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In Faith All These Walked With The True God

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"In faith all these . . . publicly declared that they were strangers and temporary residents in the land."—Heb. 11:13

From earliest times, faithful servants of Jehovah stood out as different from those in the ungodly world in which they lived. Before the Flood, Enoch and Noah “walked with the true God.” (Gen. 5:22-24; 6:9) 

Both of them were courageous preachers of Jehovah’s judgments against Satan’s wicked world. (2 Pet. 2:5; Jude 14, 15) 

Because they walked with God in an ungodly world, Enoch “pleased God well” and Noah “proved himself faultless among his contemporaries.” (Heb. 11:5; Gen. 6:9) 

At God’s invitation, Abraham and Sarah gave up the comforts of city life in Ur of the Chaldeans and accepted the challenge of living as nomads in a foreign land. (Gen. 11:27, 28; 12:1) 

The apostle Paul wrote: “By faith [Abraham] resided as an alien in the land of the promise as in a foreign land, and dwelt in tents.”—Heb. 11:8, 9. NWT 
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    • By The Librarian
      Abraham[a] (né Abram) is the common patriarch of Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and other religions.[1] In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenant of the pieces, the special relationship between the Jewish people and God; in Christianity, he is the prototype of all believers, Jewish or Gentile; and in Islam he is seen as a link in the chain of prophets that begins with Adam and culminates in Muhammad.[2]
      The narrative in the Book of Genesis revolves around the themes of posterity and land. Abraham is called by God to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land originally given to Canaan but which God now promises to Abraham and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward who might inherit the land after Abraham; and, while promises are made to Ishmael about founding a great nation, Isaac, Abraham's son by his half-sister Sarah, inherits God's promises to Abraham. Abraham purchases a tomb (the Cave of the Patriarchs) at Hebron to be Sarah's grave, thus establishing his right to the land; and, in the second generation, his heir Isaac is married to a woman from his own kin, thus ruling the Canaanites out of any inheritance. Abraham later marries Keturah and has six more sons; but, on his death, when he is buried beside Sarah, it is Isaac who receives "all Abraham's goods", while the other sons receive only "gifts"  (Genesis 25:5–8).[3]
      The Abraham story cannot be definitively related to any specific time, and it is widely agreed that the patriarchal age, along with the exodus and the period of the judges, is a late literary construct that does not relate to any period in actual history.[4] A common hypothesis among scholars is that it was composed in the early Persian period (late 6th century BCE) as a result of tensions between Jewish landowners who had stayed in Judah during the Babylonian captivity and traced their right to the land through their "father Abraham", and the returning exiles who based their counter-claim on Moses and the Exodus tradition.[5]
      Origins and calling
      Terah, the ninth in descent from Noah, was the father of three sons: Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Haran was the father of Lot (who was thus Abram's nephew), and died in his native city, Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarah (Sarai), who was barren. Terah, with Abram, Sarai, and Lot, then departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205.[Genesis 11:27–32] God had told Abram to leave his country and kindred and go to a land that he would show him, and promised to make of him a great nation, bless him, make his name great, bless them that bless him, and curse them who may curse him.[Genesis 12:1–3] Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, and the substance and souls that they had acquired, and traveled to Shechem in Canaan.[Genesis 12:4–6]
      Sarai
      There was a severe famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households, traveled to Egypt. On the way Abram told Sarai to say that she was his sister, so that the Egyptians would not kill him.[Genesis 12:10–13] When they entered Egypt, the Pharaoh's officials praised Sarai's beauty to Pharaoh, and they took her into the palace and gave Abram goods in exchange. God afflicted Pharaoh and his household with plagues, which led Pharaoh to try to find out what was wrong.[Genesis 12:14–17] Upon discovering that Sarai was a married woman, Pharaoh demanded that Abram and Sarai leave.[Genesis 12:18–20]
      Abram and Lot separate
      When they came back to the Bethel and Hai area, Abram's and Lot's sizable herds occupied the same pastures. This became a problem for the herdsmen who were assigned to each family's cattle. The conflicts between herdsmen had become so troublesome that Abram suggested that Lot choose a separate area, either on the left hand or on the right hand, that there be no conflict amongst brethren. Lot chose to go eastward to the plain of Jordan where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, and he dwelled in the cities of the plain toward Sodom. Abram went south to Hebron and settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God.[6]
      Chedorlaomer
      During the rebellion of the Jordan River cities against Elam,[Genesis 14:1–9] Abram's nephew, Lot, was taken prisoner along with his entire household by the invading Elamite forces. The Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodom's armies.[Genesis 14:8–12] Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of the Kingdom of Sodom which made them a visible target.[Genesis 13:12]
      One person who escaped capture came and told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he immediately assembled 318 trained servants. Abram's force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were already worn down from the Battle of Siddim. When they caught up with them at Dan, Abram devised a battle plan by splitting his group into more than one unit, and launched a night raid. Not only were they able to free the captives, Abram's unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah, just north of Damascus. They freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, and recovered all of the goods from Sodom that had been taken.[Genesis 14:13–16]
      Upon Abram's return, Sodom's king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh, the "king's dale". Also, Melchizedek king of Salem (Jerusalem), a priest of God Most High, brought out bread and wine and blessed Abram and God. Abram then gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything. The king of Sodom then offered to let Abram keep all the possessions if he would merely return his people. Abram refused any deal from the king of Sodom, other than the share to which his allies were entitled.[Genesis 14:17–24]
      Covenant of the pieces
      The voice of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and repeated the promise of the land and descendants as numerous as the stars. Abram and God made a covenant ceremony, and God told of the future bondage of Israel in Egypt. God described to Abram the land that his offspring would claim: the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and Jebusites.[Genesis 15:1–21]
      Hagar
      Abram and Sarai tried to make sense of how he would become a progenitor of nations, because after 10 years of living in Canaan, no child had been born. Sarai then offered her Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar, to Abram with the intention that she would bear him a son. After Hagar found she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress, Sarai. Therefore, Sarai mistreated Hagar, and Hagar fled away. En route an angel spoke with Hagar at the fountain in the way to Shur. He instructed her to return and that her son would be "a wild ass of a man; his hand shall be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the face of all his brethren." She was told to call her son Ishmael. Hagar then called God who spoke to her "El-roi", ("Thou God seest me:" KJV). From that day, the well was called Beer-lahai-roi, ("The well of him that liveth and seeth me." KJV margin). She then did as she was instructed by returning to her mistress in order to have her child. Abram was eighty-six years of age when Ishmael was born.[Genesis 16:4–16]
      Sarah
      Thirteen years later, when Abram was ninety-nine years of age, God declared Abram's new name: "Abraham" – "a father of many nations".[Genesis 17:5] Abraham then received the instructions for the covenant, of which circumcision was to be the sign.[Genesis 17:10–14] Then God declared Sarai's new name: "Sarah" and blessed her and told Abraham, "I will give thee a son also of her".[Genesis 17:15–16] But Abraham laughed, and "said in his heart, 'Shall a child be born unto him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?'"[Genesis 17:17] Immediately after Abraham's encounter with God, he had his entire household of men, including himself (age 99) and Ishmael (age 13), circumcised.[Genesis 17:22–27]
      Three visitors
      Not long afterward, during the heat of the day, Abraham had been sitting at the entrance of his tent by the terebinths of Mamre. He looked up and saw three men in the presence of God. Then he ran and bowed to the ground to welcome them. Abraham then offered to wash their feet and fetch them a morsel of bread, to which they assented. Abraham rushed to Sarah's tent to order cakes made from choice flour, then he ordered a servant-boy to prepare a choice calf. When all was prepared, he set curds, milk and the calf before them, waiting on them, under a tree, as they ate.[Genesis 18:1–8]
      One of the visitors told Abraham that upon his return next year, Sarah would have a son. While at the tent entrance, Sarah overheard what was said and she laughed to herself about the prospect of having a child at their ages. The visitor inquired of Abraham why Sarah laughed at bearing a child at her age, as nothing is too hard for God. Frightened, Sarah denied laughing.
      Abraham's plea
