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Barbour, Russell, and the year 1881, another point of contrast.

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Barbour and Russell finally separated in June 1879 over the doctrine of the ransom. They had another point of contrast over the year 1881. With the article “THE PARALLELS” published in the June1880 Herald, Barbour denied the thought of an invisible Parousia. According to him the second presence didn’t begin autumn of 1874, nor would there be a later invisible presence. Jesus would personally come in the Autumn of 1881, not seen by the world, but seen by his true disciples, that is, the Herald of the Morning believers.
 
Russell immediately replied with the July issue of the Watch Tower, confirming his belief that Christ’s invisible presence began in October 1874. Here’s extracts from the two magazines.
 
 
 
Quote

 

“The scapegoat work in cleansing the sanctuary, is an invisible work, seen only in its manifestations; but the appearing of our High Priest, “unto them that look for him,” is never spoken of directly or indirectly, in a way in which we have the least authority to suppose that he will come in an invisible manner. But always the contrary; “He will appear to (optomai, be seen of) us;” he comes in the manner they saw him go, etc. It is true. He will not show himself to the world, when he comes to his church, but he will “be seen” by them that look for him, is the teaching of the law and the testimony.
I warn our readers not to be deceived in this matter; Christ left the church as her High Priest; and he returns to her as such. And after ascending into the presence of God there is no intermediate personal coming in any way, to his church, until he shall appear to them that look for him, Heb. 9:28.
Again, there was a separation of chaff and wheat, and a gathering of the wheat out of the rejected Jewish church, after the crucifixion: and there was a remnant of time still due, for that purpose. And although the half week was left obscure, and there is an equal want of absolute Scripture here pointing us to the end of this last half of the harvest, still the parallel, and the clear indication that the work belonging to this part of the harvest is in process of fulfilment, in the cleaning of the sanctuary, not only by the separation of wise and foolish virgins , but between the letter and the spirit, in all our views; is, all together, evidence enough to make us “look for him, to appear to us in the autumn of 1881.”
 
Herald of the Morning, June 1880, pp. 85-86, “THE PARALLELS”

 

 
 
 
Quote

 

“The Parousia, or presence of Christ, when “he shall appear (optomai, be seen),” by “them that look for him,” demands his personal presence; and this is his return in, not the invisible antitypical scapegoat work, but as the High Priest in person. And this coming of Christ, or his parousia, we have reason to expect, will occur in the autumn of 1881. That he did not come, in the autumn of 1874, or at the beginning of the gospel harvest, as we once supposed, is as certain as is the word of Jesus himself.”
 
Herald of the Morning, July 1880, p. 4, “HAS CHRIST COME?”

 

 
 
Quote

“ … the Lord informs us that there will be in these "days of the Son of man," false teachers who will be very powerful and exercise much influence upon the church, . . . We believe we find them in those who claim that Jesus is to appear shortly in the wilderness of Judea (Palestine) and that all who love him and expect to be part of his kingdom should go there and be on hand to receive and welcome him. . . . But there is to be more than one of these deceiving teachers; While one says He is coming in the desert, another says: "Behold he is in the secret chambers." Do we find teaching of this kind now, in the days of the Son of man? Yes, it seems to us that this is being fulfilled; a brother whom we knew well and loved much, thinks that God has given him what he terms "New Oil" (perhaps he does not notice that the virgins of Matt. 25, do not get any new oil; it is the same oil they had at first). But this brother is we think fulfilling this scripture. He is teaching that after 1881, Christ will appear in the flesh secretly, to be seen only by himself and those who believe exactly as he believes. This teaching not only leads to unscriptural expectations, but seems to open the minds of those who receive it to a perilous snare of the devil, which snare is referred to in the "Three Worlds," a book written by this very brother, in 1876, now out of print but possessed by many of our readers, extracts from which will follow this article. The wide diversity of views as stated in that article, and his present view as stated above seems to make good his claim that he has new oil; but it does not commend itself to us as being as good as the old "The old is better."

