By Kathy Meyer
Important Things You Should Know About a Migraine
Are there recurring pains that come to your head which is first moderate then becomes severe in the long run? Do the pain in your head is throbbing or pulsing? Does the pain often occur on one side of your head occur? Are you feeling weak or nausea? Are you experiencing sensitivity to sound or light? If all of your answer or most of the questions, the answer is yes. Probably, you might have a migraine.
There are many factors that a migraine develops. It may be the result of abnormal activity that your brain works. It can affect your nerves communication and the chemicals and the blood vessels in your mind. Sometimes, because genetic reasons, it can trigger someone’s migraine. There are chances that a person’s headache activates when they encounter. If a person is not able to know how a migraine becomes active, there is a high risk of being attacked to this severe headache.
A Migraine Triggers Most During:
1. Diet practices. Some beverages contribute most in migraine attack – alcohol and caffeine. Other specific foods also that includes chocolate, peanut, cheese, citrus fruits, and foods that contain additive tyramine. If the person has irregular meal time and particular circumstances of getting dehydrated migraine triggers.
2. Emotional triggers. Since emotions are connected to psychological being of a person, once he may feel stress, depressed, anxious, excited, and even shock, it can activate his migraine.
3. Environment. Since one of the symptoms of having migraine its sensitivity to light, you expect that once there are flickering screens, strong smells, second-hand smoke, or even loud noises in the environment, it can cause your migraine to attack. Aside from that, if temperature changes, you are closed to a stuffy room, or having bright lights in the surroundings that annoy your eyes, can also make a migraine start.
4. Hormonal changes. Most cases this happens to girls during their menstruation. It is because whenever girls have their monthly periods, their hormone level changes.
5. Medication. Due to other conditions which you have felt before, you might have specific drugs that include sleeping pills, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) drugs, or combined contraceptive pill. All of these may trigger a migraine.
6. Physical causes. Your body’s low blood sugar or jet lag can be a cause. If you are tired and does not have enough sleep, your shoulder or neck tensions, you have poor posture, or physical overexertion can trigger a migraine.
Despite these possible causes to trigger your migraine, you can fight whenever it attacks if you have prepared yourself for treatments. If you have consulted your doctor, it is much better so that he can help you manage it. However, if you were not able to talk to your doctor, some treatments can help you make your migraine less painful.
The treatment plan should depend on certain factors your age, type of your migraine, number of attacks, other health conditions, any severe symptoms of attacks. The treatment focuses on giving relief to the signs and preventing severe additional migraine attacks. The procedure may be a combination of the following:
1. Self-care remedies for a migraine
2. Adjustments in lifestyle like stress management and avoiding activities that trigger a migraine
3. Engaging in exercises, relaxation techniques, and biofeedback
4. Prescription migraine medication that you take as soon as headache starts which may include Axert drug.
5. Hormone therapy could help women who mostly experience the attack of severe headache during the menstruation cycle.
7. Alternative care
8. You can lie down in a quiet and dark room. Make sure to rest your eyes.
9. Massage scalp or temples
10. You can place a cold cloth over the forehead or behind the neck.
11. You need to drink plenty of water.
It is worth knowing the important things that cause your migraine. At the same time, with an underlying treatment, it could have. Most of the time, when a headache occurs, and it becomes severe, people rely most on medicine that could help them ease the pain.
So to lessen the burden of rattling whenever migraine attacks, it is suggested that you need to bring with you always medicine that will help you the most. Thus, it is timely and relevant to grab one of the offered discounts by Pharma Quotes for cases like you. To avail the promo, grab and secure an Axert Coupon as soon as possible. With this, you will always be ready with or without migraine attack.
By Guest Nicole
Want medical care without quickly draining your fortune? Try Singapore or Hong Kong as your healthy havens.
The U.S. will cost you the most for treatment, both in absolute terms and relative to average incomes, while life expectancy of Americans -- about 79 years -- was exceeded by more than 25 countries and territories, according to an annual Bloomberg analysisÂ in almost 200 economies.
A health-efficiency index was then created to rank those with average lifespans of at least 70 years, GDP per-capita exceeding $5,000 and a minimum population of 5 million.
Americans arenÂ’t getting their medical moneyÂ’s worth, according to each of the categories.
By Claudia Sanchez
In the second century, the Church faced its first great heresy: Gnosticism. This confusing and eclectic system of beliefs threatened to destroy the Church in its infancy. Among Gnosticism’s tenets was the conviction that the material world is contemptible, unworthy of redemption. Unlike the Christian view that the material world was originally created good but then fell through sin, Gnostics believed that the world we live in was created as the result of some tragic accident. Only the spiritual world mattered; anything physical was to be left behind.Â
Against this heresy rose the great Church Father St. Irenaeus, who inÂ The Scandal of the IncarnationÂ explained that the key doctrine of Christianity is the Incarnation: the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us (John 1:14). The physical world is not to be held in contempt; on the contrary, it provides the means of our salvation.
Although eventually Gnosticism was conquered,Â its material/spiritual dualism has reared its ugly head throughout Church history. Many heresies borrowed it, including Manichaeism, the heresy embraced for a time by St. Augustine. And although Protestantism does not fully endorse a material/spiritual dualism, there are aspects of this flawed worldview in its belief systemÂ—for example, in its rejection of a visible Church.Â
In the most common Protestant view (since there are always competing views within Protestantism), the Church is an invisible entity made up of all Christian believers (how a Â“believerÂ” is defined also varies among Protestants). Any visible manifestations, such as leaders or physical sacraments or buildings, are merely tools Christians use for practical reasons. None are essential to the Church, and all can be discarded if need be.Â
In contrast, the Catholic faith teaches that there is a visible Church here on earth, founded by Christ himself. It includes a visible membershipÂ—the baptizedÂ—and a visible leadership structure: the hierarchy of bishops and the service of ordained priests and deacons. These visible aspects are fundamental to the Church and cannot be discarded. Throughout history, many Christians have been scandalized at the visible quality of the Church, usually because of the un-Christian behavior of its members. ScandalsÂ withinÂ the Church emphasize the scandalÂ ofÂ the Church.Â
There is a certain attractive neatness to the idea of a purely invisible Church.Â If a leader commits some egregious sin, then one can simply claim he wasnÂ’tÂ reallyÂ part of the true, invisible Church (which contains only the pure and holy). Since the ChurchÂ’s membership is invisible, this can never be disproven. We can even understand why this notion of an invisible Church gained so much traction in the sixteenth century; after all, this was a time of great moral crisis in the visible institution of the Catholic Church. Many priests were immoral and many bishops were corrupt, and some popes were both. How could these men be part of ChristÂ’s Church? So the simple answerÂ—theyÂ’re notÂ—proliferated.