      After eating, Abraham and the three visitors got up. They walked over to the peak that overlooked the 'cities of the plain' to discuss the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah for their detestable sins that were so great, it moved God to action. Because Abraham's nephew was living in Sodom, God revealed plans to confirm and judge these cities. At this point, the two other visitors left for Sodom. Then Abraham turned to God and pleaded decrementally with Him (from fifty persons to less) that "if there were at least ten righteous men found in the city, would not God spare the city?" For the sake of ten righteous people, God declared that he would not destroy the city.[Genesis 18:17–33]
      When the two visitors got to Sodom to conduct their report, they planned on staying in the city square. However, Abraham's nephew, Lot, met with them and strongly insisted that these two "men" stay at his house for the night. A rally of men stood outside of Lot's home and demanded that they bring out his guests so that they may "know" (v.5) them. However, Lot objected and offered his virgin daughters who had not "known" (v.8) man to the rally of men instead. They rejected that notion and sought to break down Lot's door to get to his male guests,[Genesis 19:1–9] thus confirming the wickedness of the city and portending their imminent destruction.[Genesis 19:12–13]
      Early the next morning, Abraham went to the place where he stood before God. He "looked out toward Sodom and Gomorrah" and saw what became of the cities of the plain, where not even "ten righteous" (v.18:32) had been found, as "the smoke of the land went up as the smoke of a furnace."[Genesis 19:27–29]
      Abimelech
      Abraham settled between Kadesh and Shur in the land of the Philistines. While he was living in Gerar, Abraham openly claimed that Sarah was his sister. Upon discovering this news, King Abimelech had her brought to him. God then came to Abimelech in a dream and declared that taking her would result in death because she was a man's wife. Abimelech had not laid hands on her, so he inquired if he would also slay a righteous nation, especially since Abraham had claimed that he and Sarah were siblings. In response, God told Abimelech that he did indeed have a blameless heart and that is why he continued to exist. However, should he not return the wife of Abraham back to him, God would surely destroy Abimelech and his entire household. Abimelech was informed that Abraham was a prophet who would pray for him.[Genesis 20:1–7]
      Early next morning, Abimelech informed his servants of his dream and approached Abraham inquiring as to why he had brought such great guilt upon his kingdom. Abraham stated that he thought there was no fear of God in that place, and that they might kill him for his wife. Then Abraham defended what he had said as not being a lie at all: "And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife."[Genesis 20:12] Abimelech returned Sarah to Abraham, and gave him gifts of sheep, oxen, and servants; and invited him to settle wherever he pleased in Abimelech's lands. Further, Abimelech gave Abraham a thousand pieces of silver to serve as Sarah's vindication before all. Abraham then prayed for Abimelech and his household, since God had stricken the women with infertility because of the taking of Sarah.[Genesis 20:8–18]
      After living for some time in the land of the Philistines, Abimelech and Phicol, the chief of his troops, approached Abraham because of a dispute that resulted in a violent confrontation at a well. Abraham then reproached Abimelech due to his Philistine servant's aggressive attacks and the seizing of Abraham's well. Abimelech claimed ignorance of the incident. Then Abraham offered a pact by providing sheep and oxen to Abimelech. Further, to attest that Abraham was the one who dug the well, he also gave Abimelech seven ewes for proof. Because of this sworn oath, they called the place of this well: Beersheba. After Abimelech and Phicol headed back to Philistia, Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba and called upon "the name of the LORD, the everlasting God."[Genesis 21:22–34]
      Isaac
      As had been prophesied in Mamre the previous year,[Genesis 17:21] Sarah became pregnant and bore a son to Abraham, on the first anniversary of the covenant of circumcision. Abraham was "an hundred years old", when his son whom he named Isaac was born; and he circumcised him when he was eight days old.[Genesis] For Sarah, the thought of giving birth and nursing a child, at such an old age, also brought her much laughter, as she declared, "God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me."[Genesis] Isaac continued to grow and on the day he was weaned, Abraham held a great feast to honor the occasion. During the celebration, however, Sarah found Ishmael mocking; an observation that would begin to clarify the birthright of Isaac.[Genesis 21:8–13]
      Ishmael
      Ishmael was fourteen years old when Abraham's son Isaac was born to Sarah. When she found Ishmael teasing Isaac, Sarah told Abraham to send both Ishmael and Hagar away. She declared that Ishmael would not share in Isaac's inheritance. Abraham was greatly distressed by his wife's words and sought the advice of his God. God told Abraham not to be distressed but to do as his wife commanded. God reassured Abraham that "in Isaac shall seed be called to thee."[Genesis 21:12] He also said that Ishmael would make a nation, "because he is thy seed".[Genesis 21:9–13]
      Early the next morning, Abraham brought Hagar and Ishmael out together. He gave her bread and water and sent them away. The two wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba until her bottle of water was completely consumed. In a moment of despair, she burst into tears. After God heard the boy's voice, an angel of the Lord confirmed to Hagar that he would become a great nation, and will be "living on his sword". A well of water then appeared so that it saved their lives. As the boy grew, he became a skilled archer living in the wilderness of Paran. Eventually his mother found a wife for Ishmael from her home country, the land of Egypt.[Genesis 21:14–21]
      Binding of Isaac
      At some point in Isaac's youth, Abraham was commanded by God to offer his son up as a sacrifice in the land of Moriah. The patriarch traveled three days until he came to the mount that God told him of. He then commanded the servants to remain while he and Isaac proceeded alone into the mount. Isaac carried the wood upon which he would be sacrificed. Along the way, Isaac asked his father where the animal for the burnt offering was, to which Abraham replied "God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering". Just as Abraham was about to sacrifice his son, he was interrupted by the angel of the Lord, and he saw behind him a "ram caught in a thicket by his horns", which he sacrificed instead of his son. For his obedience he received another promise of numerous descendants and abundant prosperity. After this event, Abraham went to Beersheba.[Genesis 22:1–19]
      Later Years
      Sarah died, and Abraham buried her in the Cave of the Patriarchs (the "cave of Machpelah"), near Hebron which he had purchased along with the adjoining field from Ephron the Hittite.[Genesis 23:1–20] After the death of Sarah, Abraham took another wife, a concubine named Keturah, by whom he had six sons: Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah.[Genesis 25:1–6] According to the Bible, reflecting the change of his name to "Abraham" meaning "a father of many nations", Abraham is considered to be the progenitor of many nations mentioned in the Bible, among others the Israelites, Ishmaelites,[Genesis 25:12–18] Edomites,[Genesis 36:1–43]) Amalekites,[Genesis 36:12–16] Kenizzites,[Genesis 36:9–16] Midianites and Assyrians,[Genesis 25:1–5] and through his nephew Lot he was also related to the Moabites and Ammonites.[Genesis 19:35–38] Abraham lived to see his son marry Rebekah, (and to see the birth of his twin grandsons Jacob and Esau). He died at age 175, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah by his sons Isaac and Ishmael.[Genesis 25:7–10][1 Chronicles 1:32]
      Religious traditions
      Overview
      Abraham is given a high position of respect in three major world faiths, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In Judaism he is the founding father of the Covenant, the special relationship between the Jewish people and God – a belief which gives the Jews a unique position as the Chosen People of God. In Christianity, the Apostle Paul taught that Abraham's faith in God – preceding the Mosaic law – made him the prototype of all believers, circumcised and uncircumcised. The Islamic prophet Muhammad claimed Abraham, whose submission to God constituted Islam as a "believer before the fact" and undercut Jewish claims to an exclusive relationship with God and the Covenant.[17]
      Judaism
      In Jewish tradition, Abraham is called Avraham Avinu (אברהם אבינו), "our father Abraham," signifying that he is both the biological progenitor of the Jews and the father of Judaism, the first Jew.[19] His story is read in the weekly Torah reading portions, predominantly in the parashot: Lech-Lecha (לֶךְ-לְךָ), Vayeira (וַיֵּרָא), Chayei Sarah (חַיֵּי שָׂרָה), and Toledot (תּוֹלְדֹת).
      In Jewish legend, God created heaven and earth for the sake of the merits of Abraham.[19] After the deluge, Abraham was the only one among the pious who solemnly swear never forsaking God,[20] and studied in house of Noah and Shem to learn about "Ways of God,"[21] and continuing the line of High Priest from Noah and Shem, then he descended the office to Levi and his seeds forever. Before leaving his fathers' land, Abraham was miraculously saved from the fiery furnace of Nimrod following his brave action of breaking the idols of the Chaldeans into pieces.[22] During his sojourning in Canaan, Abraham was accustomed to extend hospitality to travelers and strangers and taught how to praise God also knowledge of God to those who had received his kindness.[23]
      Besides Isaac and Jacob, he is the one whose name would appear united with God, as God in Judaism was called Elohei Abraham, Elohei Yitzchak ve Elohei Ya`aqob ("God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob") and never the God of any one else.[24] He was also mentioned as the father of thirty nations.[25]

