Micah Ong

What gives them the right to insert YHWH so that the the scriptures are manipulated to suit the their doctrine?

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On 4/21/2017 at 10:22 AM, Micah Ong said:

  Not inspired by Holy Spirit presenting truths from the bible as they say they are in the publications.

“The Governing Body is neither inspired nor infallible. Therefore, it can err in doctrinal matters or in organizational direction.”

From ‘Who is Leading God’s People Today?’ Pgr 12, February 2017

That's not to say they have erred in the matter under discussion. It is a translating decision that they have provided abundant justification for in the attached appendix. 

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5 hours ago, Eoin Joyce said:

If you mean evidence of the divine name dating prior to extant manuscripts for the New Testament, then it is so abundant and in the public domain it is not worth reproducing here.

Well at least show us one!

"Sometime during the second or third century C.E. the scribes removed the Tetragrammaton from both the Septuagint and the Christian Greek Scriptures and replaced it with Ky´ri·os, "Lord" or The·os´, "God."" New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures - With References p.1564 1D The Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures

There is no proof whatsoever to support this claim, as not a single ancient New Testament document has been found with YHWH in it. Several available manuscripts date back to this period. P47 dates prior to 300 A.D. and contains four uses of Kyrios from Revelation that the NWT translates as Jehovah. P66 dates from around 200 A.D. from John (written in 98 A.D) and contains five occurrences of Lord that appear in the NWT as Jehovah. Some manuscripts go back to within 25 years of John's writings, yet none contains YHWH.

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2 hours ago, Micah Ong said:

There is no proof whatsoever to support this claim, as not a single ancient New Testament document has been found with YHWH in it.

So, in order to understand your argument. One would have to concede that Jesus NEVER heard his Father’s name in prayer or song just because the first Christians feared a backlash from Jewish congregations that would prosecute them for blasphemy, as they did with Jesus by them thinking Jesus was saying he was GOD, or the Son of Man (GOD) the Messiah.

So, even if the YHWH can be found as early as 2-1st century B.C. before this newly formed sect called “Christianity” emerged under the guidance of Christ after the turn of the millennium; it would be hard to believe Jesus wouldn’t have heard his father’s name uttered in certain circles.

Now the reason for scribes to change “YHWH” to the generic African form Kiros is self-evident.

1.       fear of Jewish prosecution.

2.       fear from prosecution from Roman Pagan churches, since the emperor at that time demanded allegiance to his Gods and himself, “as a God”.

So, the first Christians assimilated themselves into the community by which the general term “lord” was widely accepted and used, by the Jews and Pagans.

NOW! SHOW PROOF, that JESUS “NEVER” knew his father’s name under “YHWH” either heard in the heavens or in the earth in prayer or song, before or after he interacted with humanity as the redeemer.

Now, I understand you “wish” to see Jesus as GOD, because the New Testament has been confused with the words “lord” and “God” to mean the same thing, but that wasn’t the “intent” of the writers of the New Testament, it became a “safeguard” to have their work finished under such perilous times. So, your erred argument is between you and your maker come judgment day, for now, the Watchtower simply shows those areas where lord and God can be confused. So, let’s keep it real when misrepresenting the Watchtower by deception.

Why people seem to think, people had the same freedom in ancient times, only need to live in Asia Minor to experience the privileges free nations have with freedom of speech. Learn! Scripture, and move on!!!!

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2 hours ago, Micah Ong said:

"Sometime during the second or third century C.E. the scribes removed the Tetragrammaton from both the Septuagint and the Christian Greek Scriptures and replaced it with Ky´ri·os, "Lord" or The·os´, "God."" New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures - With References p.1564 1D The Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures

There is no proof whatsoever to support this claim, as not a single ancient New Testament document has been found with YHWH in it. Several available manuscripts date back to this period. P47 dates prior to 300 A.D. and contains four uses of Kyrios from Revelation that the NWT translates as Jehovah. P66 dates from around 200 A.D. from John (written in 98 A.D) and contains five occurrences of Lord that appear in the NWT as Jehovah. Some manuscripts go back to within 25 years of John's writings, yet none contains YHWH.

I was very dismissive of your initial post for reasons I already gave. I am sorry for that, now. But I also said that I would be happy to engage if I thought your purpose was different.

On 4/21/2017 at 8:52 AM, JW Insider said:

I would be happy to engage fully with your points especially if I thought your purpose was to help remove potential error from our teachings.

I see how serious you were in studying this issue very thoroughly and coming to a thoughtful and reasonable conclusion. Initially, I thought this was just going to be a matter of taking a few quick "snipes" at the JW teaching and therefore be dismissive of all teachings over another Trinity-related matter.

I see that you have made a good point about the quote above where the reference edition of the NWT states that "Sometime during the second or third century C.E. the scribes removed the Tetragrammaton from both the Septuagint and the Christian Greek Scriptures . . . "

I agree that there is no evidence for this claim (yet) although I would not be surprised if something was discovered in the future that might shed more light on this. I have agreed for several months now with the idea that we should not be insistent on adding a form of the Divine Name to the Greek Scriptures [New Testament] until that evidence shows up. But I have not made a thorough investigation of the evidence for myself, and I see from your posts that there is already some good evidence to work from - that leads you to the opposite conclusion. I'd like to go through this evidence myself, and see if there is anything that might sway against the evidence you referenced. If more evidence leads to the same conclusion then I'll see just what position that might lead to.

I had the impression that no one knew very much about the divine name in the LXX translation of the Hebrew Scriptures [Old Testament] until fairly recently. (About 1939 seemed to be indicated in the various NWT forewords and appendixes). This is a big deal to the stance the JWs have taken for decades. When the NWT "NT" was published in 1950, the Foreword on pages 10-25 covered this point, and showed that it was public knowledge that such LXX versions existed due to the comments from Jerome and others. I know that finding the divine name represented in the LXX is not evidence that it was ever in the New Testament manuscripts, but at the very least it could allow for the idea that direct quotes of the OT in the NT could have some reason to include it. 

I think that the points about the so-called "J documents" have always provided a very weak argument since the addition was done for didactic purposes just as it was done in some Native American (Indian) language translations and African languages, for example. Clearly one of the reasons for these so-called "J documents" was to help teach the Trinity doctrine, which is why the NWT translators have also ignored a lot of the so-called "J" support for using the divine name.

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3 hours ago, Micah Ong said:

 

"Sometime during the second or third century C.E. the scribes removed the Tetragrammaton from both the Septuagint and the Christian Greek Scriptures and replaced it with Ky´ri·os, "Lord" or The·os´, "God."" New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures - With References p.1564 1D The Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures

There is no proof whatsoever to support this claim, as not a single ancient New Testament document has been found with YHWH in it. Several available manuscripts date back to this period. P47 dates prior to 300 A.D. and contains four uses of Kyrios from Revelation that the NWT translates as Jehovah. P66 dates from around 200 A.D. from John (written in 98 A.D) and contains five occurrences of Lord that appear in the NWT as Jehovah. Some manuscripts go back to within 25 years of John's writings, yet none contains YHWH.

   P52 aka  Papyrus Rylands 457 is the mss you are asserting in your last sentence and you well know that "kyrious" does not even occur in the fragment at all so can not be used to prove the point as it only contains John 18:31-33. You can look it up on the one I sell on ebay and see for yourself. As for "proof" you also know that the hundreds of books I listed in the previous posts have the proof you need and NONE of then were even produced by the Watchtower Society. Remember you do not have any original mss. from the New Testament the same way that we do not so neither of us can "prove" by those means but that does not mean our way is wrong and yours must be right.

   The Bible was written by Jews including the apostles as Jewish Christians who were meticulous in translating the Bible from quotations in the Old Testament. So when they saw the Tetragrammaton in Psalm 110:1 in the Septuagint they would have NOT changed the Bible's words to read "Lord"now would they since to change the Bible is a sin that a Jew would not do. {See Matthew 22:44}.  Yes as everyone now knows the original Septuagint written by the Jews contain the Tetragrammaton. If you do not believe me then look at my site on ebay as I also offer the Manuscripts there that contain the Tetragrammaton in the Septuagint copies that came directly from the "Israeli Antiquities Authority" from the Dead Sea Scrolls Museum in Israel.

   Yes the so-called Christians after the First Century DID change "YHWH" to "Kyrios" as the Bible clearly shows that after the 'apostles" a falling away would occur. So using any "proof" after the First Century would of course be suspect since they are not original.