Yet in spite of all the scandalous sins among its clergy and hierarchy, Catholics continued to insist that Christ founded a visible Church, and that we can know with certainty who are the members and who are the leaders. Why this insistence? BecauseÂ visibilityÂ is essential to each of the four marks of the Church: one, holy, catholic, and apostolic.
One:Â Visibility is perhaps most important to the onenessÂ—the unityÂ—of the Church. We see this clearly by the opposite example: the disunity of Protestantism, which teaches a purely invisible Church. If the universal Church is invisible, it doesnÂ’t matter if you belong to the Presbyterians or Methodists or Lutherans. It also doesnÂ’t matter, then, if your beliefs are unified. An emphasis on invisibility ultimately leads to tens of thousands of visible denominations teaching conflicting belief systems.
Holy:Â Although the visible Church has always had sinners in its midst, it has also always possessed the means of holiness. And the primary means of holiness are the very visibleÂ sacraments. Through material things such as water, bread, wine, and oil, Christ dispenses his graces upon his followers. With the sacraments, we can know with certainty that holiness is attainable; without the sacraments, we can only guess.
Catholic:Â To beÂ catholicÂ is to be universal. A purely invisible Church can claim universality, but only a visible Church can prove it. What we see in denominations claiming to be part of an invisible Church is constant breakups, with one faction claiming that another isnÂ’t truly Christian. But in a visible Church, the Catholic Church, we can see with our own eyes the same faith practiced from America to Africa to Asia.Â
Apostolic:Â Christ himself picked twelve men to lead his Church. He wanted them to be the visible leaders so that all men would know that communion with the apostles meant communion with him. The apostles understood how important a visible leadership was, and so they appointed successorsÂ—the bishopsÂ—to take up their mantle after their deaths. The hierarchy of the Church is a visible sign of the continuity of the ChurchÂ—in teaching and in practiceÂ—from the time of the apostles to today.Â
Even during a time of many scandals within the Church,Â there is nothing more scandalous thanÂ the Church itself. It reflects the reality that God has taken this broken material worldÂ—and its equally broken inhabitantsÂ—and uses it to bring us to him. It is a constant sign to the world that the material, physical world matters. We are each a body/soul composite, and so we need physical as well as spiritual signs to direct us to God. Just as God came into this world as a visible man, he gave us a visible Church to lead us into the next world.
By Guest Nicole
Being widowed, divorced or never married increases the risk of heart disease.
Being married may reduce the risk of heart disease and cardiovascular death, a review of studies has found.
Researchers pooled data on more than two million participants in 34 studies carried out in the United States, Britain, Japan, Russia, Sweden, Spain, Greece and eight other countries.
They found that compared with married people, those who were unmarried — whether never married, widowed or divorced — were 42 percent more likely to have some form of cardiovascular disease and 16 percent more likely to have coronary heart disease. The unmarried also had a 43 percent increased likelihood of coronary heart disease death and a 55 percent increased risk for death from stroke. Stroke risk was increased for the unmarried and divorced, but not for the widowed.
Read more: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/29/well/marriage-heart-married-divorced-single.html?rref=collection/sectioncollection/well
By Guest Nicole
Working out the muscles on one side of our bodies can keep the muscles on the other side fit, even if we do not move them at all.
By Gretchen Reynolds
May 16, 2018
If you sprain an ankle or break a wrist this summer and cannot use one of your limbs, the muscles there will weaken and shrink — unless you exercise those same muscles in your other limb.
According to a fascinating new study, working out the muscles on one side of our bodies can keep the muscles on the other side strong and fit, even if we do not move them at all. The finding has implications for injury recovery and also underscores how capable and confounding our bodies can be.
Many of us — or a family member — will at some point break a bone, tear a ligament or experience a neurological problem such as a stroke that makes it impossible to move an arm or leg normally.
When that limb is immobilized, its muscles will atrophy, losing size and strength, a process that begins within days or even hours of an injury.
There have been hints, though, that exercising one limb can affect the other. In past studies, when someone pedals a bike with one leg or lifts weights with one arm, muscles in the other limb often contract, a development known as mirroring.
But in most of those experiments, the unused limb was not completely immobilized with a cast and scientists did not focus on specific muscles, making it difficult to know whether exercising certain muscles in one limb affects all muscles in the other or only some.
Read more: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/16/well/move/exercise-sports-injury-arm-leg-broken-strain-sprain.html?rref=collection%2Fsectioncollection%2Fhealth&action=click&contentCollection=health&region=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=2&pgtype=sectionfront
By Guest Nicole
April 19, 2018
University of Colorado at Boulder
Older adults who take an antioxidant that specifically targets mitochondria see age-related changes in blood vessels reverse by the equivalent of 15 to 20 years within six weeks, a new study shows.
Older adults who take a novel antioxidant that specifically targets cellular powerhouses, or mitochondria, see age-related vascular changes reverse by the equivalent of 15 to 20 years within six weeks, according to new University of Colorado Boulder research.
The study, published this week in the American Heart Association journal Hypertension, adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting pharmaceutical-grade nutritional supplements, or nutraceuticals, could play an important role in preventing heart disease-the nation's No. 1 killer. It also resurrects the notion that oral antioxidants, which have been broadly dismissed as ineffective in recent years, could reap measurable health benefits if properly targeted, the authors say.
"This is the first clinical trial to assess the impact of a mitochondrial-specific antioxidant on vascular function in humans," said lead author Matthew Rossman, a postdoctoral researcher in the department of integrative physiology. "It suggests that therapies like this may hold real promise for reducing the risk of age-related cardiovascular disease."