      Christianity
      Abraham does not loom so large in Christianity as he does in Judaism and Islam. It is Jesus as the Jewish Messiah who is central to Christianity, and the idea of a divine Messiah is what separates Christianity from the other two religions.[26] In Romans 4, Abraham's merit is less his obedience to the divine will than his faith in God's ultimate grace; this faith provides him the merit for God having chosen him for the covenant, and the covenant becomes one of faith, not obedience.[27]
      The Roman Catholic Church calls Abraham "our father in Faith" in the Eucharistic prayer of the Roman Canon, recited during the Mass (see Abraham in the Catholic liturgy). He is also commemorated in the calendars of saints of several denominations: on 20 August by the Maronite Church, 28 August in the Coptic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East (with the full office for the latter), and on 9 October by the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. In the introduction to his 15th-century translation of the Golden Legend's account of Abraham, William Caxton noted that this patriarch's life was read in church on Quinquagesima Sunday.[29] He is the patron saint of those in the hospitality industry.[30][page needed] The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates him as the "Righteous Forefather Abraham", with two feast days in its liturgical calendar. The first time is on 9 October (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 9 October falls on 22 October of the modern Gregorian Calendar), where he is commemorated together with his nephew "Righteous Lot". The other is on the "Sunday of the Forefathers" (two Sundays before Christmas), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. Abraham is also mentioned in the Divine Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great, just before the Anaphora, and Abraham and Sarah are invoked in the prayers said by the priest over a newly married couple.
      Islam
      Islam regards Abraham as a link in the chain of prophets that begins with Adam and culminates in Muhammad.[31] Ibrāhīm is mentioned in 35 chapters of the Quran, more often than any other biblical personage apart from Moses.[32] He is called both a hanif (monotheist) and muslim (one who submits),[33] and Muslims regard him as a prophet and patriarch, the archetype of the perfect Muslim, and the revered reformer of the Kaaba in Mecca.[34] Islamic traditions consider Ibrāhīm (Abraham) the first Pioneer of Islam (which is also called millat Ibrahim, the "religion of Abraham"), and that his purpose and mission throughout his life was to proclaim the Oneness of God. In Islam, Abraham holds an exalted position among the major prophets and he is referred to as "Ibrahim Khalilullah", meaning "Abraham the Beloved of Allah".
      Besides Ishaq and Yaqub, Ibrahim is among the most honorable and the most excellent men in sight of God.[35][36] Ibrahim was also mentioned in Quran as "Father of Muslims" and the role model for the community.[37][38]
      References
      McCarter 2000, p. 8. Levenson 2012, p. 8. Ska 2009, pp. 26–31. McNutt 1999, pp. 41–42. Ska 2006, pp. 227–28, 260. Abram and Lot Separate", Chabad.org Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 18–19. Dever 2002, p. 98 and fn.2. Thompson 2002, pp. 23–24. Pitard 2001, p. 27. Ska 2009, p. 260. Enns 2012, p. 26. Ska 2006, pp. 217, 227–28. Carr & Conway 2010, p. 193. Ska 2009, p. 43. Ska 2009, p. 44. Peters 2010, pp. 170–71. Levenson 2012, p. 3. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : The Wicked Generations (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : In the Fiery Furnace (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Samuel, Moses, 1840, Book of Jasher (Sefer Hayashar) Referred to in Joshua and Second Samuel Chapter 9: 5-6] Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : In the Fiery Furnace (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : The Covenant with Abimelech (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : Joy And Sorrow in the House Of Jacob (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : The Birth Of Esau And Jacob (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Peters 2010, p. 171. Firestone, Reuven. "Abraham." Encyclopedia of World History. Caxton, William. "Abraham". The Golden Legend. Internet Medieval Source Book. Retrieved 3 April 2014. Holweck 1924. Levenson 2012, p. PA8. Peters 2003, p. PA9. Levenson 2012, p. PA200. Mecca, Martin Lings, c. 2004 Quran (chapter Shaad) 38:45-47 Maulana, Mohammad, 2006, Encyclopaedia Of Quranic Studies p. 104 Quran (chapter Al-Hajj) 22:78 Quran (chapter Al-Mumtahanah) 60:4-6 For a very thorough online collection of links to artwork about Abraham see: Artwork Depicting Scenes from Abraham's Life. Retrieved 25 March 2011 Exum 2007, p. 135. Journal of Early Christian Studies, Leonard Victor Rutgers, The Iconography of the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (review of Malbon book), Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 1993, pp. 94–96; for Janson it is also the "finest Early Christian sarcophagus". or 1595, see Elsner, p. 86n. Abraham's Farewell to Ishmael. George Segal. Miami Art Museum. Collections: Recent Acquisitions.. Retrieved 10 September 2014. "Abraham the Patriarch in Art – Iconography and Literature". Christian Iconography – a project of Georgia Regents University. Retrieved 2014-04-18. Boguslawski, Alexander. "The Holy Trinity". Rollins.edu. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  Kierkegaard 1980, pp. 155–56. "Highway 61 Revisited". Retrieved 25 March 2011. "Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008. - Wikipedia

      source
      Abram or Abraham?
    • By Jack Ryan
      ...and yet you talk to this invisible friend several times a day even though the friend has never talked back to you?