    And this is the very reason now dozens of complete Bibles now contain "YHWH" in various forms in the New Testament whereas in 1950 when the NWT was made only a couple did. It is because of the evidence over the years from the original LXX that so many has as can be seen from the over 100 Translations I offer on ebay that contain the Divine Name in the New Testament.

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19 minutes ago, bruceq said:

And this is the very reason now dozens of Biblse now contain "YHWH" in various forms in the New Testament whereas in 1950 when the NWT was made only a couple did.

The Foreward to the 1950 NWT indicates that there were then about 60 Bible versions with a vernacular form of YHWH in the NT.  This included NT-only Bibles, especially "missionary" Bibles. Did you mean only a couple of full Bibles as opposed to partial?

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3 minutes ago, JW Insider said:

The Foreward to the 1950 NWT indicates that there were then about 60 Bible versions with a vernacular form of YHWH in the NT.  This included NT-only Bibles, especially "missionary" Bibles. Did you mean only a couple of full Bibles as opposed to partial?

Yes I did not mean the ones in other languages full copies. The ones I offer are only in English. Sorry for any confusion.

The couple were like "Emphatic Diaglott" and a few others.

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3 hours ago, Micah Ong said:

Well at least show us one!

The wording of your original question wasn't clear to me and it reads as if you are referring to any manuscripts prior to extant NT manuscripts. I deduce (hopefully) from your reply that you must mean any NT manuscripts, to which the alternative answer applies:

8 hours ago, Eoin Joyce said:

If you mean manuscripts of the New Testament earlier than what is extant, then I do not know how this could be possible, and the only answer is: as soon as they are found.

 

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4 minutes ago, bruceq said:

Yes I did not mean the ones in other languages. The ones I offer are only in English. Sorry for any confusion.

Yes, I understand. I just saw your link and now I recognize that I have already purchased from you several times. In case that link disappears, I wanted to quote from it. I hope you don't mind. I wanted to have access to comment on what you said:
 

Quote

 

. . . Psalms Dead Sea Scrolls 11Q5.  {See New World Translation Study Edition for more info }.

   Why should the name "JEHOVAH" {YHWH} appear in the New Testament ? 

   One reason is that Copies of the Hebrew Scriptures used in the days of Jesus and his apostles contained the Tetragrammaton throughout the text. In the past, few people disputed that conclusion. Now that copies of the Hebrew Scriptures dating back to the first century have been discovered near Qumran, the point has been proved beyond any doubt. So Jesus and his Apostles would have quoted from these scrolls that contained the Tetragrammaton - JEHOVAH !!! {See 2013 New World Translation Appendix A and B}.

  This Psalms in a Dead Sea Scroll dated to the first half of the first century C.E. the very time of Jesus and his Apostles of the First Century Christian Congregation! The text is in the style of the Hebrew letters commonly used after the Babylonian exile, but the Tetragrammaton appears repeatedly in distinctive ancient Hebrew letters

   Psalms Scroll 11Q5 Reproduction mounted in a clear two-sided frame 6 by 18 inches with hardware for table or wall mounting included. This Psalms scroll contains 11 of the 15 Songs of Ascent (Psalms 120-134). Pilgrims would sing these Psalms while they ascended up to Jerusalem. It was in 1956 that a Bedouin discovered cave 11 with these psalms. These Psalms date to the first half of the 1st century C.E.

 

I was just doing some reading last night and this morning to try to get a better sense of what the DSS actually show us about the use of the Divine Name during the time period(s) represented. So I'll want to get back to this soon.

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Yes you may quote from my ebay site, also there is now alot more updated info from 2017 that many may not realize since it is not in print but only online in the NWT Study edition on JW.ORG:

Appendix C

 

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Apparently, there is more to be understood here, none of which has been explained by assumptions. Research! Research!

YAHWEH: THE DIVINE NAME IN THE BIBLE 1975

The emphasis on the active existence of YHWH is made strongly by Walther Eichrodt and is representative of modern scholarship.12 Smith comments as follows, "at the moment we are not entitled to say more than that the consensus among Old Testament scholars provides a strong basis for an understanding of the God of biblical faith in historical and dynamic terms, and not in conceptions of timeless and static entities, whether eternity or God's aseity." 1 3 The "theologians of hope" have incorporated similar insights in their interpretation of the divine name. For example, Jürgen Moltmann maintains, "YHWH, as the name of the God who first of all promises his presence and his kingdom and makes them prospects for the future, is a god 'with future as his essential nature,' a God of promise and of leaving the present to face the future, a God whose freedom is the source of new things that are to come." 1 4 Here the imperfect 'ehyeh is understood primarily as a future tense. So also, the Roman Catholic theologian, J. B. Metz, abandons the traditional Thomist metaphysic of being and makes this comment on the meaning of Exod.3:14, "According to this version God revealed himself to Moses more as the power of the future than as a being dwelling beyond all history and experience. . . . His transcendence reveals itself as our 'absolute future.' 1 5

The Old Testament witness to YHWH brings with it a change in the meaning of other terms for deity which are used in place of the Tetragrammaton. Charles West observes, "The other concepts for deity in the Old Testament, Elohim and Adonai, the former of which was rooted in pagan polytheism and the latter in everyday social experience of power and authority, were used and redesigned, emptied of their previous significance, and made to demonstrate the absolute subordination of human and divine powers to this one lord." 1 6 The eventual substitution of dônây for YHWH within Judaism as a mark of veneration for the divine name which could no longer be uttered with propriety, had far reaching consequences. Among Jews of the Diaspora, kyrios was the Greek equivalent for the Tetragrammaton in the LXX version of the Hebrew scriptures, reflecting the fact that ' adönäy was understood as a substitute for the Tetragrammaton. Inevitably the emphasis had shifted to the concept of sovereignty, lordship.

The use of mdonây in the Hebrew Bible and kyrios in the LXX has very wide ramifications for New Testament scholarship, especially in relation to Christological formulation. The content of the term kyrios in the declaration of I Cor.12:3, "Jesus is Lord [kyrios]," requires to be determined, in order to arrive at an adequate understanding of a most important aspect of the person of Christ. Gustaf Daim an summarized the historical situation in this way: "The significant transition from the divine name *Jahve' to the divine name 'Lord' did not take place in the region of Hebraic Judaism. It is rather a peculiarity of Jewish Hellenism, and from that source found its way into the language of the Church, even of the Semitic-speaking part of it." 1 7 This, indeed, is the thesis of William Bousset in his monumental study, Kyrios Christos.18 He claims that "the title kyrios spans an area in the history of religions which can still be fairly precisely delimited. It penetrated Hellenistic-Roman religion from the East; Syria and
Egypt are its actual home territories."19 Although
kyrios was used in the ordinary secular sense of "master" or "owner," the use of the specific religious sense can be fully documented from the Hermetic literature and the writings of the Gnostic sects.20 "It was in this atmosphere," Bousset writes, "that Antiochene Christianity and that of the other primitive Christian Hellenistic communities came into being and had their growth."

 

In Bousset's view, the Gentile Christian Church at Antioch, recognizing Jesus as a cult-hero, and coming under Hellenistic influences, began to apply the title Kyrios to him. This was the situation within the church to which Paul was introduced. The Pauline epistles give abundant evidence that the designation kyrios was the title which now became normative for Jesus, since Christos had now become virtually a proper name. The affirmation of faith, "Jesus is kyrios" (I Cor. 12:3), perhaps originally an ecstatic cry of prophetic rapture, became a baptismal confession (1 Cor. 6:11; Acts 19:5) [pp.99-101]

 

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1 hour ago, bruceq said:

Yes you may quote from my ebay site, also there is now alot more updated info from 2017 that many may not realize since it is not in print but only online in the NWT Study edition on JW.ORG:

Thanks for pointing this out and making the links easy to get to. It's also up to date on the 2016 Watchtower Library, [v.18 with regular online updates through 2017].

The resources provided by the Watch Tower Society are excellent, of course, but they are not always clear about which statements are assumptions (and therefore subject to change) and which statements are 'statements of fact.' Sometimes even the word 'proven' is used, when it's only a strongly held assumption or belief.

I'm working through it now to see which are which:

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
When Jesus and his apostles were on earth, the divine name, or Tetragrammaton, appeared in the Hebrew manuscripts of the “Old Testament.” (See Appendixes A4 and A5.)