Read more: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180419141523.htm
Whether sustained or sporadic, exercise offers same reductions in premature death risk Moderate-to-vigorous workouts reduce mortality, even in short bursts under 10 minutesBy Guest Nicole
For decades, Americans have been inundated with a confusing barrage of messages about how best to counteract the health risks of sedentary lifestyles: walk 10,000 steps a day; do a seven-minute workout from a phone app; flip heavy tires in an arduous boot camp class.
It turns out that any and all of those tactics -- even when done in short bursts throughout the day -- could work to reduce Americans' risk of disease and death, according to research appearing in the Journal of the American Heart Association.
"For about 30 years, guidelines have suggested that moderate-to-vigorous activity could provide health benefits, but only if you sustained the activity for 10 minutes or more," said study author and distinguished professor William E. Kraus, M.D., of the Duke University School of Medicine. "That flies in the face of public health recommendations, like taking the stairs instead of the elevator, and parking farther from your destination. Those don't take 10 minutes, so why were they recommended?"
Kraus's study found that even brief trips up and down stairs would count toward accumulated exercise minutes and reducing health risks so long as the intensity reaches a moderate or vigorous level. Moderate exertion was defined as brisk walking at a pace that makes it hard to carry a conversation. Boosting that pace to a jog would be vigorous exercise for most people, he said.
The study findings are good news for most Americans, Kraus said, because they typically get their moderate or vigorous exercise in short bouts, and accumulating 30 minutes per day may be more convenient than setting a half-hour block.
Current guidelines, issued in 2008 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, recommend at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week, ideally spread out over several days, Kraus said. Updated guidelines are expected to be released later this year.
Read more: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180322103242.htm
via .ORGWorld News
By Guest Nicole
Are standing desks really doing us any good?
That question has divided workplaces since sitting started going out of fashion about five years ago. Our sedentary lifestyles wereÂ killingÂ us, so standing, the thinking went, was the logicalÂ antidote.Â Sitting too long has been associated with diabetes, hypertension, some forms of cancer, anxiety and a generally greater probability ofÂ early death. However, a few years and hundreds of studies later, the naysayers beganÂ arguingÂ that the benefits of standing had been exaggerated.Â
Â“What is the real answer?Â” askedÂ Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, a cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic. Â“How many calories would someone burn in standing or sitting up?Â” A new study may provide the most definitive answer to date, at least as far as losing weight is concerned.Â Standing does, in fact, burn calories, researchers found, just not that many: about 54 calories for a six-hour day of standing.
Read more:Â https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-02-01/do-standing-desks-really-help-you-lose-weight
By Guest Nicole
The potentially harmful effects of loneliness and social isolation on health and longevity, especially among older adults, are well established. For example, in 2013 I reported on research finding that loneliness can impair healthÂ by raising levels of stress hormones and inflammation, which in turn can increase the risk of heart disease, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes, dementia and even suicide attempts.
Among older people who reported they felt left out, isolated or lacked companionship, the ability to perform daily activities like bathing, grooming and preparing meals declined and deathsÂ increased over a six-year study periodÂ relative to people who reported none of these feelings. Writing for The New York TimesÂ’s department The Upshot last December, Dr. Dhruv Khullar, a physician and researcher at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York, cited evidence for disrupted sleep, abnormal immune responses and accelerated cognitive decline among socially isolated individuals, which he called Â“a growing epidemic.Â”
By David Normand
December 15, 20172:52 AM ET Heard on Morning Edition In a far-reaching report on child sex abuse in Australia, a government commission is recommending that the country's Catholic Church lift its celibacy requirement for diocesan clergy and be required to report evidence of abuse revealed in confession.
Those are among the 400 recommendations contained in the 17-volume final report of the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sex Abuse, which is wrapping up a five-year investigation Â– the longest in Australia's history.
"We have concluded that there were catastrophic failures of leadership of Catholic Church authorities over many decades," the report said.
The AustralianÂ reports: "More than 15,000 people contacted the commission to share their experiences of abuse, more than 8,000 of them spoke personally with the commissioner about the trauma it caused, and approximately 2,500 cases have now been referred to police."
The commission said the church failed to properly address allegations and concerns of victims, calling the Church's response to them "remarkably and disturbingly similar."
The report also detailed abuse in churches of other denominations and at such institutions as schools and sports clubs. However, it concluded that the greatest number of alleged abuse perpetrators were found in Catholic institutions. The commissionÂ has concluded that 7 percentÂ of priests who worked in Australia between 1950 and 2009 had been accused of child sex abuse.
Â Â Among the report's recommendations:
Â— A national strategy to prevent child abuse, with a national office of child safety.
Â— Making failure to protect a child from risk of abuse within an institution a criminal offense on the state and territory level.
Â— Implementing preventative training for children in schools and early childhood center.
Â— A requirement that candidates for religious ministry undergo external psychological testing.
Â— Any person in a religious ministry subject to a substantiated child sex abuse complaint should be permanently removed from the ministry.
Currently, Australian law exempts confessional evidence from the rules that apply to other kinds of evidence in court,Â according to The National Catholic Register.
Vatican Cardinal Charged With 'Historic Sexual Offenses' In Australia
Prominent Cardinal Returns To Australia To Face Sex Abuse Charges
"We recommend that canon law be amended so that the 'pontifical secret' does not apply to any aspect of allegations or canonical disciplinary processes relating to child sexual abuse," the report said.
It said that "Religious ministers, out-of-home care workers, childcare workers, registered psychologists and school [counselors] should be brought into line with police, doctors and nurses who are all obliged by law to report sexual abuse," according toÂ The Sydney Morning Herald reports.
"Without a legal obligation to tell police about abuses, many staff and volunteers failed to let anyone outside the institution know, the commission found," theÂ Heraldreported.
The commission called for the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference to ask the Vatican to introduce voluntary celibacy for clergy. The commission found that clerical celibacy was not a direct cause of abuse, but that it increased the risk of abuse when celibate male clergy had privileged access to children.
In anÂ official statement, Archbishop Denis Hart of the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, apologized for past abuse, calling it a "shameful past" and said the commission's report "will be taken very seriously."
However, speaking to reporters later, Hart said the commission's report "hasn't damaged the credibility of the church" and called the recommendations on the confessional "a distraction."