    • By Bible Speaks
      It is written: “the Abrahamic covenant went into effect in 1943 B.C.E., when 75-year-old Abraham left Haran and crossed the Euphrates River.”
      However, Abraham had already left his home in Ur out of obedience to Jehovah. Why did it not start at that time? The Bible tells us Abraham postponed the arduous trip out of consideration for his father’s poor health and remain in Haran until his father’s death. 
      Many Christians today likewise have the privilege of caring for aging or sick parents, some even having to make an adjustment in order to do so.
      When that is necessary, such ones can be assured that their loving sacrifices are “acceptable in God’s sight.”—1 Timothy 5:4. Lev. 19:32. -
      Bible Speaks

    • Guest Nicole
    • Guest Nicole
    • Guest Nicole
    • By JW Insider
      When I was a boy, I heard my father give the Society's hour talk on the book of Job about 10 times. The talk spent a good portion of the time showing that Behemoth was a hippopotamus, and Leviathan was a crocodile.
      Of course, very little time was spent on the fact that the book of Job also says the following about the Behemoth, which is not at all true of a hippo:
      (Job 40:15-20) 15 Here, now, is Be·heʹmoth, which I made as I made you. . . . 17 It stiffens [or, sways] its tail like a cedar; The sinews of its thighs are woven together. 18 Its bones are tubes of copper; Its limbs are like wrought-iron rods. 19 It ranks first [or, "it is the beginning" -- NWT footnote] among the works of God; Only its Maker can approach it with his sword. 20 For the mountains produce food for it, Where all the wild animals play.
      The little tail of the hippopotamus does not move or sway like a cedar. It was hardly the beginning of God's creative works. The mountains do not produce food for it. Creatures much more terrifying than hippos have been caught and hunted by man for centuries. When we know what Behemoth is we can then understand why it is tied to the creation of man (cf. "which I made as I made you"), and why it is said to be "first" among God's creative works. Another curious thing about "Behemoth" is that it is a plural word. If it is a type of "plural of majesty" (as in Elohim, or "God of Gods"), then it could mean something like, "Beast of Beasts."
      The Leviathan is even less like a crocodile than Behemoth is like a hippo. Note:
      (Job 41:1-34) . . .“Can you catch Le·viʹa·than with a fishhook Or hold down its tongue with a rope?  . . . 7 Will you fill its hide with harpoons Or its head with fishing spears?  8 Lay your hand on it; You will remember the battle and never do it again!  9 Any hope of subduing it is futile. The mere sight of it would overwhelm you. 10 No one dares to stir it up. . . . 12 I will not be silent about its limbs, About its mightiness and its well-formed body. 13 Who has removed its outer covering? Who will enter its open jaws? 14 Who can pry open the doors of its mouth? Its teeth all around are fearsome. 15 Its back has rows of scales Tightly sealed together. 16 Each one fits so closely to the other That no air can come between them. 17 They are stuck to one another; They cling together and cannot be separated. 18 Its snorting flashes out light, And its eyes are like the rays of dawn. 19 Flashes of lightning go out of its mouth; Fiery sparks escape. 20 Smoke pours out of its nostrils, Like a furnace fueled with rushes. 21 Its breath sets coals ablaze, And a flame shoots from its mouth. 22 There is great strength in its neck, And dismay runs before it. 23 The folds of its flesh are tightly joined together; They are firm, as though cast upon it and immovable. 24 Its heart is hard as stone, Yes, hard as a lower millstone. 25 When it rises up, even the mighty are frightened; Its thrashing causes bewilderment. 26 No sword that reaches it will prevail; Nor will spear, dart, or arrowhead. 27 It regards iron as straw, Copper as rotten wood. 28 An arrow does not make it flee; Slingstones turn into stubble against it. 29 It regards a club as stubble, And it laughs at the rattling of a javelin. 30 Underneath, it is like sharp fragments of pottery; It spreads itself in the mud like a threshing sledge. 31 It makes the deep boil just like a pot; It stirs up the sea like an ointment pot. 32 It leaves a glistening wake in its path. One would think that the deep had white hair. 33 There is nothing like it on the earth, A creature made to have no fear. 34 It glares at everything that is haughty. It is king over all the majestic wild beasts.”
      Do crocodiles snort out fire and sparks from their nostrils? Do their eyes shine brightly? Does lightning go out of its mouth? is it like a furnace inside, so that its very breath sends a flame that can set coals ablaze? Does it really stir up the deep seas like a cauldron? Looking again at the New World Translation it's hard for me to believe, now, that I ever thought this was a crocodile.
      Of course, part of the problem is that Witnesses, like many fundamentalist religions, too, do not want to see "fabulous" creatures in the Bible. It opens up the Bible to ridicule if it refers to "real" dragons and unicorns and beasts that seem never to have existed. Yet the idea appears even more "fabulous" if we read from some other translations, or more especially, the "Septuagint" LXX era translations, which would have been based on Hebrew manuscripts from as early as 400 BCE, rather than the NWT which is based on Hebrew manuscripts from as late as 1100 CE.
      Here are some of the quotes from Job in the LXX: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/28-iob-nets.pdf
      Job 40:15-23 But look now you are familiar with "monsters" [Behemoth]; they eat grass like cows. Look now its strength is in its loins, and its power in its belly's navel. It stood up its tail like a cypress, and its sinews have been interwoven. Its flanks are flanks of copper, and its spine is cast iron. . . . This is the chief of what the Lord created, made to be mocked at by his angels. But when it went up on a steep mountain, it brought its gladness to the quadrupeds in Tartarus. . . . If there is a flood, it will never take notice. {*It trusts that the Jordan will tumble into its mouth.}
      Job 40:25-41:26 [Masoretic 41:1-34] And will you catch a dragon [Leviathan] with a fish hook? . . . And do nations feed on it, and do the Phoenician races divvy it up? And a whole fleet, gathered, cannot carry the mere skin of its tail. {and its head in fisherman's boats}. But you will lay a hand on it, though you remember the battle that is waging in its body, and let it happen no more! . . . Who will uncover the front of what it is wearing? And who could enter the plate of its cuirass? Who will open the gates of its face? Fear is all around its teeth. Its inwards are bronze shields. . . . Light shines forth at its sneezing and its eyes have the look of the morning star. From its mouth proceed flaming torches, and fiery braziers are being cast forth. From its nostrils smoke of a furnace burning with the fire of coals. Its soul is coals, and a flame proceeds from its mouth. . . . Its heart is solid like stone, and it stands like an unyielding anvil. . . . It makes the deep boil like a caldron and regards the sea as a pot of ointment and Tartarus of the deep as a captive. . . . There is nothing else on earth like it, made to be mocked at by my angels. Everything high it sees, and it is king over all that are in the waters.
      The basic idea remains in modern translations, but there is some evidence that the Masoretic text (which the NWT is based upon) has often cleaned up what was thought to be embarrassing to medieval rabbis in the intervening centuries. The references to "Tartarus" [see Greek mythology] are curious, especially due to 2 Peter 2:4. But the additional references to Leviathan in the Hebrew Scriptures are just as striking.
       