 
The Watch Tower July 1880, p. 2, “AS THE LIGHTNING”

 

 

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    • By Jack Ryan
      For proof, you can view the newspaper clipping about it directly from The Brooklyn Daily Eagle's archive (May 3, 1909).
      ============
      PASTOR RUSSELL'S TROUBLES
      A telegram from Pittsburg states that an attachment for the arrest of Pastor Charles T. Russell has been issued in that city for failure to pay alimony to his wife. Pastor Russell recently moved to Brooklyn, taking over the old Plymouth Bethel in Hicks street as a place of worship.
      He also moved to this city [Brooklyn] the headquarters of the Millennial Dawn and Watch Tower Society of which he is the head.
      Pastor Russell -- he does not want to be called doctor or reverend -- was divorced by his wife on a charge of cruelty. She was at first awarded $40 a month alimony, but this was later raised to $100.
      The pastor refused to pay more than $40 and proceedings were started to have him arrested for contempt of court. The telegram from Pittsburg indicates that the wife was victorious in this action.
      Pastor Russell cannot be arrested here on the Pittsburg court's order, it is said, but will be taken into custody if he returns to Pittsburg.
    • By The Librarian
      Part of a series on:

      The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania is a non-stock, not-for-profit organization[1] headquartered in the New York City, New York borough of Brooklyn. It is the main legal entity used worldwide by Jehovah's Witnesses to direct, administer and develop doctrines for the religion and is often referred to by members of the religion simply as "the Society". It is the parent organization of a number of Watch Tower subsidiaries, including the Watchtower Society of New York and International Bible Students Association.[2] The number of voting shareholders of the corporation is limited to between 300 and 500 "mature, active and faithful" male Jehovah's Witnesses.[3] About 5800 Jehovah's Witnesses provide voluntary unpaid labor, as members of a religious order, in three large Watch Tower Society facilities in New York;[4] nearly 15,000 other members of the order work at the Watch Tower Society's other facilities worldwide.[4][5][6]

      The organization was formed in 1881 as Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society for the purpose of distributing religious tracts.[1] The society was incorporated in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on December 15, 1884. In 1896, the society was renamed Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.[7] Following a leadership dispute in the Bible Student movement, the Watch Tower Society remained associated with the branch of the movement that became known as Jehovah's Witnesses. In 1955, the corporation was renamed Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.[8] In 1976, all activities of the Watch Tower Society were brought under the supervision of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses.[9]

      History
      On February 16, 1881, Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society was formed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, for the purpose of organizing the printing and distribution of religious tracts. William Henry Conley, a Pittsburgh industrialist and philanthropist, served as president, with Charles Taze Russell serving as secretary-treasurer.[10] The society's primary journal was Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christs Presence, first published in 1879 by Russell,[11] founder of the Bible Student movement.[12] Other early writers for the Watch Tower Society included J. H. Paton and W. I. Mann.[10][13] Formation of the society was announced in the April 1881 issue of Zion's Watch Tower.[14] That year, the society received donations of $35,391.18.[15]

      Although ZION'S WATCH TOWER TRACT SOCIETY was formed in February 1881 to act as a "distributor" of "tracts" and other literature which advocated the religious views of the Conleys and the Russells, ZWTTS was NOT a "religious" organization, but rather was a "business association", which had "no creed or confession".