"The seal of the confessional, or the relationship with God that's carried through the priest and with the person, is inviolable. It can't be broken," Hart told reporters.
"I think everyone understands that this Catholic and orthodox practice of confession is always confidential,"Â he said.
Hart also pushed back on the subject of celibacy: "We know very well that institutions who have celibate clergy and institutions that don't have celibate clergy both face these problems. We know very well that this happens in families that are certainly not observing celibacy."
The commission's findings follow numerous allegations of sex abuse by Catholic priests in Australia in recent years. In June,Â Police in Victoria charged Cardinal George Pell, now a high-ranking Vatican official, with sex abuse dating to his time as a priest in Australia in the 1970s and 80s. Pell has denied the allegations.
The report concluded: "Tens of thousands of children have been sexually abused in many Australian institutions. We will never know the true number." the report concluded.
"It is not a case of a few 'rotten apples.' Society's major institutions have seriously failed," it said.
Rules that the American Catholic sect is giving to their parishioners to get rid of Jehovah's witnesses. ?By Bible Speaks
Rules that the American Catholic sect is giving to their parishioners to get rid of Jehovah's witnesses.
Would you be able to rebut these almost military standards?
Interaction with a Jehovah's witness
Answer the door. This may seem counter-intuitive to get rid of someone, but the fact is, if you don't answer the door, it's likely to mark you as "no house" and come back in the near future. If you really want to get rid of them, you'll have to answer the door and let them know.
Interrupt. Sounds rude, but it doesn't have to be. It is likely to deepen your command sequence and it will only be more difficult to get a word Polly interrupt to take control of the conversation.
When a Jehovah's witness begins to speak, interrupt with an educated gesture: "excuse me" to draw your attention.
Try to raise your hand and keep it between the two at the chest level with the palm of your hand to the other person and start your interjection with "wait".
If you wait until the Jehovah's witness asks a question, you can simply reply with: "I would rather not have this conversation".
Be honest. If you make up a reason not to want to talk to them, you can see this as an invitation to come back another time. This also starts a conversation.
Be honest and direct with your answer to get your point through and avoid one of your starters of the conversation.
Avoid making excuses. They are trained to respond to specific protests and may consider coming back in the future if they are too busy right now.
We politely. Choose very few words to reject your invitation to speak. It's unnecessary to be rude, and arguing will only stimulate the conversation. A simple and polite decline will do the trick.
Once I get a chance to talk, try a simple, "No, thank you".
It can also be direct saying, " I'm not interested, thank you."
Close the door. Don't hit him in the face, but I understand you've been trained to keep the conversation. Once I have rejected, close the door gently. This is important, because, like the caretakers or any lawyer, they are not likely to accept the first, "no" and will do everything possible to return to you.
Closing the door may be the only way to end the conversation.
If this feels rude to you, try to say, "I'm sorry" when you close the door.
By Guest Nicole
August 2, 2017
Florida Atlantic University
Restricting how much you eat without starving has been shown to robustly extend lifespan in more than 20 species of animals including primates. How this works is still unclear. A new study shows that it's not just what or how much you eat that matters. Smelling food in addition to consuming calories could influence the aging process. And, what's 'eating' you or more specifically your cells may provide clues to healthy aging.
Read more: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170802092008.htm
By Guest Nicole
July 17, 2017
A new review indicates that subjective well-being -- factors such as life satisfaction and enjoyment of life -- can influence physical health.
A new review indicates that subjective well-being -- factors such as life satisfaction and enjoyment of life -- can influence physical health. The review's investigators also examine why this is so and conditions where it is most likely to occur.
Read more: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170717100550.htm
By Guest Nicole
Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain.
Read more: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1614362?query=featured_home&
By Guest Nicole
Mindfulness and Anxiety.pdf
By Guest Nicole
Obesity and weight problems are on the rise across the world, according to a new study. In fact, more than 2 billion adults and children (or more than 30 percent of the world’s population) suffered from health problems stemming from being overweight or obese in 2015, and more people than ever are dying because of weight-related problems, the study found.
Published in the New England Journal of Medicine, the study analyzed data from 195 countries between 1980 and 2015, collected as part of the Global Burden of Disease study (which looked at the health loss of more than 300 diseases and injuries). Scientists from the University of Washington found that more than 107 million children and 603 million adults worldwide were obese as of 2015, and even more are technically overweight. And in the U.S. alone, 79 million adults were technically obese in 2015, as compared to 57 million adults in China (which has four times as many people as the U.S.), the Associated Press notes. The U.S. also has the highest number of overweight or obese young adults or children.
Read more: http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2017/06/obesity-overweight-global-population-study.html
By Bible Speaks
Pedophile Priest With HIV who Raped 30 Children Forgiven by Church
Catholic Church absolved priest after who faces no criminal charges for raping young girls under 10
A Catholic Priest has been acquitted by the church after he admitted to raping almost 30 young girls aged between 5 and 10-years-old.
The priest, Jose Garcia Ataulfo, was cleared of any wrong-doing and won't face any criminal charges, despite the fact that he knew he was infected with HIV when he sexually abused all the children he admitted to raping.
The mother of one of the priest's victims wrote a letter to The Pope asking to meet with him in Rome to discuss the case, but was shunned by the Vatican who declared that "the matter is closed".
Ataulfo admitted to sexually assaulting well over two dozen children, many of whom were indigenous young girls from Oaxaca, a state in southern Mexico known for its large indigenous population.
Due to the significant influence that the Catholic Church wields in Mexico, the priest won't face any criminal charges, particularly for his crimes in areas populated by indigenous ethnic groups.
The report which first appeared on the Spanish-language news site Urgente24.com, says the priest, was absolved of any wrongdoing by the Archdiocese of Mexico.
According to Urgente24.com, only two out of the thirty rape victims have come forward to denounce the acquittal.
By Guest Nicole
At some point or another, you’ve probably seen someone reference research which suggests that having a good sense of humor is linked to better health outcomes. Sometimes, this is referenced as more or less a fact — we know this to be true. And sometimes, the point is stretched yet further: therefore, actively working to have a sense of humor can help you stay healthy.
But when you look at some of this research, things are actually not quite so simple. In a post published today on BPS Research Digest, Christian Jarrett nicely explains the limitations of some of the health-humor studies and deftly unpacks why they don’t say what they seem to.