Undoubtedly, the divine name or Tetragrammaton appeared in the Hebrew mss of the OT. Perhaps not in all of them, but apparently in the vast majority. I'm trying to do a quick, last-minute study to get a sense of what the evidence shows about Hebrew mss of the OT in this time period that did NOT contain the Divine Name. [POINT A, for further research] To get a sense of the evidence for this, I'm also trying to look into the overall time period when the Divine Name began to fall out of general use among Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek-speaking Jews. [POINT B, for further research]

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
The divine name also appeared in the
Septuagint, the Greek translation of the “Old Testament” that was widely used in the first century C.E. At that time, the divine name was represented in the Septuagint by either the Hebrew characters (YHWH) or the Greek transliteration of those characters (IAO).

This first sentence is also undoubtedly true. Almost every quote of the OT in the NT follows the Septuagint [LXX] instead of the Hebrew text that the NWT (and almost everyone else) uses for the OT, wherever the LXX and Hebrew are known to differ.

The second sentence is true, too, but I don't think we are really saying definitively that, in the first century, the divine name was always represented either by YHWH or IAO in the LXX. We know of various other divine name abbreviations, and it might still be true that some LXX texts, even in the first century C.E., may have already contained replacements for the divine name. [POINT C, for further research]

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
Some portions of manuscripts of the
Septuagint from the first century C.E. and earlier still exist today, and they prove this fact. So when the inspired writers of the “New Testament” quoted from the “Old Testament,” they must have seen the Tetragrammaton, whether they were quoting directly from the Hebrew text of the “Old Testament” or the Greek translation of that text, the Septuagint.

The first sentence is correct again, and what they "prove" is that at least some of the LXX copies (which we currently date to the first century C.E. and earlier) have YHWH (or a form of this) or IAO, which we consider to be a transliteration of IAO.

The second sentence states that the inspired writers of the NT when quoting from the OT, must have seen the Tetragrammaton in one of these two forms, at least. This may very well be true, although I'm not sure it was always necessarily true based on "POINT C," which I still need to research further.

Also, of course, it may very well be true that they saw the Tetragrammaton and purposely, even through inspiration, chose NOT to copy it. This doesn't necessarily mean that Jesus didn't utter the divine name. It's even possible that they knew that Jesus had uttered the divine name when quoting from Isaiah or Psalms for example, and yet the inspired Bible writers produced their initial manuscripts with "kyrios" or "theos" for example. This latter point is not something I expect to research further, or draw a conclusion from, it's only that I don't wish to jump to any conclusions not actually evident from the facts.

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
Today, however, no manuscripts of the “New Testament” from the first century C.E. are available for us to examine. So no one can check the original Greek manuscripts of the “New Testament” to see whether the Bible writers used the Tetragrammaton. The Greek manuscripts of the “New Testament” that would have a bearing on this issue are copies that were made from about 200 C.E. onward. The more complete manuscripts are from the fourth century C.E., long after the originals were composed.

Nothing to research further here. These are all statements of proven fact. (Until and unless further evidence or manuscript discoveries are disclosed.) Further disclosed discoveries or evidence would not necessarily help the side of the argument that we are expecting it to help, however.

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
However, sometime during the second or early third century C.E., a practice had developed where those copying the manuscripts either replaced the Tetragrammaton with a title such as Lord or God or copied from manuscripts where this had already been done.
 *

We might already have enough evidence to test this particular claim. [POINT D, for further research]

I believe it already shows that the NWT translators have backed off the stronger claim made earlier in 1984 (and quoted by Micah Ong, above):

*** Rbi8 p. 1564 1D The Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures [1984] ***
Sometime during the second or third century C.E. the scribes removed the Tetragrammaton from both the Septuagint and the Christian Greek Scriptures and replaced it with Kyʹri·os, “Lord” or The·osʹ, “God.”

Also the footnote  * in the new C1 Appendix, opens up the possibilities much more widely, and removes the need to have mentioned the second or third century scribes in the first place. After all, these scribes, it is admitted, might just be copying from manuscripts where the Tetragrammaton had already been replaced with "Lord" or "God." In the worst case, this comes very close to admitting that it might have already been done up to and (technically) even including the initial manuscript, where an inspired NT writer might have already removed the Tetragrammaton reference from an LXX quotation, for example. That's obviously not the intent of the NWT Appendix writer to state this, but especially with the footnote material in view, it shows just how little is left of the original claim.

The last point for further research, therefore, might not include the claim from the 1984 NWT about second and third century scribes removing the Tetragrammaton from the LXX. The real important question is just the NT manuscripts here. It was always an odd claim anyway that both Jewish and Christian scribes would have agreed at some point as late as the third century to remove the name from both the NT mss and the LXX mss, as if all the dozens of manuscript copies were under some central control. Recensions of various types would still exist, because there is no way they could have got them all. And if we find evidence of this being done before the second and third centuries, the entire argument loses its meaning.

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9 minutes ago, bruceq said:

Insider have you ever read the research of 

  Pavlos Vasileiadis

Not before you mentioned him. I just downloaded his 34-page pdf: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273185850_Aspects_of_rendering_the_sacred_Tetragrammaton_in_Greek

From what I can see, he quotes from a lot of sources that I have, including a couple resources I just read through last night, so it should be an interesting read.

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      See also: The Printing of the Silver Sword
      At the Watch Tower Society's Annual Meeting on October 5, 2013, a significantly revised translation was released. Many outdated terms were replaced with modern English. Passages from the New Testament not found in the earliest available manuscripts and considered to be of doubtful authenticity—part of chapter 8 of the Gospel of John and the alternative conclusions to the Gospel of Mark—were removed. An app for the new revision was also released.[30]

      According to the Watch Tower Society, the New World Translation attempts to convey the intended sense of original-language words according to the context. The New World Translation employs nearly 16,000 English expressions to translate about 5,500 biblical Greek terms, and over 27,000 English expressions to translate about 8,500 Hebrew terms. The translators state that, where possible in the target language, the New World Translation prefers literal renderings and does not paraphrase the original text.[31]
       
      Textual basis 
      The master text used for translating the Old Testament into English was Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. The Hebrew texts, Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and Biblia Hebraica Quinta, were used for preparing the latest version of this translation. Other works consulted in preparing the translation include Aramaic Targums, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Samaritan Torah, the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, the Masoretic Text, the Cairo Codex, the Aleppo Codex, Christian David Ginsburg's Hebrew Text, and the Leningrad Codex.[32][33]

      Diagrammatic representation of textual basis - Hebrew - Greek

      The Greek master text by the Cambridge University scholars B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort (1881) was used as the basis for translating the New Testament into English. The committee also referred to the Novum Testamentum Graece (18th edition, 1948) and to works by Catholic Jesuit scholars José M. Bover (1943) and Augustinus Merk (1948). The United Bible Societies' text (1975) and the Nestle-Aland text (1979) were used to update the footnotes in the 1984 version. Additional works consulted in preparing the New World Translation include the Armenian Version, Coptic Versions, the Latin Vulgate, Sixtine and Clementine Revised Latin Texts, Textus Receptus, the Johann Jakob Griesbach's Greek text, the Emphatic Diaglott, and various papyri.[32] 
       