      While Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society was founded with $7000.00 in its bank account, another $35,000.00 was needed to fund Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society exceptionally large international distribution of literature during 1881 and early 1882 -- over 1,400,000 booklets, tracts, and magazines. Most of that $35,000.00 ($1,060,000.00 current value) is believed to have been donated by Henry Conley, who had such disposable income, while the Russells did not.
      Incorporation
      On December 15, 1884, the society was incorporated as Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society in Pennsylvania as a non-profit, non-stock corporation with Russell as president. The corporation was located in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In its charter, written by Russell, the society's purpose was stated as "the mental, moral and religious improvement of men and women, by teaching the Bible by means of the publication and distribution of Bibles, books, papers, pamphlets and other Bible literature, and by providing oral lectures free for the people".[16] The charter provided for a board of seven directors, three of who served as officers—a president, vice-president (initially William I. Mann) and secretary-treasurer (initially Maria Russell). The charter stipulated that the officers be chosen from the directors and be elected annually by ballot. Board members would hold office for life unless removed by a two-thirds vote by shareholders. Vacancies on the board resulting from death, resignation or removal would be filled by a majority vote of the remaining board members within 20 days; if such vacancies were not filled within 30 days an appointment could be made by the president, with the appointments lasting only until the next annual corporation meeting, when vacancies would be filled by election.[17]
      Anyone subscribing to $10 or more of the society's Old Testament Tracts or donating $10 or more to the society was deemed a voting member and entitled to one vote per $10 donated.[17] Russell indicated that despite having a board and shareholders, the society would be directed by only two people—him and his
      wife Maria.[18] Russell said that as at December 1893 he and his wife owned 3705, or 58 percent, of the 6383 voting shares, "and thus control the Society; and this was fully understood by the directors from the first. Their usefulness, it was understood, would come to the front in the event of our death... For this reason, also, formal elections were not held; because it would be a mere farce, a deception, to call together voting shareholders from all over the world, at great expense, to find upon arrival that their coming was useless, Sister Russell and myself having more than a majority over all that could gather. However, no one was hindered from attending such elections." The influx of donations gradually diluted the proportion of the Russells' shares and in 1908 their voting shares constituted less than half the total.[19][20] Russell emphasized the limitations of the corporation, explaining: "Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society is not a 'religious society' in the ordinary meaning of this term"[21] He also stated, "This is a business association merely... It has no creed or confession. It is merely a business convenience in disseminating the truth."[17] Incorporation of the society meant that it would outlive Russell, so individuals who wished to bequeath their money or property to him would not have to alter their will if he died before they did.[22] On September 19, 1896, the name of the corporation was changed to Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.[23]

      From 1908 Russell required the directors to write out resignations when they were appointed so Russell could dismiss them by simply filling in the date.[19] In 1909, Russell instructed legal counsel Joseph Franklin Rutherford to determine whether the society's headquarters could be moved to Brooklyn, New York.[24] Rutherford reported that because it had been established under Pennsylvania law, the corporation could not be registered in New York state, but suggested that a new corporation be registered there to do the society's work. Rutherford subsequently organized the formation of the People's Pulpit Association, which was incorporated on February 23, 1909, and wrote the charter which gave the president—to be elected for life at the first meeting—"absolute power and control" of its activities in New York.[25][24] The society sold its buildings in Pittsburgh[26] and moved staff to its new base in Brooklyn. Although all New York property was bought in the name of the New York corporation and all legal affairs of the society done in its name, Russell insisted on the continued use of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society name on all correspondence and publications.[24]

      The move from Pennsylvania to New York occurred during court proceedings over the breakdown of Russells' marriage. His wife Maria had been granted a "limited divorce" on March 4, 1908, but in 1909 returned to court in Pittsburgh to request an increase in alimony,[27] which her former husband refused.[28] Authors Barbara Grizzuti Harrison and Edmond C. Gruss have claimed Russell's move to Brooklyn was motivated by his desire to transfer from the jurisdiction of the Pennsylvania courts. They claim he transferred all his assets to the Watch Tower Society so he could declare himself bankrupt and avoid being jailed for failure to pay alimony.[27][29][30] 

      wt charter Pennsylvania corp.pdf
      In 1914, the International Bible Students Association was incorporated in Britain to administer affairs in that country. Like the People's Pulpit Association, it was subsidiary to the Pennsylvania parent organization and all work done through both subsidiaries was described as the work of the Watch Tower Society. The Watchtower noted: "The editor of The Watchtower is the President of all three of these Societies. All financial responsibility connected with the work proceeds from [the Pennsylvania corporation]. From it the other Societies and all the branches of the work receive their financial support... we use sometimes the one name and sometimes the other in various parts of our work—yet they all in the end mean the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, to which all donations should be made."[2]
       
