in the UK

Topic Summary

Created

Last Reply

Replies

Views

Kurt -
Ann O'Maly -
2
1419

Top Posters


Recommended Posts

British Jews Fear State Crackdown On Circumcision, Kosher Meat And Religious Schools

"The purpose of the state in my view is not to impose cultural values on a minority which has its own cultural values and which does not clash, fight or inflict violence on anybody else", says David Frei

Illustration- Haredi Orthodox-jews- jewish A group of Orthodox Jews. Photo Wiki Commons.

 

British Jews may be forced to rethink their future in the UK in the face of increasing criticism of religious practices including circumcision, religious schools and ritual slaughter, according to a prominent figure at the London-based Beth Din religious court.

David Frei, a British-born barrister and registrar at the Beth Din since 1999, has warned of a growing trend of anti-religious sentiment in Britain that has followed record levels of atheism and Islamist terrorist atrocities in Europe that have turned people against faith – be it Judaism, Islam or Christianity – as a whole.

He fears the British government will look to crack down on religious freedom in the UK in response to public opinion. He also believes the Jewish Orthodox community will resist any attempt to legislate against customs such as kosher meat, Jewish yeshivas or the practise of circumcision, which is mandated in the Torah.

“I think there are genuine fears at the moment in any number of areas – including circumcision and ritual slaughter – that the state may one day take a more interventionist role and it is very disturbing. At one point or another Jews will have to evaluate their future in the country if this was to happen,” Frei told IBTimesUK in a wide-ranging interview published on 28 January.

“There is a very secular wave that is washing over this country at the moment. There is no question that fewer people than ever before believe in God. The opinion polls will show you that 30 or 40 years ago, the vast majority of people believed in God and now the vast majority don’t.”

Frei spoke as part of an IBTimesUK investigation into the role of Sharia courts in Britain in the face of criticism by both the government and independent politicians such as Baroness Cox. Beth Din has operated in the UK in one form or another for some four centuries and today still officiates in cases of Jewish divorce, which has a starkly different form to divorce under British civil law.

Beth Din has so far escaped the scrutiny that Sharia has fallen under in recent years, with critics arguing Islamic divorces discriminate against women – who, unlike men, have to go through the Sharia divorce court process and get permission from male relatives. Men are permitted to divorce their wives verbally.

 

David Frei British Jewish has been registrar at Beth Din in West Finchley since 1999 david-frei

 

It is argued that Jewish divorce law is similarly discriminatory in that it requires the husband to give his consent to a divorce, which cannot go ahead if he refuses. This has led to the phenomenon of so-called “chained women” in Britain, unable to remarry as their estranged partners refuse to agree to the divorce. But speaking this week, Frei said Jews knew what they were getting into when they had an Orthodox marriage.

He said: “People are voluntarily taking upon themselves additional restrictions because they believe in it. The reality is that if you are a religious Jew, the way that you think marriage is performed is platform X and divorce platform Y. And what is wrong with that?

“That is a restriction that [they have] taken upon [themselves]. That is what you believe in, your value system. That is not a threat to any society.”

In this, and in practices such as circumcision, religious schools and kosher meat, Frei said it was not the role of the government to impose on the personal religious beliefs of its citizens.

He said: “The purpose of the state in my view [is] not to impose cultural values on a minority which has its own cultural values and which does not clash, fight or inflict violence on anybody else. We are a law-abiding community. We are people who have given a full and valued contribution to British society, so why should the state come barging in and tell us what we can and can’t do in terms of matters of personal religious belief.”

On religious schools, Frei said hostility appeared to have come from the rise in extremist Islam and attacks in Europe and further afield, a link that he felt was unfair.

He said: “Very shortly after the most recent attacks in Paris, the first letter I read was about chucking out religious schools and I thought is there any evidence that any of these terrorists had ever actually attended a religious school? I don’t think so. They are better off asking to shut down the internet, because that is causing it rather than religious schools.”