      Other languages 
      Translation into other languages is based on the English text, supplemented by comparison with the Hebrew and Greek.[34] As of late 2013, the complete New World Translation has been published in 63 languages or scripts, with the New Testament available in an additional 58 languages.[5][6]
      Translators are given a list of words and expressions commonly used in the English New World Translation with related English words grouped together (e.g. atone, atonement or propitiation); these are intended to alert the translators to various shades of meaning. A list of vernacular equivalents is then composed. If a translator has difficulty rendering a verse, the computer research system can provide information on Greek and Hebrew terms and provides access to supplemental publications. Using a search-and-replace tool, vernacular terms in the target language are then automatically inserted into the Bible text. Further editing and translation is then performed to produce a final version.[28]
      The complete New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures is available in 63 languages as of late 2013: Afrikaans, Albanian,Arabic, Armenian, Bulgarian, Cebuano, Chichewa, Chinese (Simplified, Traditional or Pinyin), Cibemba, Croatian, Czech, Danish,Dutch, Efik, English (also Braille), Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hungarian, Igbo, Iloko, Indonesian, Italian,Japanese, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz, Kirundi, Korean, Lingala, Macedonian, Malagasy, Maltese, Norwegian, Ossetian, Polish, Portuguese (also Braille), Romanian,Russian, Samoan, Sepedi, Serbian (Cyrillic and Latin scripts), Sesotho, Shona, Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish (also Braille), Sranantongo, Swahili, Swedish,Tagalog, Tsonga, Tswana, Turkish, Twi (Akuapem and Asante), Xhosa, Yoruba, and Zulu.
      The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures is available in an additional 52 languages as of February 2014: Amharic, Azerbaijani (Cyrillic and Latin scripts), Cambodian, Chitonga, Chitumbuka, Estonian, Ewe, Fijian, Gun, Guarani, Haitian Creole, Hebrew, Hiligaynon, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Italian Braille, Kannada,Kazakh, Kikaonde, Kiluba, Kiribati (Gilbertese), Kongo, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luganda, Luvale, Malayalam, Maya, Myanmar, Nepali, Otetela, Pangasinan, Papiamento (Curaçao), Punjabi, Sango, Silozi, Solomon Islands Pidgin, Swati, Tamil, Tatar, Tetum, Thai, Tigrinya, Tok Pisin, Tongan, Tshiluba, Tuvaluan, Ukrainian, Uzbek,Venda, Vietnamese, Waray-Waray.
      The New World Translation is also available on DVD in part in 7 languages as of 2013: American Sign Language, Brazilian Sign Language, Colombian Sign Language, Italian Sign Language, Korean Sign Language, Mexican Sign Language, and Russian Sign Language.
      When the Writing Committee approves the translation of the Bible into a new language, it appoints a group of baptized Jehovah's Witnesses to serve as a translation team. Team members generally have experience in translating the Watch Tower Society's publications, and receive additional training in the principles of Bible translation and in the use of computer programs developed specifically for the task. These systems do not perform actual translation, but assist the translators by keeping track of their translation decisions.
       
      Features
      The layout resembles the 1901 edition of the American Standard Version. The translators use the terms "Hebrew-Aramaic Scriptures" and "Christian Greek Scriptures" rather than "Old Testament" and "New Testament", stating that the use of "testament" was based on a misunderstanding of 2 Corinthians 3:14.[35]Headings were included at the top of each page to assist in locating texts; these have been replaced in the 2013 revision by an "Outline of Contents" introducing each Bible book. There is also an index listing scriptures by subject.
      Square brackets [ ] were added around words that were inserted editorially, but were removed as of the 2006 printing. Double brackets [[ ]] were used to indicate text considered doubtful. The pronoun "you" was printed in small capitals (i.e., YOU) to indicate plurality, as were some verbs when plurality may be unclear. These features were discontinued in the 2013 release. The New World Translation attempts to indicate progressive rather than completed actions, such as "began to rest" at Genesis 2:2 instead of "rested". The 2013 release only indicates progressive verbs where considered contextually important. 
       
      Use of Jehovah
      Main article: Jehovah

      The name Jehovah is a translation of the Tetragrammaton (Hebrew: יהוה‎, transliterated as YHWH), although the original pronunciation is unknown. The New World Translation uses the name Jehovah 6,979 times in the Old Testament.[36] The Watch Tower Society notes that the Tetragrammaton appears in "the oldest fragments of the Greek Septuagint".[37] In reference to the Septuagint, biblical scholar Paul E. Kahle stated, "We now know that the Greek Bible text as far as it was written by Jews for Jews did not translate the Divine name by Kyrios, but the Tetragrammaton written with Hebrew or Greek letters was retained in such MSS (manuscripts). It was the Christians who replaced the Tetragrammaton by Kyrios, when the divine name written in Hebrew letters was not understood any more."[38]
      The New World Translation also uses the name Jehovah 237 times in the New Testament where the extant texts use only the Greek words kurios (Lord) and theos(God).[39] Walter Martin, an evangelical scholar, wrote, "It can be shown from literally thousands of copies of the Greek New Testament that not once does the tetragrammaton appear."[40] However, the translators of the New World Translation believed that the name Jehovah was present in the original manuscripts of the New Testament when quoting from the Old Testament, but replaced with the other terms by later copyists. Based on this reasoning, the translators "restored the divine name", though it is not present in any extant manuscripts.[41][42]
      The use of Jehovah in the New Testament is not unique to the NWT; translations with similar renderings include A Literal Translation of the New Testament ... From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript (Heinfetter, 1863); //The Emphatic Diaglott// (Wilson, 1864); The Epistles of Paul in Modern English (Stevens, 1898); St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans (Rutherford, 1900); The Christian’s Bible — New Testament (LeFevre, 1928) and The New Testament Letters (Wand, Bishop of London, 1946). 
       
      Editions
      The New World Translation is distributed in print editions commonly referred to as "Large Print" (four volumes), "Reference", "Regular (or Standard) Hard Cover", "Regular (or Standard) Soft Cover".[43][44] The regular editions include several appendices containing arguments for various translation decisions, maps, diagrams and other information; and over 125,000 cross references. The reference edition contains the cross references and adds footnotes about translation decisions and additional appendices that provide further detail relating to certain translation decisions.[45] Many of the non-English translations lack footnotes and some add language-specific footnotes. The 1981 and 1984 revisions incorporated the booklet, Bible Topics for Discussion (previously published separately in 1977), which provides references to scriptures relating to various topics; this has been replaced in the 2013 revision with a simplified Introduction to God's Word.
      Kingdom Interlinear
      The New World Bible Translation Committee included the English text from the NWT in its 1969 and 1985 editions of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures. It also incorporates the Greek text published by Westcott and Hort in The New Testament in the Original Greek and a literal word-for-word translation.[46][47]
      Non-print editions
      In 1978, the Watch Tower Society began producing recordings of the NWT on audio cassette,[48] with the New Testament released by 1981[49] and the Old Testament in three albums released by 1990.[50] In 2004, the NWT was released on compact disc in MP3 format in major languages.[51] Since 2008, audio downloads of the NWT have been made available in 18 languages in MP3 and AAC formats, including support for Podcasts. 

      A diskette edition of the NWT released in 1993
      In 1983, the English Braille edition of the NWT's New Testament was released;[52] the complete English Braille edition was released by 1988.[53] NWT editions have since become available in several additional Braille scripts.[54] Production of the NWT in American Sign Language began in 2006, with the complete New Testament made available by 2010;[55] sign language editions are also available for download.[56] In 1992 a digital edition, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References, was released, as a set of seven 3½-inch 720 KB diskettes or four 5¼-inch 1.2 MB diskettes, using Folio View software. In 1993, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References/Insight on the Scriptures was released in English, as a set of 5¼-inch 1.2 MB or 3½-inch 1.44 MB diskettes, containing the New World Translation and Insight on the Scriptures. Since 1994, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References has been included in the Watchtower Library on CD-ROM, available only to baptized Jehovah's Witnesses.[57][58] The 2013 English edition of //Watchtower Library on CD-ROM// includes both the 1984 reference Bible and the 2013 revision. The NWT is available online at the Watch Tower Society's official website in over 70 languages.[59] It is available for download in various languages in PDF, MOBI and EPUB formats. In 2013, an official application entitled JW Library was released on multiple platforms for tablets and mobile devices.[60] 
       