       
    • By The Librarian
      This was addressed to @JW Insider ..... probably from a separate thread elsewhere.
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
    • By Anna
      Last week’s lesson in the October 16 WT, page 27 about exercising faith in Jehovah’s Promises brought out that Noah exercised faith by preaching to his neighbours.   
      Par.7
      "Hebrews 11:7 highlights the faith of Noah who, “after receiving divine warning of things not yet seen, showed godly fear and constructed an ark for the saving of his household.” Noah exercised his faith by building the gigantic ark. Without doubt, his neighbors must have asked him why he was building such a colossal structure. Did Noah keep quiet or tell them to mind their own business? By no means! His faith moved him to witness boldly and to warn his contemporaries of God’s coming judgment. Quite likely, Noah  repeated to the people the exact words that Jehovah had spoken to him: “I have decided to put an end to all flesh, because the earth is full of violence on account of them . . . I am going to bring floodwaters upon the earth to destroy from under the heavens all flesh that has the breath of life. Everything on the earth will perish.” Also, Noah no doubt explained to the people the only means of escape, repeating God’s command: “You must go into the ark.” Thus, Noah further exercised his faith by being “a preacher of righteousness.”—Gen. 6:13, 17, 18; 2 Pet. 2:5".
      We have always understood that Noah witnessed to the inhabitants of that time, while he was building the ark. We say this because 2 Peter 2:5 calls Noah a “preacher of righteousness”.  But it occurred to me that Noah must have been a preacher of righteousness BEFORE Jehovah asked him to build the Ark, as this was the reason Jehovah asked him to build the ark, to preserve him alive. Genesis 6:9 says: “This is the history of Noah. Noah was a righteous man. He proved himself faultless among his contemporaries.  Noah walked with the true God”.  Is there any scriptural proof that Noah witnessed to “his neighbours”  about the impending destruction while he was constructing the ark, or are we simply assuming he did? And wasn’t Noah exercising faith mainly by building the ark, rather than preaching destruction to the people?  The only scripture that I can think of that would indicate that Noah may have talked about the destruction is in Matthew 24:39 where it says that “they took no note until the Flood came and swept them all away”. But this could also mean that they took no note of him building the Ark rather than any reasoning from Noah. Or Heb 11:7...after receiving divine warning of things not yet seen, showed godly fear and constructed an ark for the saving of his household; and through this faith he condemned the world. This seems to indicate that it was because he acted and constructed the ark.....or was it that he actually voiced a condemnation to the people?
    • By The Librarian
      by Brian Thomas, M.S. 
      Evolutionary teachings hold that all mankind arose from a population of ape-like ancestors from which chimpanzees also evolved. But Genesis, the rest of the Bible, and Jesus teach that all mankind arose from Noah's three sons and their wives. A new analysis of human mitochondrial DNA exposes two new evidences that validate the biblical beginnings of mankind.
      Mitochondrial DNA comes from mothers. Mother egg cells transmit their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cellular mitochondria of every child born. This unique annex of DNA contains 16,569 bases—either adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (A, G, C, T)—that encode vital cellular information, like an instruction manual.
      Scientists have been comparing the genetic differences between every major people group around the globe. How did those differences arise?
      Assuming that God placed the ideal mtDNA sequence into Eve, all those differences arose by mutations since the Genesis 3 curse, about 6,000 years ago. Other scientists measured the rate at which these copying errors occur. Though very slow—we acquire about one mutation every 6 generations—a few dozen mutations could appear after several millennia.
      This sets the stage for researchers to compare competing models' predictions against measured mtDNA differences.
      Bible-believing molecular biologist Dr. Nathaniel Jeanson downloaded publicly available human mitochondrial genome sequence data to do exactly that. Publishing in Answers Research Journal, his results show that the number of today's mtDNA differences exactly matches the number predicted by the Bible's 6,000 years of human history.1 Mitochondrial DNA from around the world shows no trace of the 200,000 or so years' worth of mutations that the evolution model predicts.
      Geneticists construct tree diagrams using software that places the most similar genetic sequences near one another, and the most dissimilar sequences on the longest branches. Jeanson found at least two distinct patterns in the human mtDNA tree diagram that confirm Genesis.
      The center of the diagram shows three main trunks. Each reflects a specific mtDNA sequence with only a handful of differences from the other two.
      Could these three trunks represent the unique mtDNA from the wives of Shem, Ham, and Japheth?
      A second pattern emerges that also fits the three wives explanation. Assuming longer times between each generation, according to the biblical record of lifespans before the Flood, and using today's slow mutation rate, the 1,656 years between Adam and Noah would have produced the small number of differences that the short lines between each trunk represent.
      Jeanson compared the small number of mtDNA differences between each trunk, or central node, with the relatively large number of differences in the branches. He wrote, "About 1,660 years passed from Creation to the Flood, whereas 4,365 years passed from the Flood to the present—a ~2.6:1 time ratio. Consistent with this, the branches connecting the nodes to one another were much shorter than the branches spraying out from the nodes—as if the short branches represented pre-Flood mutations, and the long branches represented post-Flood mutations."1
      It appears that modern genetics confirms Genesis, which says, "So Noah went out, and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him."
      This study produced two Genesis-confirming results. First, the human mtDNA tree has three trunks, which fits the Genesis model that all peoples descended from three foundational mothers—the wives of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Second, 6,000 years of today's slow mutation rate would exactly produce today's measured number of mtDNA differences. Genetics again confirms Genesis.
      http://www.icr.org/article/9325/
    • By Ilya Sukharev
      Noah on the Phaistos disk :  
      http://istorya.ru/forum/index.php?app=blog&module=display%C2%A7ion=blog&blogid=26&showentry=104%20
      https://ru.pinterest.com/ilyasukharev39/noah-on-the-phaistos-disk/
      Фестский диск - История о потопе, в котором спаслась в плавучем ковчеге семья патриарха "Ноя", 
      история которая описана в Библии и которая вопиет о своём неправедном забвении в нашем современном мире.
      Для понимания изображений (знаков) на диске желательно использовать их в высоком разрешении. 
      Рассмотрим знаки диска в их блоковой нумерации на https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Фестский_диск .
      Основа версии прочтения (расшифровки) Фестского диска: 
      Знаки (символы) на диске это идеограммы и в отдельных случаях (в блоках содержащих дополнительную черту под крайним символом) они также обозначают звуки - являются консонантным письмом (когда смысл слова передаётся согласными звуками, а гласные почти полностью исключаются).
      Во всех родственных языках есть общие корни.
      Есть письменности  консонантные и нет вокальных.
      Каждый язык (кроме экзотических), как структура (система) состоящая из слов (корней-морфем), передающих конкретные значения-смыслы-понятия - в основе консонантный.
      На диске не могут не быть слова "праязыка", корни которых (консонанты-морфемы), общие для 
      индо-европейских (ИЕ) языков и для языка диска (в блоках с чертой).
      И эти корни (консонанты-морфемы на диске) конечно будут иметь родственные смыслы с 
      соответствующими корневым консонантами в любом ИЕ (и не только) языке.
      Автор данной статьи не считает язык Фестского диска типичным индо-европейским (в академическом значении термина), но уверен что письмо диска можно "расшифровать" с помощью известных слов и символов древних языков, включая греческий (древнегреческий), латынь, санскрит, русский (древнеславянский) и другие...
       