This article was first published at IBTimes, by Orlando Crowcroft

 

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

A knotty problem is whether religious belief should infringe on the freedoms of others, e.g. when men enjoy certain freedoms denied to women, as outlined in the article. 

Another problem is how animals are slaughtered and how to make this the most humane. It is alleged that Kosher and Halal methods fall short of the standards put forward by animal welfare advisory bodies.

Is there any sound religious basis to insist on certain practices? Or are those practices just traditions that could be changed without compromising foundational beliefs?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You are posting as a guest. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Loading...

  • Similar Content

    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      ¡Despertad! 8 de agosto de 1981.pdf

      ¡Despertad! 8 de agosto de 1981.pdf

    • By Bible Speaks
      Would you have the courage to speak out to police about your work, even if they oppose you? It may happen again...yet we do not use the placards anymore...."Religion a Snare and a Racket"? 
      INTERESTING PHOTO OF 1940, WHERE A SISTER SORDITA, ATTENDING THE WORDS OF POLICE, THAT SPEAKS TO THE UNIT WHILE SHE ANNOUNCES RUTHERFORD SPEECH.
       

    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      A new worship centre for Jehovah's Witnesses is coming to Gloucestershire.
      Plans were approved earlier this week (June 19) by Gloucester City Council to build the place of worship in Kingsway.
      The development will be the second Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses in Gloucester, the first being based in Abbeydale.

      The plans for the Jehovah's Witnesses Kingdom Hall in Kingsway (Image: Gloucester City Council)
      The proposal includes a single storey building to be used by Jehovah's Witnesses as a place of worship and religious education, as well as five car parking spaces.
      The developer, Elevation One building design, said the building will resemble a site used by the religious group in Dover.
      A planning statement submitted by the firm said two new halls like the proposed have been built in the last year and another 14 nationwide have been planned.
      The site fronts Thatcham Avenue and abuts the southern boundary of Kingsway Primary School.

      The plans for the Jehovah's Witnesses Kingdom Hall in Kingsway (Image: Gloucester City Council)
       
      It is not clear when building works will begin.
      It will be the ninth Kingdom Hall in Gloucestershire with others in Cirencester, Cheltenham, Tewkesbury, Stroud, Dursley, Blakeney and Lydney, in addition to the existing on in Gloucester.

      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      Polls conducted by ABC News and The Washington Post revealed 36 percent of U.S. respondents in 2017 term themselves as Protestant faith members. A sharp drop from 2003's 50 percent. The statistics include a drop of eight points in evangelical white Protestant numbers. The number of Christians all in all has mirrored the predicament of Protestants. From the 83 percent of 2003 to 72 percent in 2017, the declining numbers are in stark contrast to the section of the U.S. population responding with “no religion” which have almost doubled to 21 percent. Self-identification of Catholics at 22 percent remain constant during this time. The number of adults who identify with other strands of Christianity like Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses went up marginally, from 11 percent to 14 percent. Trends are more pronounced among the American youth; only 19 percent of all adults under 30 years of age in 2003 claimed to have no religion. In 2017, that percent went up to 35 percent. These figures can be compared with the 22 percent who term themselves to be affiliated with any kind of Protestantism. These figures are significant as they denote a perceptible shift in power.

      Read more at World Religion News: "Sharp Drop in White Evangelicals in U.S." https://www.worldreligionnews.com/?p=51977