The research in question this time around is an article consisting of a series of studies published in Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin.
Let’s let Jarrett explain two of the studies’ setups:
Heidi Fritz at Clarkson University and her colleagues began by conducting a diary study with 21 women and 1 man diagnosed with the chronic pain condition Fibromyalgia Syndrome. The participants first completed baseline questionnaires about their physical health, psychological state, their tendency to see the funny side of things (for example, they were asked whether they would typically experience mirth in situations such as a waiter spilling a drink over them), how much socialising and support they’d had with friends and relatives recently, and how much they tended to reappraise challenges, such as looking for the positives in a difficult situation. Then the participants spent the next four days completing diary entries several times each day about their physical and emotional state.
A second study involved just over 100 undergrad students answering questions about their psychological and emotional state, their tendency to find things funny and make jokes, and they also recalled a previous distressing event and how much it continued to affect them.
As Jarrett explains, the results suggested that, overall, those with better senses of humor were more likely to handle certain types of stressors, as well as the lingering effects of trauma. But: “[T]he obvious problem with these first two studies is that it might simply be that the less distressed participants were better able to experience humour, rather than their inclination for humour reducing their stress levels or, in the case of the first study, their physical symptoms.” This is a potential problem with basically all correlational research, of course, and it’s why it’s frustrating to see so many people extract “X causes Y!” takeaways from studies that are a bit more complicated.
What’s interesting about this particular article is that, as Jarrett explains, a third study was designed to test the causality question — that is, whether a sense of humor causes better health and more resilience — but “it failed, statistically, to establish that a stronger inclination for humour at baseline was directly associated with less distress at follow-up.”
So what we’re left with are some ambiguous correlations — interesting in their own right and worth probing forward. Which is fine! That’s science. But science is complicated, and the stories we tell should about it should reflect that.
By Guest Nicole
Running may be the single most effective exercise to increase life expectancy, according to a new review and analysis of past research about exercise and premature death. The new study found that, compared to nonrunners, runners tended to live about three additional years, even if they run slowly or sporadically and smoke, drink or are overweight. No other form of exercise that researchers looked at showed comparable impacts on life span.
The findings come as a follow-up to a study done three years ago, in which a group of distinguished exercise scientists scrutinized data from a large trove of medical and fitness tests conducted at the Cooper Institute in Dallas. That analysis found that as little as five minutes of daily running was associated with prolonged life spans.
After that study was released, the researchers were inundated with queries from fellow scientists and the general public, says Duck-chul Lee, a professor of kinesiology at Iowa State University and a co-author of the study. Some people asked if other activities, such as walking, were likely to be as beneficial as running for reducing mortality risks.
High-mileage runners wondered if they could be doing too much, and if at some undefined number of miles or hours, running might become counterproductive and even contribute to premature mortality,
And a few people questioned whether running really added materially to people’s life spans. Could it be, they asked rather peevishly, that if in order to reduce your risk of dying by a year, you had to spend the equivalent of a year’s worth of time on the trails or track, producing no discernible net gain?
So for the new study, which was published last month in Progress in Cardiovascular Disease, Dr. Lee and his colleagues set out to address those and related issues by reanalyzing data from the Cooper Institute and also examining results from a number of other large-scale recent studies looking into the associations between exercise and mortality.
Over all, this new review reinforced the findings of the earlier research, the scientists determined. Cumulatively, the data indicated that running, whatever someone’s pace or mileage, dropped a person’s risk of premature death by almost 40 percent, a benefit that held true even when the researchers controlled for smoking, drinking and a history of health problems such as hypertension or obesity.
Using those numbers, the scientists then determined that if every nonrunner who had been part of the reviewed studies took up the sport, there would have been 16 percent fewer deaths over all, and 25 percent fewer fatal heart attacks. (One caveat: the participants in those studies were mostly white and middle class.)
Perhaps most interesting, the researchers calculated that, hour for hour, running statistically returns more time to people’s lives than it consumes. Figuring two hours per week of training, since that was the average reported by runners in the Cooper Institute study, the researchers estimated that a typical runner would spend less than six months actually running over the course of almost 40 years, but could expect an increase in life expectancy of 3.2 years, for a net gain of about 2.8 years.
In concrete terms, an hour of running statistically lengthens life expectancy by seven hours, the researchers report.
Of course, these additions “are not infinite,” Dr. Lee says. Running does not make people immortal. The gains in life expectancy are capped at around three extra years, he says, however much people run.
The good news is that prolonged running does not seem to become counterproductive for longevity, he continues, according to the data he and his colleagues reviewed. Improvements in life expectancy generally plateaued at about four hours of running per week, Dr. Lee says. But they did not decline.
Meanwhile, other kinds of exercise also reliably benefited life expectancy, the researchers found, but not to the same degree as running. Walking, cycling and other activities, even if they required the same exertion as running, typically dropped the risk of premature death by about 12 percent. (To make my own biases clear, I run but I also love cycling and I walk my dogs every day.)
Why running should be so uniquely potent against early mortality remains uncertain, Dr. Lee says. But it is likely, he says, that it combats many of the common risk factors for early death, including high blood pressure and extra body fat, especially around the middle.
It also raises aerobic fitness, he says, and high aerobic fitness is one of the best-known indicators of an individual’s long-term health.
Of course, the findings in this new review are associational, meaning that they prove that people who run tend also to be people who live longer, but not that running directly causes the increases in longevity. Runners typically also lead healthy lives, Dr. Lee says, and their lifestyles may be playing an outsize role in mortality.
But even taking that possibility into consideration, he says, the data suggest that running could add years to our lives.
By Guest Nicole
The Catholic Church raised a “cry of alarm”, because every year ten thousand Catholics become Jehovah’s Witnesses.By Kurt
The FRANCISCO POPE PRAISES GOD’S WITNESSES WORLDWIDE
Moving – Pascom Porto Feliz: Catholic Conference discusses increasing Witnesses … What drives so many people to become Jehovah’s Witnesses? This was the question asked by some clerics, as shown by the following quotations. For example, in Bologna, Italy, the ecclesiastical authorities, with the approval of the pope, held a conference to discuss ways to combat the success of Jehovah’s Witnesses.