      Leadership dispute
      Main article: Watch Tower Society presidency dispute (1917)
      Russell died on October 31, 1916, in Pampa, Texas during a cross-country preaching trip. On January 6, 1917, board member and society legal counsel Joseph Franklin Rutherford, aged 47, was elected president of the Watch Tower Society, unopposed, at the Pittsburgh convention. Under his presidency, the role of the society underwent a major change.[31] By-laws passed by both the Pittsburgh convention and the board of directors stated that the president would be the executive officer and general manager of the society, giving him full charge of its affairs worldwide.[32]

      By June 1917, four of the seven Watch Tower Society directors, Robert H. Hirsh, Alfred I. Ritchie, Isaac F. Hoskins and James D. Wright, had decided they had erred in endorsing Rutherford's expanded powers of management,[33] claiming Rutherford had become autocratic.[33] Hirsch attempted to rescind the new by-laws and reclaim the powers of management from the president,[34] but Rutherford later claimed he had by then detected a conspiracy among the directors to seize control of the society.[35] In July, Rutherford gained a legal opinion from a Philadelphia corporation lawyer that none of his opposers were legally directors of the society.

      On July 12, 1917, Rutherford filled what he claimed were four vacancies on the board, appointing A. H. Macmillan and Pennsylvania Bible Students W. E. Spill, J. A. Bohnet and George H. Fisher as directors.[36] Between August and November the society and the four ousted directors published a series of pamphlets, with each side accusing the other of ambitious and reckless behavior. The former directors also claimed Rutherford had required all headquarters workers to sign a petition supporting him and threatened dismissal for any who refused to sign.[37] The former directors left the Brooklyn headquarters on August 8, 1917.[38] On January 5, 1918, Rutherford was returned to office.

      In May 1918, Rutherford and seven other Watch Tower directors and officers were arrested on charges of sedition under the Espionage Act. On June 21, 1918, they were sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment. Rutherford feared his opponents would gain control of the Society in his absence, but on January 2, 1919, he learned he had been re-elected president at the Pittsburgh convention the day before.[39] However, by mid-1919 about one in seven Bible Students had chosen to leave rather than accept Rutherford's leadership,[40] forming groups such as The Standfast Movement, Paul Johnson Movement, Dawn Bible Students Association, Pastoral Bible Institute of Brooklyn, Elijah Voice Movement and Eagle Society.[41]

      Although formed as a "business convenience" with the purpose of publishing and distributing Bible-based literature and managing the funds necessary for that task, the corporation from the 1920s began its transformation into the "religious society" Russell had insisted it was not, introducing centralized control and regulation of Bible Student congregations worldwide.[42] In 1938, Rutherford introduced the term "theocracy" to describe the hierarchical leadership of Jehovah's Witnesses, with Consolation explaining: "The Theocracy is at present administered by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, of which Judge Rutherford is the president and general manager."[43] The society appointed "zone servants" to supervise congregations and in a Watchtower article Rutherford declared the need for congregations to "get in line" with the changed structure.[44][45]
       
      Amendments to charter
      Following Rutherford's death in 1942, Nathan H. Knorr became president of the Watch Tower Society, and subsequently introduced further changes to the role of the society. At a series of talks given in Pittsburgh on September 30, 1944, coinciding with the society's annual meeting, it was announced that changes would be made to the 1884 charter to bring it into "closer harmony with theocratic principles". The amendments, most of which were passed unanimously,[46] significantly altered the terms of membership and stated for the first time that the society's purposes included preaching about God's kingdom, acting as a servant and governing agency of Jehovah's Witnesses, and sending missionaries and teachers for the public worship of God and Jesus Christ. The new charter, which took effect from January 1, 1945 included the following changes:

      An altered and expanded explanation of article II, detailing the purpose of the society. This included the preaching of the gospel of God's kingdom to all nations; to print and distribute Bibles and disseminate Bible truths with literature explaining Bible truths and prophecy concerning the establishment of God's kingdom; to authorise and appoint agents, servants, employees, teachers evangelists, missionaries, ministers and others "to go all the world publicly and from house to house to preach Bible truths to persons willing to listen by leaving with such persons said literature and by conducting Bible studies thereon"; to improve people mentally and morally by instruction "on the Bible and incidental scientific, historical and literary subjects"; to establish and maintain Bible schools and classes; to "teach, train, prepare and equip men and women as ministers, missionaries, evangelists, preachers, teachers and instructors in the Bible and Bible literature, and for public Christian worship of Almighty God and Jesus Christ" and "to arrange for and hold local and worldwide assemblies for such worship".
      An amendment to article V, detailing the qualifications for membership of the society. Each donation of $10 to the society funds had formerly entitled the contributor to one voting share; the amendment limited membership to "only men who are mature, active and faithful witnesses of Jehovah devoting full time to performance of one or more of its chartered purposes... or such men who are devoting part time as active presiding ministers or servants of congregations of Jehovah's witnesses". The amended article stipulated that "a man who is found to be in harmony with the purposes of the Society and who possesses the above qualifications may be elected as a member upon being nominated by a member, director or officer, or upon written application to the president or secretary. Such members shall be elected upon a finding by the Board of Directors that he possesses the necessary qualifications and by receiving a majority vote of the members." The amendment limited membership at any one time to between 300 and 500, including approximately seven residents of each of the 48 states of the US. It also introduced a clause providing for the suspension or expulsion of a member for wilfully violating the society's rules, or "becoming out of harmony with any of the Society's purposes or any of its work or for wilful conduct prejudicial to the best interests of the Society and contrary to his duties as a member, or upon ceasing to be a full-time servant of the Society or a part-time servant of a congregation of Jehovah's witnesses".
      An amendment to article VII, dealing with the governance of the society by its board of directors. The amendment deleted reference to adherence to the constitution and laws of Pennsylvania of the US. It also specified powers of the board including matters of finance and property.
      An amendment to article VIII, detailing the office holders of the society and the terms of office and method of appointment of officers and directors. A clause stating that board members would hold office for life was deleted. The new clause provided for board membership for a maximum of three years, with directors qualifying for re-election at the expiration of their term.[47] 
       
      Governing Body
      In 1976, direction of the Watch Tower Society and of the congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses worldwide came under the control of the Governing Body, reducing the power of the society's president. The society has described the change as "one of the most significant organizational readjustments in the modern-day history of Jehovah's Witnesses."[48]

      Following the death of Knorr in 1977, subsequent presidents of the Watch Tower Society have been Frederick W. Franz (June 1977 – December 1992); Milton G. Henschel (December 1992 – October 2000) and Don A. Adams (October 2000–).
      Presidents

      Operations
      The corporation is a major publisher of religious publications, including books, tracts, magazines and Bibles. By 1979, the society had 39 printing branches worldwide. In 1990, it was reported that in one year the society printed 696 million copies of its magazines, The Watchtower and Awake! as well as another 35,811,000 pieces of literature worldwide, which are offered door-to-door by Jehovah's Witnesses.[49] As of 2013, the Society prints more than 43 million of its public issues of these magazines each month, totaling over 1 billion annually.

      The society describes its headquarters and branch office staff as volunteers rather than employees,[4] and identifies them as members of the Worldwide Order of Special Full-Time Servants of Jehovah's Witnesses.[5] Workers receive a small monthly stipend[50] with meals and accommodation provided by the society. The "Bethel family" in the Brooklyn headquarters includes hairdressers, dentists, doctors, housekeepers and carpenters, as well as shops for repairing personal appliances, watches, shoes and clothing without charge for labor.[51]

      The society files no publicly accessible financial figures, but reported in 2011 that it had spent more than $173 million that year "in caring for special pioneers, missionaries and traveling overseers in their field service assignments".[5][52] Donations obtained from the distribution of literature is a major source of income, most of which is used to promote its evangelical activities.[53]

      Author James Beckford has claimed the status of voting members of the society is purely symbolic. He said they cannot be considered to be representatives of the mass of Jehovah's Witnesses and are in no position to challenge the actions or authority of the society's directors.[54]

      Internationally recognized trademarks used on publications via subsidiaries:


      See also: List of Watchtower Magazine Headings

      Property ownership

      2015 7% ownership in the J.P. Morgan Chase Liquid assets Mutual Fund
       
      Directors
      Current
      Don Alden Adams, director since 2000, president since 2000 Danny L. Bland, director since 2000 William F. Malenfant, director since 2000, vice-president since 2000 Robert W. Wallen, director since 2000, vice-president since 2000 Philip D. Wilcox, director since 2000 John N. Wischuk, director since 2000  
      Former
      Directors are listed generally from most to least recent. List may not be complete.
      Richard E. Abrahamson (director 2000-2004, secretary-treasurer 2000-2004) Milton George Henschel (director 1947–2000, vice-president 1977–1992, president 1992–2000) Lyman Alexander Swingle (director 1945–2000)[116] W. Lloyd Barry (director ?–1999, vice-president ?–1999) Frederick William Franz (director 1945–1992, vice-president 1945–1977, president 1977–1992)[117] Grant Suiter (director 1941–1983, secretary-treasurer)[118] William K. Jackson (director 1973–1981)[119] Nathan Homer Knorr (director 1940–1977, vice-president 1940–1942, president 1942–1977)[120] John O. Groh (director 1965–1975) Thomas J. Sullivan (director 1932–1973)[121][122] Alexander Hugh Macmillan (director 1918–1938) Hugo Henry Riemer (1943–1965)[123][124][125] William Edwin Van Amburgh (director 1916–1947, secretary-treasurer)[126][127][128][129] Hayden Cooper Covington (director 1940–1945, vice-president 1942–1945)[130] Joseph Franklin Rutherford (director 1916–1942, acting president[131] 1916–1917, president 1917–1942)[132] Charles A. Wise (director 1919–1940, vice-president 1919–1940)[133][134][135][136] J. A. Baeuerlcin (director 1923 fl)[137] R. H. Barber (director 1919)[138] Charles H. Anderson (director 1918–?, vice-president 1918–1919)[132] J. A. Bohnet (director 1917–?)[132] George H. Fisher (director 1917–?)[132] W. E. Spill (director 1917–?)[132] Andrew N. Pierson (director 1916–1918, vice-president)[126] Robert H. Hirsh (director 1917) J. D. Wright (director fl1916–1917)[126] Isaac F. Hoskins (director fl1916–1917)[126] Alfred I. Ritchie (director 1916–1917, vice-president)[126][139] Henry Clay Rockwell (director fl1916–1917)[126] Charles Taze Russell (director 1884–1916, president 1884–1916)[140] William M. Wright (?–1906)[141] Henry Weber (director 1884–1904, vice-president 1884–1904)[142][143] Maria Russell (née Ackley) (director 1884–1897, secretary-treasurer 1884–?, then-wife of Charles Taze Russell)[140][144][145] J. B. Adamson (director 1884–?)[140] Rose J. Ball (director 1884–?)[142] Simon O. Blunden (director 1884–?)[142] W. C. McMillan (director 1884–?)[140] W. I. Mann (director 1884, vice-president 1884)[140] J. F. Smith (director 1884)[140]  
      See also:
      Centennial of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania (brochure / program)
      January 1945 Charter of the WTBTSofPenn
      References
       