      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      If you’ve been in Newcastle city centre recently, you will have noticed them.
      Happily handing out copies of The Watchtower from carts, Jehovah’s Witnesses are taking to Newcastle’s streets in their droves.
      And the reason for the recent increase is simply due to a change in tactics.
      For years, members have gone door-to-door to spread the word about the faith.
      But now members are heading into the city to try and reach out to more people.
      “We feel the use of carts allows us to reach people we perhaps wouldn’t meet at home due to their work schedules or other factors,” said spokesperson Andrew Schofield. “The carts also provide the public with the choice of approaching us or not, which some people appreciate.
      Read more: 
      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge have left hospital after the arrival of their third child, a boy.
      The couple's second son, who was born at 11:01 BST, weighing 8lb 7oz, is fifth in line to the throne.
      Prince George and Princess Charlotte had visited their brother at the Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London.
      Leaving the hospital Prince William said the couple were very happy, before holding up three fingers and joking he had "thrice the worry now".
      "We didn't keep you waiting too long this time," he added.
      When someone asked him whether the couple had decided on a name, he said: "You'll find out soon enough."
      Read more: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-43864933

    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      Michael John Hewitt was described as a significant risk to young children and a dangerous offender.
       
      A man who took advantage of his position of trust in a Surrey branch of Jehovah's Witnesses and sexually abused three young girls has been sentenced to 15 yearsÂ’ imprisonment on Monday, 12 March at Croydon Crown Court.
      Michael John Hewitt, 71 and now of Fremington in Devon, was found guilty of eight counts of indecency with children who were all aged under 16 years at the time.
      He will be on the sex offenders register for life and have a Sexual Harm Prevention Order and Restraining Order served.
      The court heard that in the 1980s Hewitt, who previously lived in Wallington, was a member of the Jehovah's Witness Congregation and abused his victims over several decades.
      Two of HewittÂ’s victims were as young as five when the abuse started. He sexually abused all three of them in his and their home addresses, undetected by family members.
      He later sold his home in Surrey and moved to Devon.
      On January 11, 2016, two of the victims reported what had happened to a family member, who then contacted police. Hewitt was later arrested in January 2016 and bailed pending further enquiries.
      Following extensive research by detectives from the Child Abuse and Sexual Offences Command, the third victim was identified and came forward when told Hewitt was under investigation for two similar offences.
      In May 2017, Hewitt was charged with eleven counts of indecency with three girls under 16 years old. He was later acquitted of three offences.
      Whilst sentencing Judge Flahive described Hewitt as a significant risk to young children and a dangerous offender.
      Detective Constable Janet Williams, the investigating officer from the Met's Child Abuse and Sexual Offences Command said: "The victims were abused by Hewitt at a very early age. Only when they were older were they able to understand what Hewitt subjected them to. Hewitt abused his position of trust to exploit the young girls for his own satisfaction.
      "I would like to pay tribute to the victims who had the courage to report these distressing crimes to police. I hope today's conviction gives the victims a measure of comfort and closure."

      Read more at
      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      Independent investigators in the United Kingdom are weighing whether to launch a new investigation into the Jehovah’s Witnesses in the U.K. after receiving a “considerable number” of abuse allegations.
      The Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, or IICSA, a government-sanctioned investigative panel in England and Wales, told The Guardian that it had gotten a “considerable number” of reports from both the public and elected officials about the Jehovah’s Witnesses in the U.K. A spokesperson told the newspaper the panel would “consider calls for a Jehovah’s Witnesses–specific investigation carefully.” 
      It was unclear how many reports the watchdog group had received. When contacted by Newsweek, Jehovah’s Witnesses’ public information office did not immediately comment.
      Kathleen Hallisey, a lawyer who brought charges against the Jehovah’s Witnesses for sexual abuse in 2015, said she suspected there are thousands of such cases in the U.K., The Guardian reported. 
      “The Jehovah’s Witnesses refuse to recognize the issue of child abuse in their organization or to create robust safeguarding procedures to protect children,” she said. “An investigation by IICSA into the Jehovah’s Witnesses is an opportunity for the inquiry to effect real change in an organization that refuses to shine a light on child abuse and protect children.”
      News of the possible investigation comes weeks after the nonprofit religious transparency organization Faithleaks leaked 33 letters and internal documents revealing a pattern of sexual abuse by one Jehovah’s Witness member, and the lengths the church went to cover up the scandal. 
      Those documents detail communications among church leaders and several legal entities—collectively known as Watchtower—between 1999 and 2012. In one letterto Watchtower dated November 14, 1999, the Palmer Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses from Brimfield, Massachusetts, said it had reviewed claims by two women who alleged their father sexually abused them as children. The group found those claims to be true. 
      “Our impression upon speaking with both girls was similar. That they are both quite rational. It certainly appears that these were real events,” the letter said. 
      In that case, church leaders pressured one of the accusers not to report the abuse to police. Years later, the church held an in-house trial and briefly excommunicated the father. 
      That victim was not the only person pressured to remain silent. 
      In the U.K., several alleged victims had come forward with similar claims in November 2017, according to The Telegraph. 
      “Frankly, I would equate this to a scandal and a cover-up akin to the Catholic Church,” Hallisey told The Telegraph at the time.