      _____________________________________________________________________________
      Сторона В, блок В24 - три знака и черта: 2 полных мешка и между ними волнистые линии (вода, поток воды). (картинка http://www.proza.ru/2015/09/21/1052 )
      Полный мешок: Главное качество выражаемое этим знаком - "Полный (Наполненность, Полнота)" = Изобилие.
      У многих специалистов знак "Мешок" читается как воинский Шлем.
      Из известных изображений древних шлемов видно что вариантов похожих на искомый знак не много (СМ. http://www.proza.ru/2015/09/21/1052 ).
      И у всех похожих шлемов конус имеет заострённую форму, а у знака на диске этот конец тупой как горловина у мешка.
      Кожаные мешки и бурдюки из шкур и желудков животных известны с глубокой древности, раньше чем керамические сосуды.
      Различные древние изображения на фресках барельефах и т.д. подтверждают похожесть знака на полный мешок (картинки по ссылке выше).
      В24 = Полнота воды полной = Изобилие воды изобилия. Знаки этого блока сообщают - Вода достигла своего 
      максимального уровня, как бы - изобилие воды в квадрате (сверх меры). 
      Волнистые или ломаные линии в значении "Вода (волны, дождь)" - это один из самых распространённых 
      символов в древнейших письменах многих народов.
      Четвёртый знак - черта-штрих сообщает о фонетическом смысле блока, в этом блоке записано слово (слова): 
      знаки в нём передают корневые (начальные) звуки одного или нескольких слов, смысл которого (которых) соответствует смыслам самих 
      изображений в их совокупности и дополняет (расширяет) идеографические смыслы знаков-изображений. 
      Предположительно знаки-изображения в блоках с дополнительным знаком "Черта", кроме идеографических смыслов, 
      образуют собой консона́нтное письмо́. Данная версия (консонантного письма   ) успешно согласуется в данном (В24) 
      блоке с русским, а точнее древнеславянским языком. 
      В24 = Полнота воды полной = Изобилие воды изобилия.
      В русском языке такая комбинация смыслов (значений) обозначается словом ПОТОП (П-Т-П).
      В древнеславянском языке смысл "Изобилие (Полнота, Наполненность)" передавался словом "Пой"(отсюда слова: 
      Водо-пой, Пой-ма, Поить, За-пой, Полный, По-Ра... см. http://www.proza.ru/2015/07/20/338 .
      Вода = вещество = материя = ТВЕРДЬ. Если Вы не согласны с тем что "Вода =...=...= Твердь (точнее - в данном контексте, символ Тверди)", можно перечитать Бытие (Ветхий завет) и или подробнее ознакомиться с информацией по ссылке в строке выше или прочтите некоторые доводы в конце статьи. 
      Потоп = П-Т-П = Пой-Твердь-Пой = Пой-Водо-Пой = Изобилие воды изобильной = Полнота воды полной (= полная воды полнота).
      Потоп это конечно беда и очевидное зло для тех кто с ним столкнулся, и это понятно - ведь Потоп это сила (Зело (древнеславян.) - Сила) сверх меры, разрушительная бесконтрольная стихия; это Полноты Полнота (переизбыток) - это П-П. 
      П-П = पाप ПаaПа (санскрит) - беда зло вред.
      उपपात uPaPaTa - беда катастрофа; и заметьте тот же набор (П-П-Т) что и в русском ПоТоП.
      प्लव Plava - наводнение, разлив, погружение.
      उपप्लव  uPaPlava - ПотоП беда зло вторжение опустошение захват. 
      प्लुत Pluta - потоп, переполненный.
      फ  Pha - буря, кипение, жара, зияние (распростёртость), усиление, опухоль, текущий поток. 
      पाति { पा } पा Pati {Pa}  - насыщаться поглощать, напиваться, пить залпом, напиваться пьяным.
      पाययते { पा } पा Payayate {Pa} глагол - напоить наводнить.
      पु Пу - питьевой, очищающий, уборка.
      पवते { पू }  pavate {Pu} глагол - очистить самого себя, очистить, проходить для очищения, вентилировать, освещать, искупить, становиться ясным, освещать, всепроникать, поток.
      Санскритский корень Па (насыщение наполнение) - разве это "слово" не соответствует "знаку-слову" МЕШОК (полнота изобилие много ...) ?
      Синонимы Потоп - Стихия, Катастрофа, Поток...
      Слова-Понятия, близкие по смыслу понятию "Потоп":
      Беда Болезнь Нужда Несчастье, 
      Сила Власть Правитель Управление, 
      Вода Питьё Насыщение Наполнение Полость Ёмкость, 
      Поглощение Распространение Захват Очищение и т. п.
      В определённом смысле, эти значения-смыслы (слов выше) - вариации (эволюции) 
      более общего (категорийного) смысла, связанного со значениями-понятиями "Полнота-Изобилие, Чрезмерность".
      Назовём эти значения (Потоп и прочие) - "Родственные значения". 
      П*Т*П = Т*П*П = П*П*Т
      Санскрит:
      उपपात uPaPaaTa - беда катастрофа.
      पाप ПаaПа - беда зло вред.
      उपप्लव  uPaPlava - ПотоП беда зло вторжение опустошение захват. 
      प्लुत Pluta - потоп, переполненный.
      फ  Pha - буря, кипение, жара, зияние (распростёртость), 
      усиление, опухоль, текущий поток. 
      पाति { पा } पा Pati {Pa}  - насыщаться поглощать, напиваться, 
      пить залпом, напиваться пьяным.
      पाययते { पा } पा Payayate {Pa} глагол - напоить наводнить.
      पु  Pu - питьевой, очищающий, уборка.
      पवते { पू }  pavate {Pu} глагол - очистить самого себя, очистить, вентилировать, 
      освещать, искупить, становиться ясным, освещать, всепроникать, поток.
      PoTaPí potapos (греч. ποταπή ποταπός) - Презренный несчастный.
      Видимо у древних греков это было нормальным названием для пережившего потоп (наводнение), как и позже для пострадавшего вообще - погорельца, потопленца, ...
      Poto (ποτό) - питьё обильный, пьянство. 
       