The Catholic Church raised a “cry of alarm”, the newspaper La Republica, because every year ten thousand Catholics become Jehovah’s Witnesses. The Jesuit Giuseppe De Rosa said that “the religious point of view the most dangerous are Jehovah’s Witnesses. They come fully trained, and always have the Bible in hand.”
In an article that deals specifically with Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Jesuit journal La Civilta Cattolica said:
“The first reason for the spread of this movement are the propaganda techniques [ie, in preaching]. On the one hand, the work is thorough, carried from house to house by people who are strictly trained in this work, and are deeply convinced [ …] ”
“The second reason for the success of TJs is the force of attraction of Jehovah’s message, because it can meet the needs, demands and expectations of the people of our time. First, answers the need for certainty, which is much appreciated at a time where everything is uncertain and unstable. […] Above all, it is an absolutely safe revelation of the future and, therefore, all who accepted, experience freedom from fear and anxiety and can face the future with joy, with ensuring that survive the destruction that will come the great day of God’s judgment on a wicked world, to live in eternal happiness on earth. Second, Jehovah’s message helps to overcome the concern of the individual against the woes of this world, announces that soon will end the unbearable situation of today, and soon, so there will be a new era will be born a new world in which all the wicked will be removed now triumph. […] ”
“The third reason for the success of TJs is that this movement gives its members a precise identity and strong, and is a place where they were greeted with warmth and a sense of brotherhood and solidarity.”
The Vatican document analyzed the needs of people today, and the quote above the Jesuit journal La Civilta Cattolica showed that the message of Jehovah’s Witnesses meet those needs. This also showed Vittorio Messori Catholic writer in his recent book Scommesse sulla morte (a bet on death), who writes: “It makes us think that Jehovah’s Witnesses, is one of the religious denominations of the fastest growing in the world. It is among the religions that are practiced in many countries and perhaps […] is first in terms of fervor, zeal, activism, the ability to make proselytes. ” “And his presence, increasingly pronounced, is not limited to Christian tradition countries, but reaching the whole world, where in the name of Jehovah, and before long, they get results that are superior to those of Catholic missionaries, Protestants and Orthodox, who have worked for centuries. ”
“This stunning expansive force is incomprehensible only to those who simply do not want to admit that […] course in how to understand the Bible, Jehovah’s Witnesses meet the real needs that other theologies do not meet.” “You can not get around the issue suggesting that the growth of witnesses is because they scare people is precisely the opposite:. Unlike the churches” official “, deny the existence of hell and preach the destruction, disappearance after death to the wicked and unbelieving. This may be an unpleasant prospect, but certainly less frightening than the threat of a terrible pain for all eternity. “Yes, the God of Jehovah’s Witnesses is a loving God, and not one that terrorizes the people .
The following quote is the Catholic magazine Mondo ERRE March 1986: “It must be said that Jehovah’s Witnesses are the first to live the faith they preach: Do not IRAM, do not smoke, do not accumulate wealth, remain outside the political discussions […] pay taxes. They live a virtuous and honest life, they are happy and helpful. All this has made people appreciate the ”
I’m glad to know that they have had success in evangelizing them my family is Catholic more from small learn to admire their work in all the earth ….
By Guest Nicole
“Look on the sunny side of life.”
“Turn your face toward the sun, and the shadows will fall behind you.”
“Every day may not be good, but there is something good in every day.”
“See the glass as half-full, not half-empty.”
Researchers are finding that thoughts like these, the hallmarks of people sometimes called “cockeyed optimists,” can do far more than raise one’s spirits. They may actually improve health and extend life.
There is no longer any doubt that what happens in the brain influences what happens in the body. When facing a health crisis, actively cultivating positive emotions can boost the immune system and counter depression. Studies have shown an indisputable link between having a positive outlook and health benefits like lower blood pressure, less heart disease, better weight control and healthier blood sugar levels.
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Even when faced with an incurable illness, positive feelings and thoughts can greatly improve one’s quality of life. Dr. Wendy Schlessel Harpham, a Dallas-based author of several books for people facing cancer, including “Happiness in a Storm,” was a practicing internist when she learned she had non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, a cancer of the immune system, 27 years ago. During the next 15 years of treatments for eight relapses of her cancer, she set the stage for happiness and hope, she says, by such measures as surrounding herself with people who lift her spirits, keeping a daily gratitude journal, doing something good for someone else, and watching funny, uplifting movies. Her cancer has been in remission now for 12 years.
“Fostering positive emotions helped make my life the best it could be,” Dr. Harpham said. “They made the tough times easier, even though they didn’t make any difference in my cancer cells.”
While Dr. Harpham may have a natural disposition to see the hopeful side of life even when the outlook is bleak, new research is demonstrating that people can learn skills that help them experience more positive emotions when faced with the severe stress of a life-threatening illness.
Judith T. Moskowitz, a professor of medical social sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, developed a set of eight skills to help foster positive emotions. In earlier research at the University of California, San Francisco, she and colleagues found that people with new diagnoses of H.I.V. infection who practiced these skills carried a lower load of the virus, were more likely to take their medication correctly, and were less likely to need antidepressants to help them cope with their illness.
The researchers studied 159 people who had recently learned they had H.I.V. and randomly assigned them to either a five-session positive emotions training course or five sessions of general support. Fifteen months past their H.I.V. diagnosis, those trained in the eight skills maintained higher levels of positive feelings and fewer negative thoughts related to their infection.
An important goal of the training is to help people feel happy, calm and satisfied in the midst of a health crisis. Improvements in their health and longevity are a bonus. Each participant is encouraged to learn at least three of the eight skills and practice one or more each day. The eight skills are:
■ Recognize a positive event each day.
■ Savor that event and log it in a journal or tell someone about it.
■ Start a daily gratitude journal.
■ List a personal strength and note how you used it.
■ Set an attainable goal and note your progress.
■ Report a relatively minor stress and list ways to reappraise the event positively.
■ Recognize and practice small acts of kindness daily.
■ Practice mindfulness, focusing on the here and now rather than the past or future.