      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  
    • By Anna
      The God delusion- are Jehovah's Witnesses the exception?
      Religion seems to be more divisive and destructive than any other belief system. Why does the belief in a superhuman power bear such "rotten fruit"? 
      Each religion claims they are the one and only true religion. Is there such a thing as the only true Religion, and one that actually bears "good fruit"?
      Please watch the documentary below and feel free to share any observations you might have, or comment on the problem of religion and belief you have identified and/or the areas where Jehovah's Witnesses differ....etc.
      At the end of the video Dawkins asks imploringly, appealing to our sense of gratitude: “People sometimes say there must be more to this life....but how much more do you want”?
      I guess you can present that question to someone who was born in poverty and disease, and has no way out. Or you can ask someone who has been diagnosed with a fatal illness and has no way of getting better. Or you can ask someone who has lost loved ones who cannot be brought back.  I am sure they would tell you they wished for more.....  
       
       
    • By The Librarian
      Belote Dage - Is There a True Religion From Gods Standpoint.mp3
      Agape!
      @The Librarian
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      Copia_de_1951_(1953)_-_¿Qué_ha_hecho_la_religión_para_la_humanidad.pdf
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      Children who were sexually abused by Jehovah's Witnesses were allegedly told by the church not to report the crimes.
      Victims from across the UK told the BBC they were routinely abused and that the religious organisation's own rules protected perpetrators.
      One child abuse lawyer believes there could be thousands of victims across the country who have not come forward because of the "two witness" rule.
      A spokesperson for the church said it did not "shield" abusers.
      'Bring reproach on Jehovah'
      BBC Hereford and Worcester spoke to victims - men and women - from Birmingham, Cheltenham, Leicester, Worcestershire and Glasgow, one of whom waived her right to anonymity.
      Louise Palmer, who now lives in Evesham, Worcestershire, was born into the organisation along with her brother Richard Davenport, who started raping her when she was four. He is serving a 10-year prison sentence for the abuse.
      The 41-year-old, formerly of Halesowen, West Midlands, said when she told the church of the abuse she was told not to go to police.
      Read more: 
      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • By TheWorldNewsOrg
      UK - Conservation work set to silence much-loved Big Ben for four years
       
       
    • By TheWorldNewsOrg
      UK - Big Ben sounds its midday bongs for the last time in four years... and it upsets many Brits!
       