      Critical review
      Overall review 
      In its review of Bible translations released from 1955 to 1985, The Harper Collins Bible Dictionary listed the New World Translation as one of the major modern translations.[61]
      The New Catholic Encyclopedia says of the NWT reference edition: "[Jehovah's Witnesses'] translation of the Bible [has] an impressive critical apparatus. The work is excellent except when scientific knowledge comes into conflict with the accepted doctrines of the movement." It criticizes the NWT's rendering of Kyrios as "Jehovah" in 237 instances in the New Testament.[62]
      Old Testament 
      Samuel Haas, in his 1955 review of the 1953 first volume of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, in the Journal of Biblical Literature, stated that although "this work indicates a great deal of effort and thought as well as considerable scholarship, it is to be regretted that religious bias was allowed to colour many passages."[63]
      Professor Benjamin Kedar, a Professor of History and Director of the Institute for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, said in 1989: "In my linguistic research in connection with the Hebrew Bible and translations, I often refer to the English edition of what is known as the New World Translation. In so doing, I find my feeling repeatedly confirmed that this work [the NWT Old Testament] reflects an honest endeavor to achieve an understanding of the text that is as accurate as possible."[64]
      Regarding the NWT's use of English in the 1953 first volume of the NWT (Genesis to Ruth), Dr. Harold H. Rowley (1890–1969) was critical of what he called "wooden literalism" and "harsh construction." He characterized these as "an insult to the Word of God", citing various verses of Genesis as examples. Rowley concluded, "From beginning to end this [first] volume is a shining example of how the Bible should not be translated."[65] Rowley's published review is dated January 1953, six months before the volume was actually released;[66][67] Rowley did not update his review following the July 1953 release or the 1961 revision, and he died before the release of the 1970 and later revisions.[68]
      New Testament 
      A 2003 study by Jason BeDuhn, associate professor of religious studies at Northern Arizona University in the United States, of nine of "the Bibles most widely in use in the English-speaking world," including the New American Bible, The King James Bible and The New International Version, examined several New Testament passages in which "bias is most likely to interfere with translation." For each passage, he compared the Greek text with the renderings of each English translation, and looked for biased attempts to change the meaning. BeDuhn reported that the New World Translation was "not bias free", but emerged "as the most accurate of the translations compared", and thus a "remarkably good translation", adding that "most of the differences are due to the greater accuracy of the NW as a literal, conservative translation". BeDuhn said the introduction of the name "Jehovah" into the New Testament 237 times was "not accurate translation by the most basic principle of accuracy", and that it "violate accuracy in favor of denominationally preferred expressions for God", adding that for the NWT to gain wider acceptance and prove its worth its translators might have to abandon the use of "Jehovah" in the New Testament.[69]
      Theologian and televangelist John Ankerberg accused the NWT's translators of renderings that conform "to their own preconceived and unbiblical theology."[70] Dr. John Weldon and Ankerberg cite several examples wherein they consider the NWT to support theological views overriding appropriate translation. Ankerberg and Weldon cite Dr. Julius R. Mantey, co-author of A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament and A Hellenistic Greek Reader, who also criticized the NWT, calling it "a shocking mistranslation."[70][71]
      Dr. William Barclay, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, concluded that "the deliberate distortion of truth by this sect is seen in the New Testament translation. ... It is abundantly clear that a sect which can translate the New Testament like that is intellectually dishonest."[72]
      Edgar J. Goodspeed, translator of the New Testament in An American Translation, wrote in a letter to the Watch Tower Society: "I am interested in the mission work of your people, and its world wide scope, and much pleased with the free, frank and vigorous translation. It exhibits a vast array of sound serious learning, as I can testify."[73]
      Former American Bible Society board member Dr. Bruce M. Metzger concluded that "on the whole, one gains a tolerably good impression of the scholarly equipment of the translators,"[74] but identified instances where the translation has been written to support doctrine, with "several quite erroneous renderings of the Greek."[75]Metzger noted a number of "indefensible" characteristics of the translation, including its use of "Jehovah" in the New Testament.
      Unitarian theologian Charles Francis Potter stated about the NWT: "Apart from a few semantic peculiarities like translating the Greek word stauros, as "stake" instead of "cross", and the often startling use of the colloquial and the vernacular, the anonymous translators have certainly rendered the best manuscript texts, both Greek and Hebrew, with scholarly ability and acumen."[76]
      Religion writer and editor Alexander Thomson said of the NWT: "The translation is evidently the work of skilled and clever scholars, who have sought to bring out as much of the true sense of the Greek text as the English language is capable of expressing. ... We heartily recommend the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, published in 1950 by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society."[77]
      Thomas Winter, an instructor of Greek at the University of Nebraska and former president of the Unitarian Church of Lincoln, considered the Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures to be a "highly useful aid toward the mastery of koine (and classical) Greek," adding that the translation "is thoroughly up-to-date and consistently accurate."[78]
      The Andover Newton Quarterly reported, "The translation of the New Testament is evidence of the presence in the movement of scholars qualified to deal intelligently with the many problems of Biblical translation. One could question why the translators have not stayed closer to the original meaning, as do most translators ... In not a few instances the New World Translation contains passages which must be considered as 'theological translations.' This fact is particularly evident in those passages which express or imply the deity of Jesus Christ."[79]
       
      References
      Jason D. Beduhn, Truth in Translation - Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament All Scripture Is Inspired by God and Beneficial 1990 pg. 326 pars. 32-33 Study Number 7—The Bible in Modern Times: New World Translation A Literal Translation, 1990 New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (2013 Revision), page 4. Access date: 25 February 2014. "Are All Religions Good?", The Watchtower, August 1, 2009, page 4, "Jehovah’s Witnesses, produce a reliable Bible translation known as the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. However, if you are not one of Jehovah’s Witnesses, you may prefer to use other translations" New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Revised 2013, Total Printed of All Editions of New World Translation: 208,366,928 copies - over 120 languages (updated February, 2014), bi12-E, p.4 The Chitumbuka NT 1984 edition has latest numbers and language list of 122 languages, (updated February 26, 2014), bi7-TB, p.4 2013 Annual Meeting Report: Languages New World Translation is published has increased from 52 to 121 The Watchtower, 1 November 1959, p. 672: "Up until 1950 the teachings of Jehovah’s witnesses were based mainly upon the King James Version of the Bible" Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 99. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7. "The King James Bible was used by the Witnesses prior to the release of their own version, which began with the Greek Scriptures, in 1950." "Announcements", The Watchtower, August 1, 1954, page 480 "Bible Knowledge Made Plain Through Modern Translation", The Watchtower, October 15, 1961, page 636 "Part Three—How the Bible Came to Us", The Watchtower, October 15, 1997, page 11, "With this objective, associates of the Society set out in 1946 to produce a fresh translation of the Scriptures. A translation committee of experienced anointed Christians was organized to produce the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in English." "Stand Complete and With Firm Conviction—The New World Translation Appreciated by Millions Worldwide", The Watchtower, November 15, 2001, page 7. "How the Governing Body Differs From a Legal Corporation:, The Watchtower, January 15, 2001, page 30. "New Bible Translation Completed, Released", The Watchtower, October 1, 1960, page 599. "New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures", The Watchtower, September 15, 1950, page 315. Watchtower October 1st, 1960 p. 601 par. 13 Foreword, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, 1984. All Scripture is Inspired of God and Beneficial 1990 p. 331 New York Times, August 3, 1950 p. 19. The Watchtower, September 15, 1950, p. 320 Walsh vs Honorable James Latham, Court of Session Scotland, 1954, cross examination of Frederick Franz pp. 90-92 The Watchtower, November 15, 1950, p. 454 The Watchtower, December 15, 1974, p. 768. The Watchtower, December 15, 1974, p. 768 Tony Wills, M.A., A People For His Name—A History of Jehovah's Witnesses and An Evaluation, Lulu, 2006. Originally published in 1967 by Vantage Press. "[Frederick] Franz is a language scholar of no mean ability—he supervised the translation of the Bible from the original languages into the New World Translation, completed in 1961." (p. 253) Walter Martin, Kingdom of the Cults—Expanded Anniversary Edition, October 1997, Bethany House Publishers, p. 123-124. "the New World Bible translation committee had no known translators with recognized degrees in Greek or Hebrew exegesis or translation. While the members of the [NWT] committee have never been identified officially by the Watchtower, many Witnesses who worked at the headquarters during the translation period were fully aware of who the members were. They included Nathan H. Knorr (president of the Society at the time), Frederick W. Franz (who later succeeded Knorr as president), Albert D. Schroeder, George Gangas, and Milton Henschel'." A Milestone for Lovers of God's Word (Watchtower October 15, 1999 pp. 30-31) 2012 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, pg. 26 "Jehovah's Witnesses distribute free Bibles", The Daytona Beach News-Journal, October 26, 2013 How Can You Choose a Good Bible Translation? (Watchtower May 1, 2008 pages 18-22) All Scripture is Inspired of God and Beneficial" 1990 pp. 305-314 How the Bible Came to Us, Appendix A3 of 2013 REVISION Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (1993) Chap. 27 p. 611, subheading Translation Into Other Languages. Appendix 7E in the New World Translation reference edition Revised New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. Accessed 14 October 2013. Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. II pg. 9, 1988; Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania The Cairo Geniza, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1959, pg. 222 Bowman, Robert M. Understanding Jehovah's Witnesses. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1991. P114 Walter Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults Revised, Updated, and Expanded Anniversary Edition, Bethany House Publishers, Minneapolis, Minnesota 1997, Page 125. The Watchtower, August 1, 2008. Brooklyn, New York: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2008. pp. 18–23. "Lord". Insight on the Scriptures 2. p. 267. "Announcements", Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1988, page 4 Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, page 614 "Study—Rewarding and Enjoyable", The Watchtower, October 1, 2000, page 16 Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published 1993 by Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 27: Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word", page 610 ""Between-the-Lines" Translations of the Bible", The Watchtower, November 15, 1969, page 692. Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1978, page 3 Our Kingdom Ministry, October 1981, page 7 The Watchtower, February 15, 1990, page 32 Watchtower Publications Index 1986-2007, "Compact Discs" Our Kingdom Ministry, August 1983, pages 3-4 Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published 1993 by Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 27: Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word", pages 614-615 Awake!, November, 2007 p. 30 2007 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, pages 21-22 Sign Language Connection on jw.org "The Compact Disc—What Is It All About?", Awake!, April 22, 1994, page 23 Our Kingdom Ministry, September 2007, page 3. "Online Bible-Jehovah’s Witnesses: jw.org". Watch Tower Society. Retrieved 2012-10-27. "JW Library APP-Jehovah’s Witnesses". Watch Tower Society. Retrieved 2012-10-27. Robert G. Bratcher, "English Bible, The" The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (revised and updated edition of Harper's Bible Dictionary, 1st ed. c1985), HarperCollins Publishers/The Society of Biblical Literature, 1996, p. 292. G. HÉBERT/EDS, "Jehovah's Witnesses", The New Catholic Encyclopedia, Gale, 20052, Vol. 7, p. 751. Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 74, No. 4, (Dec. 1955), p. 283. Interview quotation as cited by: "The Bible in Modern Times", "All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial", ©1990 Watch Tower, page 326 H.H. Rowley, How Not To Translate the Bible, The Expository Times, 1953; 65; 41 Life Magazine, July 1, 1953, Photo here "“Walk in the Name of Jehovah Our God for Ever”", The Watchtower, September 1, 1953, page 528, "Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society released Volume I of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures to the New World Society Assembly of Jehovah’s Witnesses at Yankee Stadium, New York city, N. Y., Wednesday afternoon, July 22, 1953." "The Bible in Modern Times", All Scripture..., ©1990 Watch Tower Jason D. BeDuhn, Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament, 2004, pages 163, 165, 169, 175, 176. BeDuhn compared the King James, the (New) Revised Standard, the New International, the New American Bible, the New American Standard Bible, the Amplified Bible, the Living Bible, Today's English and the NWT versions in Matthew 28:9, Philippians 2:6, Colossians 1:15-20, Titus 2:13, Hebrews 1:8, John 8:58, John 1:1. See Ankerberg, John and John Weldon, 2003, The New World Translation of the Jehovah's Witnesses, accessible online Dr. Mantey made this comment on videotape. See the video "Witnesses of Jehovah", distributed by Impact Resources, P.O. Box 1169, Murrieta, CA, 92564 R. Rhodes, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, The Essential Guide to Their History, Their Doctrine, and Our Response, Zondervan, 2001, p. 94 "Loyally advocating the Word of God," The Watchtower (15 March 1982), p. 23. Metzger>UBS Metzger, Bruce M, The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, The Bible Translator 15/3 (July 1964), p. 151. Bruce M. Metzger, "Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," Theology Today, (April 1953 p. 74); see also Metzger, "The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures,". The faiths men live by, Kessinger Publishing, 1954, 239. ISBN 1-4254-8652-5. Alexander Thomson, The Differentiator, 1952, 55,57 No. 2, 6 Thomas N. Winter, Review of New World Bible Translation Committee's The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures, Classics and Religious Studies Faculty Publications, Classics and Religious Studies Department, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, April–May 1974: 376 "Jehovah's Witnesses and their New Testament." Andover Newton Quarterly. 3.3 (1963): 31.