      Латынь:
      PaPaTus - папство (власть управление).
      Papas - правитель, наставник.
      Papa - отец, священник.
      Upupa - пик, навершие
      Pipe (англ. pipe) - бочка, труба.
      Piper - живость энергия, перец.
      Боснийский, сербский, хорватский, македоский: Потоп - Поплава.
      Словацкий чешский: казнь - Поправа.
      Видимо все приставки когда то были предлогами - т. е. отдельными самостоятельными словами. 
      Очевидно, что приставки такие же смысло-образующие части слова (морфемы) как и следующие за ними корни, и поэтому по сути - приставки те же корни. 
      Приведённые выше слова  составные - состоящие из нескольких корней. 
      Особенно ярко (наглядно) смыслы Полноты (изобилия) в звуке "П" передаются в словах с двумя "П", которые означают Полнота Полная (Изобилие Изобилия) - то есть по простому Беспридел, Чрезмерность (беда, зло, катастрофа).
      Все эти слова родственные (с общим корнем "П"), дошедшие до нас из общего пра-индоевропейского языка. 
      В пользу версии о тождестве знака "Полный мешок" и звука "П", означающего Полноту (наполненность, изобилие), говорят и многие слова (начинающиеся с "П") из многих древнейших языков.
      Санскрит П:
      पेट  Peta - множество, МЕШОК, открытая ладонь с разведёнными пальцами.
      पात  PAta - течь, лить, ширина пространство, полёт.
      पाथ  PAtha - солнце огонь, обилие воды.
      परम्  Param - пусть будет так, за, наиболее охотно, я буду, после, не более чем, во всех смыслах, полностью, просто, возможное, значительно.
      पूर्ण  Purna - полный, заполненный, обильный, богатый, законченный, весь, сильный, способный, вода, изобилие, полнота, много, форма СОЛНЦА.
      प्रभु  Prabhu - обильный, богатый, могущественный, мощный, мастер, способный, властвующий, вечный.
      पेरु  Peru - Солнце, океан, расширение, возвышение, золотая гора, проведение по, спасающий, доставление, основание, творение, питьевой.
      पीठ Pitha - престол
      पयस् Payas - мощность сила, любая жидкость или сок, дождь, вода.
      पूषन्  Pusan - Солнце, увеличение, рост.
      पाय्य Payya - вода, пьяный, реализация, защита, измерять.
      पयस् Payas - воды дождь, сила мощность.
      उपोनत्ति {उप- उद्} uponatti {upa} - увлажнить.
      परु Paru - океан, небо, гора, рай.
      पूर Pura - наводнение, избыток изобилие, поток.
      पटु Patu - сильный здоровый интенсивный, народ.
      पात्र Patry - чаша, водный канал, судно.
      पिञ्ज Pijja - полный, сила мощность.
      परम्  Param - чрезмерно, значительно, в высокой степени, пусть будет так, я буду, во всех смыслах, полностью, возможное.
      पीत्वा pItvA - выпив. पेत्व petva - нектар.
      Древнегреческий, Π:
      Πλημῡρίς (pli̱mȳrís) - прилив; разлив, наводнение.
      ἐπίκλυσις (epíklysis) - разлив, наводнение
      ἐπομβρία (epomvría) - проливной дождь, ливень; наводнение 
      Πληθύω (pli̱thýo̱) - быть полным; увеличиваться, возрастать; (о реке) прибывать, вздуваться, выступать из берегов, разливаться; 
      изобиловать, быть богатым. 
      Πληθώρη (pli̱thó̱ri̱) - Изобилие; наполнение; (предельная) полнота, насыщенность.
      Πλήρης (plí̱ri̱s) - Полный, наполненный; сплошь покрытый; преисполненный; полный, выданный сполна.
      Πλήρωμα (plí̱ro̱ma) - наполнение, заполнение; исполнение или завершение; полнота ; общее число, сумма; множество, толпа. 
      Πληρόω (pli̱róo̱) - наполнять; восполнять, возмещать; (о времени, пространстве, числе) достигать, доходить, простираться; (о сроке) потягивать, отбывать; исполнять, осуществлять; кончать; насыщать, удовлетворять; оплодотворять. 
      (ἀνα-) Πληρόω (pli̱róo̱) - заполнять, восполнять, пополнять; полностью платить; восстанавливать, воскрешать; насыщать, удовлетворять. 
      (ἐκ-) Πίμπλημι (pímpli̱mi) - наполнять; пополнять, доводить до полного состава; восполнять, заполнять, возмещать; насыщать, удовлетворять.
      (ἐμ-) - Πίπλημι (pípli̱mi) - наполнять; преисполнять; поить или кормить досыта; насыщать, вполне удовлетворять; пресыщать, утомлять.
      Πλήρωσις (plí̱ro̱sis) - наполнение, заполнение; восполнение, дополнение; насыщение, удовлетворение, утоление; изобилие.
      Πλεῖστος (pleístos) - самый многочисленный; величайший, крупнейший; самый распространенный, наиболее значительный; 
      преобладающий; наиболее продолжительный.
      Πλείων (pleío̱n) - более многочисленный, большой; более протяженный; более продолжительный; более значительный. 
      Πολύς (polýs) - многочисленный; большой, значительный, обширный, широкий; долгий, продолжительный; 
      сильный, проливной; глубокий, крепкий; сильный, могучий, могущественный.
      Πόντος (pontos) - море; ποτάμι (potami) - река.
      ποντο-πορέω (ponto-poréo̱) - плыть в открытом море
      ποντίζω (pontízo̱)- погружать в море, топить, тонуть 
      πολλά () - множество; много, весьма, вполне; чрезвычайно много; часто, многократно
      πολύ-μετρος (polý-metros) - обильный 
      ποτάομαι (potáomai) - напитки
      ποτήρ (potí̱r) - чаша, кубок 
      πότης (póti̱s) - питьё; много пьющий
      ποτίζω (potízo̱)- давать пить, поить; орошать, поливать 
      ποτικός (potikós) - пьяница
      πότιμος (pótimos) - источник с водой
      πότνια (pótnia) - великий, могучий; повелитель
      ποτόν (potón) - влага, вода
      πότος (pótos)- попойка, пьянство
      πυκνότης (pyknóti̱s) - плотность, густота 
      πυργόω (pyrgóo̱) - возвышать, возвеличивать; превозносить; раздувать, преувеличивать
      πέτᾰλος (pétălos) - распростертый, широкий
      ἔκ-πλεος (ék-pleos) - полный, переполненный
      ὑπέρ (ypér) - над, выше, сверх, за ее пределами, чрезвычайно, в избытке, за, слишком много, сверх меры, супер
      ὑπέρ-αντλος (ypér-antlos) - переполненный течью; обильный; безмерный 
      ὑπερ-πλήθης (yper-plí̱thi̱s) - переполненный, обильный
      Латынь П:
      могущество - pollentia 
      могучий - potens 
      гигантский - potentia
      напиток - potus; potio; potum
      напиваться, напиться - potare 
      пьяница - potor 
      пить, пьянствовать - potare
      кутить - perpotareбар - potoria 
      гипотония - hypotonia
      глоток - potiuncula
      господствовать - potiri
      алкогольный напиток, бурда - potio 
      важнейший - potior
      власть - potestas
      вести на водопой - agere potum
      возможность - potestas
      Примечательно что в большинстве древнегреческих и латинских слов (указанных выше), объединяющих 
      смыслы Изобилия (наполненности) и Воды (влаги, жидкости), после звука "П" следует звук "Т", как и 
      в русских словах - Пот, Поток, Поить, Потоп и т.д.
      Кстати, знак "Полный мешок" похож на четвёртую греческую букву Δ Дельта, и само древнегреческое 
      слово Δορός (кожаный мех, мешок) начинается с Δ. Всё вышесказанное не доказывает излагаемую версию 
      о смысле знака "Мешок", но поддерживает эту версию; и ещё прямоугольник (квадрат) в египетских 
      иероглифах читают как звук "П". Первое слово из египетских иероглифов прочитал (определил звуки) 
      в современной Европе великий Томас Юнг, это было греческое имя Πτολεμαῖος (Птолемиос), именно 
      со звука "П" начинается оно. И обозначал этот звук "П" знак "Прямоугольник (квадрат)", а прямоугольник 
      это графическое (плоское) изображение ящика (и кирпича), а ящик это ёмкость (контейнер, объём) для 
      наполнения чем либо; в древнем мире деревянный ящик использовали например как форму (опалубку) для 
      производства блоков (кирпичей) и заполняли такую прямоугольную форму глиной или раствором. 
      Значит прямоугольник (ящик) как и "конус треугольник" (мешок) мог выражать смысл "Наполненность Изобилие", 
      и тогда знак "Мешок" как и знак "Ящик (объём)" мог означать звук "П". Было бы странным если бы царское 
      имя Птолемей (на "П") не заключало бы в себе смыслы соответствующие Наполненности, Изобилию; 
      и такой смысл есть, об этом говорят многие древнегреческие слова приведённые выше.
      Кстати древнегреческие Прямоугольник Ящик и Кирпич начинаются с "П" и могут выражаться одним словом:
      πλαίσιον (plaísion) - прямоугольник; прямоугольный ящик; рамка
      πλινθίον (plinthíon) - кирпичик; четырехугольник; небесный прямоугольник, участок неба; (на ткани) клетка.
      Возможно прямоугольник в иероглифах обозначал рамку, но это не меняет смысла, рамка тоже означает некий 
      заполненный объём пространства.
      Кстати, Потоп на бенгали - Банья, вспоминается древнегреческая пословица - "Где помыться тому, кто 
      помылся в этой бане?" Замечательно Потоп звучит на албанском - "Пёрмбытие".
      Т = "Твердь" "=" "Вода". Вода символ (образ) Тверди и часто эти понятия-значения-образы (Вода и Твердь),
      в разных языках, передаются одним и тем же словом (которое конечно своё оригинальное в каждом отдельном 
      языке). Т. е. смысловое родство есть и оно не случайное.
      Понятно что знаки равенства (=) - не математические, это символ - "Смысловое родство".
       