       
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      La lujosa iglesia de $20 millones de dólares que construía en El Bronx, el pastor Amaurys Mella, hallado muerto en un río la semana pasada. (Fotos vía facebook)
      EL NUEVO DIARIO, NUEVA YORK._ El pastor dominicano Amaurys Mella, de 61 años de edad y cuyo cadáver fue encontrado en un río de el Bronx la semana pasada, completamente vestido, construía una suntuosa iglesia con una inversión de $20 millones de dólares en ese condado.
      Mella, quien era líder de la iglesia “Dando a Conocer a Cristo”,  había sido acusado por los padres de una adolescente de 17 años de edad en 2014, de haberle “seducido”, se destacaba por los lujos que lo rodeaban y se transportaba en un carro deportivo último modelo.
      También vestía impecablemente.
      Su congregación cuenta con más de 500 feligreses activos, que según una fuente cercana, aportaron millares de dólares para la construcción del templo.
      Acorde con la maqueta, publicada hace unos meses en su página facebook, Mella mostraba una iglesia que supera en estructura, espacio, modernidad y lujos a los templos de la Iglesia Universal, los mormones, Testigos de Jehová, adventistas  y otros templos de gran inversión económica.
      Hasta el momento, la Oficina del Médico Forense de la ciudad, no ha entregado los resultados de la autopsia.
      La congregación de Mella, es parte de la Organización de Ministros Cristianos, que lidera el reverendo y senador estatal Rubén  Díaz (padre), quien se negó ayer a responder preguntas de este reportero sobre el desenlace de la muerte de Mella.
      Díaz, que un día después de ser hallado el pastor en el río, se explayó en el tema, dijo que ya no quiere seguir tocándolo y remitió a este reportero a comunicarse con el co-pastor de la iglesia y hablar con los feligreses.
      Pero numerosas llamadas hechas a la congregación, no han sido respondidas desde la iglesia que pastoreaba Mella.
      Tras su muerte, se dijo que hay preocupación entre sus fieles por el curso que tomará ahora la construcción de la lujosa iglesia en El Bronx.
      No se ha confirmado si la policía mantiene una investigación respecto a la muerte del pastor, debido a que la feligresía descarta el suicidio.

      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • By The Librarian
      NORTH KENSINGTON, London – Not less than four members of Jehovah’s Witnesses survived the inferno that ravaged the 24 storey Grenfel Tower, London killing at least 79 people.

      None of the witnesses died in the inferno, which has led to revolution and evacuation of about 25 other blocks that have failed fire resistant test in London.
      The 4 witnesses however lost their apartments and properties in the fire. 
      “Witnesses that live near the now fire-gutted apartment building provided food, clothing, and monetary aid to their fellow members and their families that were affected. The Witnesses are also offering spiritual comfort to the grieving members of the North Kensington community”, the JWs said on their website.Jehovah’s Witnesses are known worldwide for their speed in mitigating the affliction of their neighbours worldwide.See full statement below.
      Jehovah’s Witnesses are assisting victims of a catastrophic fire that engulfed the Grenfell Tower, a 24-story apartment building in the North Kensington area of London, in the early morning hours of June 14, 2017. Authorities are reporting that at least 79 people were killed.
      Four Witnesses were evacuated from the apartment building, two of which were residents of Grenfell Tower. Fortunately, none of them were injured, although the Witnesses’ apartments were among those completely destroyed in the blaze.
      Witnesses that live near the now fire-gutted apartment building provided food, clothing, and monetary aid to their fellow members and their families that were affected. The Witnesses are also offering spiritual comfort to the grieving members of the North Kensington community.

      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • By Jack Ryan
      In Newcastle town centre. UK.
      The Chronicle Live. 15 June 2017.
      A council worker will stand trial after he was accused of being drunk at the wheel of his road sweeper in Newcastle city centre.
      John Paul Carruthers, who has since resigned from his post at Newcastle City Council, was allegedly over the legal drink-drive limit when he ploughed into a Jehovah’s Witness stand on Northumberland Street near to Haymarket Metro Station.
      Prosecuting, James Long told Newcastle Magistrates’ Court: “The allegation is that he was driving a Newcastle City Council road sweeper when he collided first with a Jehovah’s Witness stand next to Haymarket Metro Station. He carried on then a short while later was detained on Ridley Place and was said to be aggressive.