      Further Information
      Online editions
      New World Translation - Study Edition// - //Watchtower Online Library Online Bible (1984 and 2013) 1984 New World Translation Reference Edition PDF Supportive
      Stafford, Greg: Jehovah's Witnesses Defended. [ISBN 0-9659814-7-9] Furuli, Rolf: The Role of Theology and Bias in Bible Translation: With a special look at the New World Translation of Jehovah's Witnesses, 1999. [ISBN 0-9659814-9-5] Byatt, Anthony and Flemings, Hal (editors): 'Your Word is Truth', Essays in Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (1950, 1953), 2004. [ISBN 0-9506212-6-9] The Coptic Evidence In Defense of the New World Translation at the Wayback Machine (archived December 18, 2007) Neutral
      BeDuhn, Jason: Truth in Translation - Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament [ISBN 0-7618-2556-8] The Names of God. Their Pronunciation and Their Translation. A Digital Tour of Some of the Main Witnesses. Critical
      Metzger, Bruce Manning, The Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ: A Biblical and Theological Appraisal (Theology Today (April 1953), pp. 65-85). "The New World Translation: What the Scholars Really Said" (www.forananswer.org) Tetragrammaton in the New Testament Kenneth J. Baumgarten, //A Critique of// The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures//' Treatment of Nine Texts Employing ΘΕΟΣ In Reference to Jesus Christ//, South African Theological Seminary 2007. Robert Countess: Jehovah's Witnesses' New Testament: A Critical Analysis, [ISBN 0-87552-210-6] NWT and the Deity of Christ - A table showing NWT changes to key Christological passages, written from an evangelical perspective Hiding the Divine Name Article critical of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation  
    • By Queen Esther
      YAHWEH  - The  only  TRUE  GOD !  PROOF - God's Name,  YAH  Is  Written  On  Your  Face  &  Throughout  Creation !    ( Rev. 14:1  -  Rev. 22:4 )
       YAHWEH IS THE ONLY TRUE GOD:  Matthew 28:19 (KJV) Go ye therefore, and TEACH  *ALL NATIONS*,  baptizing them in THE NAME OF THE FATHER,  and of  THE SON,  and of the  Holy Spirit !
      Isaiah 45 5,  I am YAHWEH, and  THERE IS NONE ELSE,  there is NO GOD BESIDES ME:  I girded thee,  though thou hast not  known me:  6 That they may know from the rising of the sun,  and from the west,  that  THERE IS NONE BESIDE ME.  I am YAHWEH,  YHWH, JEHOVAH,  and there is  NONE  ELSE...
                           ❤ ❤ ❤ .•*¨`*•..¸♥☼♥¸.•*¨`*•. ❤ ❤ ❤
    • By TrueTomHarley
      I am of the unusual opinion that if you are going to ban Jehovah's Witness activity is Russia, then it is a good thing, not a bad thing, to also ban the New World Translation and seize the branch headquarters building. Each drags in people who might not otherwise care.   Human rights people protest when Witness activity is banned, but it is partly offset by: 'well, they ARE a pain and they DO call unannounced at inconvenient times.   But when you ban the Bible - even ringleader Dvorkin thought that was going too far. It plainly is a Bible; he doesn't like it, but it plainly is one. His country looks like a nation of goons. He is as if to say: 'we cut them off from U.S. organizational and monitory support. That's enough. Break both their legs and they will die! You don't ban the Bible as well, which only make us look like a country where Fred Flintstone is chief.   I say ban it for exactly that reason.   The academic community couldn't believe it. The Russian expert witness to the Court, an ex-JW, has an education that "doesn't correspond to anything" (mathematics degree) and she just "copies any sort of nonsense off the internet." She had the court harrumphing that it doesn't say 'Bible' on the cover, but 'Sacred Scriptures,' also that it said Hebrew and Greek Scriptures instead of Old and New Testament. She had them perturbed over its use of the name Jehovah, and then it was pointed out the Russian Orthodox version also uses the name.   They got concerned that the Jehovah's Witness Bible doesn't support the Trinity and our people showed them that the Russian Orthodox translation also doesn't support it. The Court is plodding about in matters of which it is completely ignorant, Dvorkin fumed, and it shows painfully.   Good. Let the record reflect that.   The decision regarding the branch headquarters draws in the potentially much more influential business community. Said the Witness representative:   "Of course, we will appeal this decision. It is based on nothing, except the desire of the prosecutor's office to simply seize the property. We did not hear a single legal argument. This is expropriation. Russia encourages foreign business to invest in the country, but what investments can be made if the property is not protected and can be seized at any time?"   I say it is a good thing for them to seize the building. It cannot serve its intended function anyway. Let it serve its new purpose of calling attention to lawlessness. One Russian news source opined they will ultimately give it back accompanied by huge financial damage penalties. Witnesses will take the matter to the ECHR and also, since the Watchtower Society is American-based, "the American one," whatever that means.   If you are going to go unjust, do it big time and make sure everyone knows. The Governing Body saw to it that the initial trial was videotaped in the largest venue possible. That video is widely available. At one point the Russian judge asked the Ministry of Justice whether it had prepared for the trial, so unsupported was their case. In the end, he did what he knew he had to do if he wanted to keep his job, but his interaction with them clearly exposed a sham system, which was repeated at the appeal, repeated again at the trial over the Bible, and again at the hearing to confiscate the branch headquarters.   And it was repeated in the case in the imprisonment without trial of Dennis Christensen, the first Witness jailed post-ban, and a Danish citizen. The Ministry of Justice insists he is a dangerous criminal. His last religious act was to preside over a typical Bible study at the Kingdom Hall. His last non-religious act was to build a playground (he is a carpenter) for the children. His second-to-last non-religious act was to take part in a public park cleanup for which the congregation received a certificate of appreciation from the town officials.   A lot of people don't like Jehovah's Witnesses - they are a hot-button topic in several ways. But they do know that rule by law and even common sense is a good thing, not a bad thing and when they see it so arbitrarily violated, they get more worked up than they would over Witnesses themselves.
    • By Kurt
      August 18 2017
      World Headquarters of Jehovah’s Witnesses (17.08.2017) – On August 17, 2017, the Vyborg City Court in Russia ruled to ban the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT), a Bible published by Jehovah’s Witnesses. Russia’s Law on Counteracting Extremist Activity, signed by President Putin himself in November 2015, explicitly prohibits declaring sacred texts, such as the Bible, to be extremist. In an unconscionable move to circumvent the law, the court relied on a so-called expert study alleging that the NWT is not a Bible, opening the way for it to be banned.
      Commenting on the ruling shortly after it was issued, David A. Semonian, international spokesman for Jehovah’s Witnesses at their world headquarters in New York, states: “It’s impossible to comprehend how a court can justify the decision to ban the Bible. It’s absurd that a court would outlaw the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, a Bible respected by scholars around the world, which has not only been distributed in hundreds of millions of copies but also has been translated into over 150 languages. Just how far will Russia’s resistance to religious freedom go? We certainly hope that respect for sacred texts will prevail when we pursue this case on appeal.”
      Scores of religious experts following the situation in Russia have not been shy in speaking out in opposition to the case, such as Daniel Mark, chairman of the United States Commission on Religious Freedom, who states: “The conclusion by the court-by any court-that the NWT translation is not a Bible is nonsense.” Likewise, Dr. Mathew N. Schmalz, associate professor of religious studies at the College of the Holy Cross, declares: “the claim that the NWT is not ‘a Bible’ is absurd.”
      Many point to the Center for Sociocultural Expert Studies in Moscow, the group responsible for the “expert study,” as the source of the absurdity. Scholars have roundly denounced the group. For instance, Roman Lunkin, the Head of the Center for Problems of Religion and Society at the Russian Academy of Science’s Institute of Europe in Moscow, has labeled these experts as “fake,” revealing that “not one of [them] has a degree in religious studies.” Countering the claims of the “expert study,” Professor Gerhard Besier, director of the Sigmund Neumann Institute for the Research on Freedom and Democracy (Germany), succinctly defends the NWT, stating: “The New World Translation has received high-praise worldwide from Bible scholars representing diverse religious communities.”
      With the decision to ban the NWT, the Russian Federation has assumed a hostile posture that should concern more than just the Witnesses. According to Willy Fautré, director and co-founder of Belgium-based Human Rights Without Frontiers: “Any translation of any other historical sacred book – the Koran of the Muslims, the Tanakh of the Jews, and the Kangyur of the Buddhists – can now be declared illegal in Russia, and any sacred book of any other religion is now vulnerable to state censorship in Russia.”
      source HRWF<<click
    • By bruceq
      Trial of Bible ends
      VYBORG COURT RULES JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES' BIBLE IS EXTREMIST LITERATURE
      Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia, 17 August 2017
       