Dr. Moskowitz said she was inspired by observations that people with AIDS, Type 2 diabetes and other chronic illnesses lived longer if they demonstrated positive emotions. She explained, “The next step was to see if teaching people skills that foster positive emotions can have an impact on how well they cope with stress and their physical health down the line.”
She listed as the goals improving patients’ quality of life, enhancing adherence to medication, fostering healthy behaviors, and building personal resources that result in increased social support and broader attention to the good things in life.
Gregg De Meza, a 56-year-old architect in San Francisco who learned he was infected with H.I.V. four years ago, told me that learning “positivity” skills turned his life around. He said he felt “stupid and careless” about becoming infected and had initially kept his diagnosis a secret.
“When I entered the study, I felt like my entire world was completely unraveling,” he said. “The training reminded me to rely on my social network, and I decided to be honest with my friends. I realized that to show your real strength is to show your weakness. No pun intended, it made me more positive, more compassionate, and I’m now healthier than I’ve ever been.”
In another study among 49 patients with Type 2 diabetes, an online version of the positive emotions skills training course was effective in enhancing positivity and reducing negative emotions and feelings of stress. Prior studies showed that, for people with diabetes, positive feelings were associated with better control of blood sugar, an increase in physical activity and healthy eating, less use of tobacco and a lower risk of dying.
In a pilot study of 39 women with advanced breast cancer, Dr. Moskowitz said an online version of the skills training decreased depression among them. The same was true with caregivers of dementia patients.
“None of this is rocket science,” Dr. Moskowitz said. “I’m just putting these skills together and testing them in a scientific fashion.”
In a related study of more than 4,000 people 50 and older published last year in the Journal of Gerontology, Becca Levy and Avni Bavishi at the Yale School of Public Health demonstrated that having a positive view of aging can have a beneficial influence on health outcomes and longevity. Dr. Levy said two possible mechanisms account for the findings. Psychologically, a positive view can enhance belief in one’s abilities, decrease perceived stress and foster healthful behaviors. Physiologically, people with positive views of aging had lower levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of stress-related inflammation associated with heart disease and other illnesses, even after accounting for possible influences like age, health status, sex, race and education than those with a negative outlook. They also lived significantly longer.
By Guest Nicole
1. Bad stress
What, you ask, is bad stress? Stress that causes an ongoing and damaging adrenaline response in the body, accompanied by high cortisol, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, and immune, tissue, and blood vessel damage. In other words, bad things that make you sick.
Not all stress is bad. Good stress, for example, includes situations that are invigorating, challenging, and leave you stronger. An example would be a new job that is pushing you to the limits of your abilities and creativity and has your heart pumping, accompanied by a prevailing sense that you are going to get this done. Or the stress of training for a triathlon or learning a new sport, with your efforts rewarded by your gradual improvement.
How can you tell the difference? Bad stress is stress that leaves you more terrified than stimulated, feeling hopeless and a victim of your circumstances, such as a verbally or physically abusive relationship with a partner or a boss. Good stress leaves you feeling challenged. Bad stress leaves you fearing for your life or your livelihood. Notice which you might be feeling in your life and in the situations you find yourself in.
Can you sometimes turn bad stress into good stress? Sure. For example, when you are afraid you may fail at a task set for you at work, take a moment and breathe. Find the calm within you. Get the help or inspiration you may need from colleagues or friends. And turn that task into a challenge. What does not kill you only makes you stronger (thank you Nietzsche and Kanye).
2. Unconscious eating
Unconscious eating includes the automatic hand dip into the candy bowl or popcorn bowl. It also includes all categories of eating that are not due to actual hunger. If you find yourself looking into the freezer in search of ice cream because it's finals week and you're pulling an all-nighter, or because your girlfriend just dumped you, or because you're under the influence, this is unconscious eating. You're not actually hungry; you're upset or anxious or under the influence.
In general, you want to be aware of what you're putting into your body. Almost all processed food is harmful to our bodies. As is all fast food. And packaged food. And we can pretty much blame packaged, processed and "fast food" for being the primary cause of all chronic diseases in the United States. Seriously. Heart disease, stroke, cancer, arthritis, and autoimmune disease are just a few of the issues made worse by processed and packaged foods.
Be a conscious eater. If you're paying any attention to whether you're actually hungry, and to what your body truly wants to eat, you are far less likely to reach for the Cheetos.
3. Skipping sleep
Lack of sleep causes weight gain, which can then cause diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and exacerbate arthritis. This weight gain is related to the fact that lack of sleep reduces our natural appetite suppressant (leptin) and increases our appetite driver (ghrelin). Lack of sleep also exacerbates anxiety, depression, fatigue, irritability, and reduces concentration and productivity. Want to be healthy and successful? Sleep until you're feeling well-rested.
4. Not brushing and flossing
Periodontal disease from not flossing, brushing, and seeing the dentist regularly almost doubles the risk of heart disease because unhealthy gums allow bacteria and plaque to enter the bloodstream and increase inflammation. Isn't that crazy? Periodontal disease may also increase the risk of dementia. And the loss of teeth from poor dental care contributes to a less healthy diet—exacerbating all chronic health issues.
Turns out that increased hours of sitting are associated with higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and obesity, independent of any other risk factors. Scary stuff. Almost enough to get you off the couch. Sitting also increases your risk of dying from any cause.
So no matter what kind of work you do, get off your ass and find a new position to do it in. Stand at your desk, stroll during meetings, limit your time in the car. And when you're home? Try to find something else to do besides sit. Exercise bike and Netflix anyone?
If you can avoid most of these triggers most of the time, you will be well on your way to a healthier, happier, and longer life!
By Guest Nicole
Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne Denis Hart said yesterday the sanctity of what was mentioned to a priest during the sacrament of confession was ‘inviolate in the Catholic Church throughout the world’. Picture: Josie Haden
The child abuse royal commission will collide with the Catholic Church over the confidentiality of the confessional when it holds a public inquiry into the disproportionately high numbers of abusive priests.
With evidence before the commission suggesting that as many as 13 per cent of those in some Catholic orders may be perpetrators, the commission will hold a three-week hearing in February to investigate what has led to this level of abuse and governed its cover-up.
Evidence gathered in case studies, submissions and private hearings to date has led the commission to target several pillars of the church during the hearing, including the role of the Vatican, canon law, celibacy and the use of secrecy.