      READ MORE: 
      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • By Jack Ryan
      09:38  Official police statement 
      Detectives have launched a murder investigation following the suspicious death of a man in Honiton today [6 June].
      Police and ambulance crews were called at around 3.40pm after concerns were raised for the welfare of the man at a premises in Dowell Street.
      On arrival they found the man, who is yet to be identified, deceased at the scene. He had sustained a number of stab wounds.
      A 55-year-old man was located nearby and has been arrested on suspicion of murder. He has been taken into custody in Exeter awaiting questioning.
      Detectives from the Major Crime Investigation Team have launched an investigation to establish the circumstances of the man’s death.
      Officers are appealing for anyone who may have information which may assist with the enquiry to contact them.
      A cordon remains in place around the scene while a forensic examination is carried out by scenes of crime officers.
      Anyone who may have information about the incident is asked to contact police via 101@dc.police.uk or by telephoning 101, quoting log 529 of 06/06/17.
      Information can also be passed anonymously to Crimestoppers via 0800 555111 or the charity’s website at 
      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Read more at Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
      ---------------------------------------
      The question now is.... are either of the two Jehovah's Witnesses?
    • By Ronny Stoyan
      Ich habe seit kurzem einen Blog zu Kultur , Wissenschaft und Religion gestartet. Die Schwerpunktfrage im weltanschaulichen Kontext soll hier lauten: Ist die Beschränkung der Wissenschaft auch eine Beschränkung der Realität, oder gibt es jenseits des Empirismus eine Realität die wir Gott nennen?
      „Die Wissenschaft fängt eigentlich da an, interessant zu werden, wo sie aufhört.“
      Justus von Liebig (1803–1873)
       

      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
    • By TheWorldNewsOrg
      via TheWorldNewsOrg
      World News
    • By admin
      Terrorist incident at Manchester Arena 
      Police shutdown central Manchester, early Tuesday morning, after a suspected explosion at the Manchester Arena killed 19 and injured 50.
      Suicide Bomber suspected
      The incident is thought to have occurred at 22.35 local time (21.35 GMT), at the end of an Ariana Grande concert as 20,000 + attendees were leaving the premises. Emergency vehicles streamed to the arena and helicopters circled above as police urged people to stay clear of the area.
      As we all get more details about this event please post news below as a reply
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      "Los terroristas no veneran a Dios. Veneran la muerte", ha declarado el presidente de Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, en la cumbre árabe-islámica-estadounidense en Riad.

      Donald Trump ofrece un discurso en la cumbre árabe-islámica-estadounidense en Riad, Arabia Saudita, el 21 de mayo de 2017.
      Jonathan Ernst / Reuters
      Un día después de llegar a Arabia Saudita, este domingo el mandatario de Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, ofrece un discurso en la cumbre árabe-islámica-estadounidense en Riad. Durante su primer viaje al extranjero en el cargo actual, el presidente estadounidense busca "fortalecer antiguas amistades de EE.UU. y buscar nuevos socios para lograr la paz". "EE.UU. no buscará imponer su estilo de vida a otros, sino tender manos con espíritu de cooperación y confianza", ha asegurado.
      Trump ha declarado que EE.UU. aboga por la creación de una "coalición de naciones" en Oriente Medio, con el fin de "erradicar el extremismo". Ha calificado la lucha contra los extremistas como una "batalla entre el bien y el mal" y ha precisado que combatir al terrorismo "no es una batalla entre diferentes creencias, diferentes sectas o diferentes civilizaciones", sino "una batalla entre quienes buscan aniquilar la vida humana y quienes buscan protegerla".
      "Los terroristas no veneran a Dios. Veneran la muerte", ha destacado. También ha recordado que "el 95 % de las víctimas de los ataques terroristas son los propios musulmanes", en su mayoría, "inocentes de naciones árabes, musulmanas y de Oriente Medio".
      Leer más: 
      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
  • Forum Statistics

    61,446
    Total Topics
    112,796
    Total Posts
  • Member Statistics

    16,464
    Total Members
    1,592
    Most Online
    Michelletenise
    Newest Member
    Michelletenise
    Joined




×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

Terms of Service Confirmation Terms of Use Privacy Policy Guidelines We have placed cookies on your device to help make this website better. You can adjust your cookie settings, otherwise we'll assume you're okay to continue.