      Judge Dmitry Yurievich Grishin of the Vyborg city court, a kandidat of jurisprudence and former chairman of the department of civil law of the A.S. Pushkin Leningrad University, announced his decision: to grant the petition of the Leningrad-Finland transport prosecutor; to find "Sacred Scripture—New World Translation" extremist material; to find the brochures "The Bible and it Main Subject," "Science instead of the Bible?" and "How to Improve Health. Five Simple Rules" to be extremist materials; to confiscate the batch of the aforesaid literature. The court's decision has not taken effect and it may be appealed within thirty days. (tr. by PDS, posted 17 August 2017)
       
      Also JW.ORG:
      News Alerts
       
      BREAKING NEWS | Russian Court Bans New World Translation
       
      On August 17, 2017, the Vyborg City Court in Russia ruled to ban the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT). In Russia, it is illegal to ban a Bible. However, a court-appointed “expert study” claimed that the NWT is not a Bible. The decision to ban the NWT came even after the powerful testimony of experts and the fine argumentation of our brothers, proving undeniably that the NWT is a Bible. In spite of such obvious discrimination, Jehovah’s Witnesses worldwide take comfort from Isaiah 40:8, “the word of our God endures forever.” We are appealing the decision.
    • By Micah Ong
      YAHWEH is NOT a HEBREW NAME. It is ARAMAIC, which is closely related to HEBREW.
      Aramaic replaced ancient Paleo Hebrew and nearly all the existing manuscripts, including the Masoretic text and the Dead Sea Scrolls, are in the Babylonian Aramaic alphabet.
      These four letters YHWH are Babylonian Aramaic. They are NOT SACRED and they are NOT HOLY. They come from the very root of Babel, confusion, and babble and are profane! According to the Jews who teach about these four letter, the god of this name is a bisexual. He is said to be androgynous (being both male and female). He is said to be androgynous (being both male and female). This god is a devil god. He is NOT the TRUE God of the ISRAELITES.
      Two Catholic monks invented the guess names of JEHOVAH (1270AD) and YAHWEH (about 1725AD). They should not be in any Bible since they did not exist at the time the Bible was written.
      The antichrist Concision (Law keepers, Noahides) who worships the Tetragrammatons’ YHWH, hail the Aramaic alphabet letters of Mystery Babylon to be sacred and holy and the guess names Jehovah and Yahweh derived from them to be the sacred name(s) of God.
    • By Micah Ong
      Thanks for helping me research more.
      YHWH/YHVH/IHVH/JHVH – ORIGIN
      (V = U), (UV = W), (I = J), (J SUBSTITUTE for Y), the name YHWH/JHVH was injected into the text of the Old Testament by the Pharisees and others who practiced Babylonian Satanism (the precursor to Cabalism and Talmudism). For those who don’t believe the Talmud is Satanic it proclaims that Christ is in Hell boiling in excrement and semen.
      An agreement was forged between the Jewish Masoretes and the Catholic Church c. 1000 A.D. to change the name of AHAYAH in the Hebrew Old Testament to the pagan name Yahweh/Jehovah via the Tetragrammatons’.
      This explains Rosenthal’s saying, “We are amazed by the Christians’ stupidity in receiving our teachings and propagating them as their own”.
      In Henry Ford’s words. “The Christian cannot read his Bible except through Jewish spectacles, and, therefore, reads it wrong”.
      The demonic disdain for humanity exhibited by the Luciferian Jew, Harold Rosenthal, typifies the end result of a lethal amalgamation: Jewish religious ritual combined with the worship of knowledge and self. The Jews as a people, by rejecting God and/or accepting Jehovah, have been given over “to a reprobate mind…Being filled with all unrighteousness…” (Romans 1:28-31).
      Of course, Mr. Rosenthal was a member of an elite, openly satanic minority among the Jewish people. Everyday Jews do not know that the god of their faith is in fact Satan hiding behind a mystical name. It is of no consequence to Satan whether he is worshipped deliberately or through subtle lies and deceptions. (Genesis 3).
      The wise Solomon ask, “what is [God’s] name, and what is his son’s name, if thou canst tell?” (Proverbs 30:4). God’s name is AHAYAH (sometimes transliterated Ehyeh) meaning I AM. This is the name given to Moses along with the law. “And God sad unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM; and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you…this is my memorial unto all generations.” (Exodus 3:14-15). “I AM the Lord thy God…thou shalt have no other gods before me” (Exodus 32:4-5).
      Originally these four Consonants in(YHWH)represented the four members of the Heavenly Family:
      Y – represented EL the Father
      H – represented Asherah the Mother
      W – represented He the Son
      H – represented the Daughter Anath
      The Jewish name for god is represented by the Tetragrammatons’ (YHWH/YHVH) can be pronounced Yahweh or Jehovah. The significance of God’s name is repeated emphasized throughout the scriptures.
      “Exodus 6:3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.”
      When dissected in the Hebrew, the true definition of Jehovah (Yah-Hovah) is revealed. “Yah” (#H3050) means “god”. “Hovah” (#H1942) translates to “eagerly coveting, falling, desire, ruin, calamity, iniquity, mischief, naughtiness, noisome, perverse, very wickedness.”
      Jehovah is synonymous with Baal:
      “Baal (#H1180) from ba’al with pron. Suff.; my master; Baali, a symbolical name for Jehovah — Baali.”
      The Jewish encyclopedia (“Adonai and Ba’al”) reveals: “The name Ba’al, apparently an equivalent for Yhwh.”
      Since the days of Jeremiah, the Jews have forgotten their god’s name and replaced it with the title “Baal” or “YHWH/YHVH”: The lying prophets “Which think to cause my people to forget my [God’s] name…as their father have forgotten my name for Baal.” (Jeremiah 23:27).
      YHWH/YHVH and Ba’al both represent the god of sexual perversion and wickedness, Satan.
      However, Jews claim that this name (YHWH/YHVH) is not to be spoken aloud, despite God’s command to declare His name throughout the earth (Exodus 9:16). Why ignore this commandment?
      By reverencing their name of God (YHWH/YHVH) by not speaking it, Jews create an air of mystery and holiness around the name while enhancing the curiosity surrounding its pronunciations and power.
      When curious Jews and non-Jews alike see the “sacred” Tetragrammatons’ being used in occult practice, they are intrigued by the prospective that these sorcerers have harnessed the mystical powers of the name. Wicca, Satanism, Tarot, occult Catholicism, Masonry and Cabalism use their knowledge of the “scared” name of god” as bait to recruit cult members. If the name were not hidden, these cults would lack a critical tool in their recruitment processes.
    • By JW Insider
      How good is the evidence that the Christian Scriptures contained YHWH or some variation of that Divine Name?
      There are probably some non-JWs who believe that there is absolutely no reason at all to even entertain the possibility, and there are probably some JWs who believe manuscripts have already been found with YHWH in the NT.  For most of us, the real answer lies somewhere in between. There is a lot of good research on the issue, and this research might be interesting to some of us, whether or not it is compelling enough for anyone to change their mind.
      A previous discussion on the topic became very long and veered off into other topics, too. Hopefully, this attempt will not result in multiple topics or judgmental attitudes about people, and we can focus on the validity of the research itself.
      If anyone wishes to participate, they should feel free to copy anything they wrote in a previous thread. A topic about YHWH in the NT will likely also include topics about the pronunciation of YHWH, YHWH in the OT (LXX, Masoretic, DSS, and other manuscripts), the earliest NT and OT meanings of "name," historical linguistic trends, Greek abbreviations, NT translations, usage by early "Ante-Nicene Fathers," and the various alternatives to YHWH, and comments made by anyone else that might seem partly relevant or interesting (Philo, Josephus, Ebionites, Talmud, Gnostics, etc.). It's still a big topic.
      The arguments that many find relevant are found in Gerard Gertoux, which can be seen here: http://areopage.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Gertoux_UseNameEarlyChristians.pdf
      He references G. Howard, of course, which might even be a better place to start. (HOWARD, Biblical Archaeology Review Vol IV, No. 1). His ideas can be found online here: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3265328?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
       
