By The Librarian
In the Bible, the sun is never deified because, as an impersonal force, it was created by God as a great light to light up the Earth and set a calendar. The existence of sun worship in the Kingdom of Judah is reported by the Prophet Ezekiel. “They were bowing down to the east, to the sun.” (Ezekiel 8:16). This apostate behaviour went against the Law (Deuteronomy 4:19) and the words of the psalmist, “For Jehovah God is a sun and a shield; Favor and glory are what he gives.” (Psalm 84:11). Years earlier, the King Josiah had however abolished worship of the sun-god. - 2 Kings 23:5. The Temptation of Christ MI 285 Location in the Louvre: Ary Scheffer
Sully 2nd room 63
The sun, source of life and fertility, is nevertheless revered in most cultures. A149
The incarnation of light in the form of the Egyptian god Ra, it would be Helios then Apollo among the Greeks.
The worship of the Persian sun-god Mithra is at the origin of the feast of Christmas.
The influence of this pagan worship of the sun also explains the presence of a ring of light, the halo, around the heads of icons of Christendom.
By The Librarian
In Hellenic and Roman art, the sun-god Helios and Roman emperors are often depicted with a radiant crown. The latter was not used in primitive Christian art because of its pagan origins, but from the mid 4th Century, Christ is thus represented. It was only from the 6th Century onwards that the halo began to be seen in most representations of the Virgin Mary and other saints.
“The halos that artists during
the Middle Ages put around
the heads of saints are
a remnant of sun worship.”
- Will Durant “From the 4th Century, Christian artists began
to paint Jesus with a halo of light,
and later Mary and the Apostles.
It is also characteristic of the representations
of Buddha and Mohammed.”
- Sven Achen The halos, a remnant of sun worship
Panel of Christ and Abbot Mena
Location in the Louvre:
Denon Entresol room C showcase 6
The church of the monastery
of Bawit is reconstructed
in part in this room.
Suspended from the wall
of the altar is one of the oldest images of Christ, showing him
in the company of an abbot.
It is also one of the first appearances of a halo of light around the head of the saints.
Icons form an integral part of the Orthodox world. The worship of these two-dimensional images of Christ or of the saints took effect in the religions of Babylon and Ancient Greece. Believers considered the image used for worship as a divinity in itself. Christian artists adapted this syncretism and used pagan symbols which they introduced in a new context without however totally purifying them.
Our star will expand into a red giant in about 4.5billion years.
At this point will extend to 0.8AU or more.
500,000 years later it will shed the outer layers of gas(think of it like an onion) and the end result will be two things.
1: a planetary nebula
2: a White Dwarf
A white dwarf is the core of the star and since it was the core, it is still very very very hot.
It can easily be about 40,000K which is about 4000 x the boiling point of water.
Since these objects are no longer generating heat they’re cooling down.
But since space has no air they only way they cool down is via radiating the heat out.
The time it will take for a white dwarf to cool to 2K is over 10,000,000,000,000 years, yup.
They will take longer to cool than the universe has been around for.
In the future when their is not enough Hydrogen to form any new stars the only thing that will be left is these white dwarfs.
Once these reach 0K the universe will be dead, black.
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