      Тезисно о "Вода = Твердь".
       
      Посмотрим на славянские языки - Вода "W*D*":
      Ключевой звук здесь Д, звуки Д и Т в ИЕ языках взаимозаменяемы и могут чередоваться.
      Так что с (некритичной) натяжкой можно сказать - П*Т*П "=" П*Д*П.
      Возможно, что в праславянском было *W*T* - примерно как сейчас в английском нидерландском шведском (и других). 
      Предположительно, изначально (в древнейших праформах) в словах-понятиях "Вода-Жидкость" использовался звук Т - т. е. эта фонема (в праязыке, в словах обозначающих "Вода") была ближе к современному русскому Т чем чем к Д.
       
      Показательный (в этом контексте) санскрит, и соответственно Хинди Маратхи и т. п.
      В санскрите сотни разных слов (не только омонимов) имеют, кроме множества прочих,
      и значение Вода. Это естественное качество супер развитого древнего языка.
      Но вот санскритских простых односложных слов, которые имеют только одно значение - Вода; таких (пока я 
      нашёл) всего 3:
      तोज  toja ( तोय  toya )
      उद  uda 
      यादु  yAdu
      И ещё одно очень показательное - с двумя (всего с двумя) значениями:
      तूय  tUya - Сила, Вода.
      Видим что звуки Т и Д идинственные консонанты в эксклюзивных словах-понятиях Вода.
      Исходя из известных "традиций" словообразования (в санскрите и родственных ему) и древнейших ведических 
      санскритских текстов, вероятнее что слова которые начинаются с консонанта - древнее (первичнее) прочих. Это слова на Т. 
      Древнейшие слова обозначающие "Вода" в "пра-ИЕ" языке начинались на Т (Д) или консонанто были -  *Т* (*Д*). 
       
      Вода символ Тверди.   तूय  tUya (санскрит) - Сила, Вода.
       
      В древнейших текстах (включая ветхий завет - Бытие (Танах)),
      Твердь - это небесная твердь и это опора для небесных космических тел.
      На современном языке Твердь это повсеместное (вездесущее) СИЛОВОЕ ПОЛЕ. Физики называют его по разному, чаще - Гравитация или Эфир или космический вакуум.
      Главнейшие очевидные свойства этого поля - упругость (упругое силовое воздействие) и способность к всепрониканию - повсеместная распространённость. 
      Очень показательны немецкое слово TäT и тамильское ததி  TaTi - сила, воздействие; шведское TäTt - плотно, крепко; и санскритские टा  Taa - ("Твердь") Земля, तत  TaTa - распространено рассеяно!
      Вода (жидкая)  - это единственный объект, который всегда сопутствует человеку, доступен для 
      непосредственного контакта, и демонстрирует феноменальные качества, соответствующие космической Тверди-Полю. Нет ничего более упругого и одновременно более всепроникающего, из того что может легко взять человек в руки - чем ВОДА.
      В древнейших текстах космос вселенную постоянно сравнивают с и часто называют "Океаном". А в ветхом завете говорится о том (примерно), что до сотворения планет повсеместно были только Воды ... 
      Всепроникать это и Простираться и Поглощать, в большинстве ИЕ языков эти понятия и Понятие "Вода" тесно фонетически связаны. 
       
      В разных языках понятия Солнце Луна Космос Пространство (и т. п.)  и Вода обозначаются одним словом и часто такие слова Имеют корневые Т или Д.
      Санскрит:
      ऋत  Rta - божественный закон, вода, вера, закон, солнце.
      dharuNa - опора, удерживание, сторонник, небо, мнение, вода, пребывание бытие, твердая почва, подпирать, Фонд, вместилище, основа.
      पेटक peTaka  - множество, контейнер (ёмкость).
      पुट Puta - сложить складывать, полое пространство (объём), контейнер (ёмкость).
      स्तूप  stUpa (+: англ. top) - верхний высший навершие, пьянствовать (напиваться); саммит, высшая степень, куча множество.
      अप् ар - промежуточная область, звезда в зодиакальном созвездии Девы, вода, работа.
      ष्ट्युम STyuma - Луна, вода.
      स्वर् SVAR - небо, область планет и созвездий, свет, солнце, блеском, водой,  пространство над солнечными 
      лучами или между Солнцем и полярной звезды,  светлое пространство или небо.
      नीथा nIthA - вода, музыкальный режим или воздух, путь, песня.
      काष्ठा kASThA - вода, расса, форма, курс отметка, четверть или регион мира, форма внешний вид, верхний предел, страна света, солнце, цель мера времени.
      इरा IRA - богиня речи, вода, Сарасвати, Земля, речь.
      सुधा Sudha- Земля, штукатурка, вода, цемент, строительный раствор, кирпич.
      घृणि  ghRNi - солнце вода.
      चन्द्र  candra - луна вода золото, номер 1.
      सूम Suma м. - вода  небо.
      योनि  yoni - вода вместилище.
      व  va - сильный ветер, вода воздух.
      गो  go - луна вода голос речь солнце, лучи света, небо.
      अहि  ahi - пупок облако вода солнце.
      _________________________________________________________
      Для понимания общего смысла текста Фестского диска, целесообразно читать каждую его сторону от центра 
      к краю и слева на право, ибо именно так естественным образом раскручивается (разворачивается) спираль 
      Истории (знаков-смыслов). Иначе говоря, начало истории проистекает из центра (из точки) и развивается 
      (выражается) наружу, практически не заканчиваясь, но продолжаясь в реальной исторической жизни человечества, за пределами конкретного текста на конкретном носителе (в нашем случае на керамическом диске).
      Начало истории на стороне А, блок А31 - 3и знака: СМ КАРТИНКУ http://www.proza.ru/2015/08/19/851
      Розетка (цветок, ромашка) = Солнце = Бог = Творец. 
      Бритая голова (голова жреца) = Сознание = Воля = Замысел. 
      Колос с зерном (жито) = Жизнь. 
      А31 = Солнце-Замысел-Жито = Бога замысел это жизнь.
      Это начало истории, преамбула (припев) и эпиграф.
      Иногда знак Колос называют веслом или пером, но при увеличении - больше похоже на колос.
      СМ КАРТИНКУ http://www.proza.ru/pics/2015/08/19/851.jpg?8423
      Блок А30 - 2а знака:
       
       
       
       
      Flood, proto-language, Noah, the power of Adam's covenant









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