    • By Bible Speaks
      According to researchers of the Jewish culture, the human gene would have the signature of the name of God, with the 4 letters of the Tetragrammaton.(Yod) ה (heh) ו (vav) ה (heh), Tetragrammaton .....Hey vau, = 5 = 6, beats = 5;10 + 5 + 6 + 5
      But the TV showed scientific research mixed with Jewish cabal research. These are theories that involve data from scientists mixed with Kabbalah, tradition, Jewish philosophy,,Not trustworthy. Part of the report is serious, but when it moves to Jewish tradition and philosophy, it took the credibility of part of the report,.
      Scientists are questioning the origin of life and show the existence of a higher being. A new line of research, known as intelligent design, believes that the complexity of life and perfection of nature prove the existence of a higher being. At the core of research in science, faith and society, newly opened by one of the largest universities in São Paulo, in partnership with American institutions, scholars discard the creation of the world with a simple chance and analyze genetic codes as a sort of ' signature God '. http://noticias.r7.com/domingo-espetacular/videos/cientistas-questionam-a-origem-da-vida-e-comprovam-existencia-de-um-ser-superior-14052017

    • By Jack Ryan
      Google translate:
      The Christian Assembly of Jehovah's Witnesses
      April 1, 2017
      TO ALL MEETINGS
      Theme: Using the Synodal Translation of the Bible in New Conditions
      Dear brothers!
      From the bottom of our hearts, we want to thank you for your active participation in the campaign to write letters. Your participation in this campaign was a clear testimony of brotherly love in action (1 Peter 2:17). At the same time, we realize that the most important thing that we can do to support our brothers facing persecutions is to offer our prayers to Jehovah for them.(Read 1 Timothy 2: 1--4.)
      As already reported, the Ministry of Justice wants to impose a ban on the activities of the Christian congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia. If the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation decides to ban, this will negatively affect more than 175,000 of our brothers and sisters, on their honorable duty to carry God's words from door to door.
      Perhaps opponents think in this way to hinder the preaching work, but our main tool is the Bible, and we can participate even more diligently in the preaching work (1 Corinthians 15:58, Ephesians 6:17). Although the translation of the New World has helped us for many years to better understand the truth and carry the message of the Kingdom of God to other people, but in the new conditions that have arisen in Russia, we must start using the synodal translation of the Bible again.
      This is necessary to avoid accusations of distortion of God's word from the world of Satan and discourage our opponents until the verdict of the Supreme Court.
      Your brothers,
      A copy of the district overseers
      Note for coordinators of councils of elders.
      Please ensure that this letter is read at the next meeting on weekdays, and also at a weekend meeting. Do not post this
    • By TrueTomHarley
      ‘A pack of lies! I hate it!’ - Victor Vomidog

      ‘I knew you when you were small in your own eyes. Now you are small in everyone’s eyes.’ - Bill Ding

      ‘Thoroughly Tolerable!’ - Brittany Brexit

      ‘I loved it! All chapters, irregardless!’ - Tom Irregardless

      ‘I couldn’t put it down – he’d left some sort of ‘sticky tape’ or something on it.’ - Wayne Whitepebble

      Download it here.
    • By The Librarian
      This is Part 2 of a three-part series based on exclusive interviews with noted scholars of religion, politics, and sociology, as well as experts in Soviet and post-Soviet studies. Source
    • By The Librarian
      Examining the rules of pronunciation and grammar as it applies to the name יהוה.

      Addendum #1: Another passage that is frequently used in the discussion of the name YHWH is "call upon his name" as can be seen in Psalm 105:1. The Hebrew word translated as "call" is קרא (QRA), which can mean "call," but is the same word meaning "meet." And as discussed in the video, the word "name" can mean "character," so the phrase "call upon his name," can also mean "meet with his character." Also note that the phrase following this in Psalm 105:1 is "make known his deeds among the people." This is a parallel (a common form of Hebrew poetry found throughout Psalms) with "meet with his character," much more so than "call upon his name."

      Addendum #2: DasWORTanDICH called me on my claim that the character of YHWH can be summed up with the word "unity" (Good job DasWORTanDICH) In Zech 14:9, the end of the verse literally reads "and his name/character is one." The Hebrew for "one" more literally means "unit" or "unity." Throughout the Bible we see God working in unity with himself, even when his actions are in opposition to each other. For instance, in Genesis 1 we see God "creating," but in Genesis 6 we see God "destroying." Two opposites, but working together in unity to bring about order. In the desert God is seen as a cloud by day (bringing coolness and shade), but at night a cloud by fire (bringing heat and light). These two manifestations are in opposition to each other, but work together to protect the people.
    • By Γιαννης Διαμαντιδης
      Hi am writing from Greece. i read the bible so many times, both Hebrew and Greek and i cannot find the name Jehovah... just four letters YHWH. How can we be sure that Gods name isnt Yahawaha? i read in wikipedia "The Hebrew vowel points of Adonai were added to the Tetragrammaton by the Masoretes"
    • By Γιαννης Διαμαντιδης
      Hi am writing from Greece. i read the bible so many times, both Hebrew and Greek and i cannot find the name Jehovah... just four letters YHWH. How can we be sure that Gods name isnt Yahawaha? i read in wikipedia "The Hebrew vowel points of Adonai were added to the Tetragrammaton by the Masoretes"