It is the confessional, where an individual privately reveals his sins to a priest in return for absolution, that is likely to prove the most contentious.
While church leaders have conceded celibacy and an organisational structure that provided priests with unquestioned authority may have led to child abuse, they are expected to hold the line on the sanctity of the confessional during February’s hearing.
This will likely place them at odds with the commission, which this week published a report criticising the Jehovah’s Witnesses for using Christian doctrine to avoid reporting admissions of abuse to police.
By Guest Nicole
It all starts at home. A great day begins with an amazing morning. With constant distractions and the daily pressure of responsibilities, it’s important to start your morning right to get your mind and body prepared for your daily routine. These 11 tips will bring out the best of your morning, day, week, and life.
1. Wake Up Earlier. We often wake up as late as possible, but losing precious time in the morning puts pressure on our bodies and minds. Throughout the day, our time feels tight when it doesn’t have to feel that way. By waking up early, you can give your body and mind time to unwind and set your routine at an even pace.
2. Drink a Glass of Water as Soon as You Wake Up. Your body essentially shuts down while you’re sleeping. Drinking water will help you get ready to start running. This will also help to rehydrate you and allow for an easier digestive flow throughout the day.
3. Avoid Technology for The First Hour. It’s tempting to wake up and check your email and social media timeline, but all of those things will still be there an hour from when you wake. You won’t miss out on much, and you’ll start your day on your own terms. How often do you wake up in a great mood, and then check your email or messages only to receive a message that disrupts your mood first thing in the morning. Hold off and take control of your emotions at the start of the day.
4. Think of Something You’re Grateful For. The choice is yours. Wake up and find something you’re appreciative of. Your bed, family or even a cup of coffee. The more things you find, the more positive energy you bring to your day.
5. Sunlight, Fresh Air, and A Deep Breath. Even if it’s cloudy, open your blinds and let natural light in. This will awaken your senses and add positive sensory to start your day. Next, open a window, or if you have direct access to a door that leads outside, open your front door and fill your lungs with fresh air. Oxygen provides energy to heal and grow the brain.
6. Move Your Body/Exercise. No matter what you’re doing for the rest of the day, your body will be active if you begin your day with movement. There are various morning workouts you can do that are convenient and quick. If you don’t want to work out, you can also do stretchesto help loosen your muscles and joints.
7. Eat a Healthy Breakfast. A healthy breakfast is your initial fuel for the day. Avoid quick fixes such as cereal, fruit juices, or donuts. Take the time to invest in a healthy breakfast that will have your body feeling energized until lunch time.
8. Say Positive Affirmations. Self-appreciation is important. Find different things you enjoy about yourself and say them out loud to yourself while looking in the mirror. Face yourself and speak positive truths.
9. Plan. Work day or off day, planning ahead allows you to be productive, and to fit in as much as you want throughout the day. Spread out your day so that you know what to expect and avoid feeling rushed. Commit to your plan as much as you can, but allow room for the random disruptions that life can occasionally bring.
10. Leave Yesterday Behind. A new day is a fresh start to life. Yesterday’s arguments, frustrations, and negative thoughts don’t belong in your new day.
11. Read. Start your day with some positive thoughts. Whether it’s the news, quotes, or a novel you love, literature helps stimulate your brain and your imagination.
Although most people know that hot dogs airen’t exactly health food, but few know that they are downright deadlyBy JAMMY
The Biggest Cancer Causing Food Ever (Your Kids Unfortunately Love It)
Photo credit: bigstock.com
"...you know that there are certain foods strongly linked to cancer; foods containing aspartame, refined sugar, trans-fats, and GMO’s. However, did you know that there is one particular food that has been so strongly linked to cancer, that the American Institute for Cancer Research has recommended that people cut their consumption to zero?"
Full article: http://naturalon.com/the-biggest-cancer-causing-food-ever-your-kids-unfortunately-love-it/view-all/#ixzz4MOyjhcIQ
But academia only held the fervent Catholic's interest for a couple of years. . .......
By Guest Nicole
WASHINGTON — Having a happy spouse may be related to better health, at least among middle-aged and older adults, according to a new study published by the American Psychological Association.
In a nationally representative study of 1,981 middle-aged heterosexual couples, researchers found that people with happy spouses were much more likely to report better health over time. This occurred above and beyond the person’s own happiness, according to the study, published in the APA journal Health Psychology®.
“This finding significantly broadens assumptions about the relationship between happiness and health, suggesting a unique social link,” said William Chopik, PhD, an assistant professor of psychology at Michigan State University and principal investigator of the study. “Simply having a happy partner may enhance health as much as striving to be happy oneself.”
Previous research suggests happy people are generally healthy people, but Chopik wanted to take it one step further by exploring the health effects of interpersonal relationships. He said there are at least three potential reasons why having a happy partner might enhance a person’s health, irrespective of one’s own happiness:
Happy partners likely provide stronger social support, such as caretaking, as compared to unhappy partners who are more likely to be focused on their own stressors. Happy partners may get unhappy people involved with activities and environments that promote good health, such as maintaining regular sleep cycles, eating nutritious food and exercising. Being with a happy partner should make a person’s life easier even if not explicitly happier. “Simply knowing that one’s partner is satisfied with his or her individual circumstances may temper a person’s need to seek self-destructive outlets, such as drinking or drugs, and may more generally offer contentment in ways that afford health benefits down the road,” Chopik said.
The study examined the survey information of couples age 50 to 94, including happiness, self-rated health and physical activity over a six-year period. The results showed no difference between husbands and wives in the study. Eighty-four percent were white, 8 percent were African-American, and 6 percent were Hispanic. Participants answered questions about their health, including level of physical impairment, chronic illnesses and level of physical activity, as well as any concerns they had regarding their spouse’s health. Participants rated their own happiness and life satisfaction.
Article: “Happy You, Healthy Me? Having a Happy Partner is Independently Associated with Better Health in Oneself,” by William J. Chopik, PhD, Michigan State University, and Ed O’Brien, PhD, University of Chicago. Health Psychology, published online Sept. 19, 2016.
William Chopik may be reached at (517) 355-6645 or via email.
The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. APA's membership includes more than 117,500 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 54 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives.
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