      Pennsylvania Department of State. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, p. 49 Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. p. 229. "Jehovahs loses comp case: Church may be forced to pay millions",//New York Daily News//, January 6, 2006. Retrieved October 3, 2009. Yearbook, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 2009. Yearbook, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 2012, page 55. "Report for Fiscal Year", Watch Tower, December 1, 1896, page 301, Reprints page 2077 Retrieved 2010-03-30, "WATCH TOWER BIBLE AND TRACT SOCIETY. REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING DEC. 1, 1896. ALTHOUGH the above has been the recognized name of our Society for some four years, it was not until this year that the Board of Directors took the proper steps to have the name legally changed from ZION'S WATCH TOWER TRACT SOCIETY to that above. The new name seems to be in every way preferable." "Development of the Organization Structure", Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993 Watch Tower, page 229, "Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society. First formed in 1881 and then legally incorporated in the state of Pennsylvania on December 15, 1884. In 1896, its name was changed to Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. Since 1955 it has been known as Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania." Franz 2007, pp. 80–107 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1993, pp. 575–576 Zion's Watch Tower: 1. July 1879. "Encyclopædia Britannica – Russell, Charles Taze" Zion's Watch Tower, January 1881, Reprints page 1.] Zion's Watch Tower, April 1881, Reprints page 214. Zion's Watch Tower: 2. January 1882. J. F. Rutherford, //A Great Battle in the Ecclesiastical Heavens,// 1915, p. 14. C.T. Russell, "A Conspiracy Exposed", //Zion's Watch Tower// Extra edition, April 25, 1894, page 55-60. C.T. Russell, "A Conspiracy Exposed", //Zion's Watch Tower// Extra edition, April 25, 1894, page 55-60, "The affairs of the Society are so arranged that its entire control rests in the care of Brother and Sister Russell as long as they shall live... The fact is that, by the grace of God, Sister R. and myself have been enabled not only to give our own time without charge to the service of the truth, in writing and overseeing, but also to contribute more money to the Tract Society's fund for the scattering of the good tidings, than all others combined." Wills 2006, p. 91 J. F. Rutherford, //A Great Battle in the Ecclesiastical Heavens,// 1915, p. 14., "While there are nearly two hundred thousand shares, and it would be an easy matter to elect some other man as president, there never has been cast a vote against Pastor Russell. At the last election he was absent, his own votes were not cast, yet more than one hundred thousand votes of others were cast for him as president." //Zion's Watch Tower//, October 1894, page 330. Wills 2006, pp. 75 Pierson et al 1917, p. 22 Rutherford August 1917, p. 16 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, p. 48 Allegheny City was annexed by Pittsburgh in 1909. Grizzuti Harrison 1978 Penton 1997, p. 39 Gruss 2003, p. 17 "Girl's midnight visit to Pastor Russell", Brooklyn Eagle, August 14, 1909, "His wife, whom he married 30 years ago, when she was Maria F. Ackley, obtained a limited divorce from him in Pittsburg on the ground of cruelty. The judge who decided for Mrs Russell granted her $100 a month alimony. Pastor Russell was slow in coming to the front with payments and finally stopped paying alimony altogether. An order was ordered for the pastor's arrest in Pittsburg, but Brooklyn is a comfortable enough place and Pastor Russell didn't like going back to Pittsburg where a yawning prison awaited him. He said that his friends had paid the alimony, anyhow, and that he was purged of contempt of court thereby." Gruss 2003, pp. 25–27 Pierson et al 1917, pp. 5,6 Pierson et al 1917, pp. 4 Rutherford August 1917, pp. 12 Rutherford August 1917, pp. 22–23 Rutherford August 1917, pp. 14,15 Pierson et al 1917, pp. 9 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1993, pp. 68 Macmillan 1957, pp. 106 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1975, pp. 93–94 Rogerson 1969, pp. 39 Wills 2006, pp. 175, 176 Consolation, September 4, 1940, pg 25, as cited by Penton, pg. 61. Wills 2006, pp. 201 Watchtower, June 15, 1938. Amendments to articles II, III, VII, VIII and X were passed unanimously, with more than 225,000 votes cast; the amendments to article V of the Charter, affecting qualifications for membership of the society, were passed 225,255 to 47. Articles of amendment to Watch Tower Society charter, February 15, 1945.Retrieved October 4, 2009. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1993, pp. 108–109 Brooklyn Heights Press, March 15, 1990, page 1, as cited by Edmond C. Gruss, 2003, pages 72–73. A 1990 news report stated that Brooklyn workers received $80 per month to buy personal needs. See "A sect grows in Brooklyn", Philadelphia Inquirer, August 2, 1990. "A sect grows in Brooklyn", Philadelphia Inquirer, August 2, 1990. Yearbook, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 2012, page 55. Penton 1997, p. 231 Beckford, James A. (1975). The Trumpet of Prophecy: A Sociological Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 83. ISBN 0-631-16310-7. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, pp. 27 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, pp. 47–48 Watch Tower March 1, 1909, pages 67,68. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, p. 115 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, pp. 97 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, pp. 234 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, pp. 253–255 Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, pp. 292 The Watchtower, September 1, 1989, page 29. The Watchtower, December 1, 1982, page 23. The Watchtower, April 15, 1996, page 24. Awake!, April 22, 1989, pages 25–27; "In fact, the Towers, 124 Columbia Heights, 107 Columbia Heights, and 119 Columbia Heights, which accommodate nearly 2000 of the family, are connected by underground tunnels." Centennial of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1984, pages 8–9. "New Shipping Facilities of Jehovah’s Witnesses", Awake!, August 22, 1987, pages 16–18. Jehovah's Witnesses sell the former Hotel Bossert Yearbook, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, page 25. Awake 1989, April 22, pp 23-24 "Wallkill and Warwick Projects Moving Ahead", JW.org News, May 13, 2013. Awake!, February 22, 1987, pages 25–27. "Watchtower project grows in Patterson", //New York Times//, April 18, 1983, 1993. Retrieved October 3, 2009. "Watchtower Society may move some NY offices", WCAX website, March 26, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009. "A Witness to the future as Watchtower buys land upstate", //The Brooklyn Paper//, April 2, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009. "Watchtower's move to Warwick? 'Not anytime soon'", //Brooklyn Daily Eagle//, October 24, 2011. "The Watchtower is getting tired of being shown the door in Brooklyn Heights",//The New York Observer//, October 25, 2011. ^ Jump up to://**a**// //**b**// "Historic Turning Point: After Century in Brooklyn, Watchtower Pulls Out of Heights", //Brooklyn Heights//, February 23, 2010. "The Witnesses Leave. Then What?", //Brooklyn Daily Eagle//, February 24, 2010. "Town OKs impact plan for Jehovah's Witnesses", //Times Herald-Record//, July 17, 2012. "Witnesses to Relocate World Headquarters", //jw.org News//, August 15, 2012. "Warwick OKs Watchtower Site", //Recordonline.com, Times Herald Record//, July 19, 2013. "Watchtower Buys Another Parcel", //Times Herald-Record//, August 25, 2011. "Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of NY Pay 3.2M for Flex Building", //Costar Group//, Sept. 21, 2011. "Annual Meeting Report", Aug. 15, 2012 Watchtower, page 17 "Suffern tenants must move after Jehovah's Witnesses group buys building",//Lohud.com//, June 12, 2013. "Increased Activity at United States Bethel", Our Kingdom Ministry, September 2003. "Watchtower to sell 6 Brooklyn Heights properties", //Brooklyn Daily Eagle//, April 26, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2009. "Selloff! But Witnesses say they will remain kings of Kings", //The Brooklyn Paper//, May 12, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2009. Yearbook, 1991, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, page 10. "Have a seat in the Standish", //The Brooklyn Paper//, December 15, 2007.Retrieved October 3, 2009. Different Building, Same Buyer for Witnesses Group with big Brooklyn plan snaps up property Second Witnesses property fetches $4.1M Praise God! Another Watchtower Property Sells Watchtower Sells Yet Another Heights Property, Brownstoner Brooklyn Inside and Out, November 30, 2012. New York Post, Brooklyn Blog, May 8, 2012, Brooklyn's Bossert Hotel could become a hotel again The Real Deal News, Nov. 12, 2012, Chetrit, Bistricer pay $81 million for Brooklyn's Bossert Hotel Jehovah's Witnesses Sell First Property for $7.1 million Latest Witnesses-owned property in Brooklyn Heights hits the market, //THE REAL DEAL//, July 24, 2012. "Watchtower Sells 67 Remsen Street for 3.25 million", //Brooklyn Heights Blog//, October 10, 2012. "Witnesses put prime Dumbo site on the block", //Crain's New York Business//, June 4, 2012. "Jehovah's Witnesses Sell Latest Dumbo Development Site for $31M", //The Real Deal//, April 25, 2013. Brooklyn-Bridge-Park "Developers Jostling for a piece of Brooklyn Bridge Park", //The Real Deal//, June 10, 2013. Watchtower Society selling five more properties in Brooklyn, NY, //THE REAL DEAL//, Sept. 16, 2011. "Big Deal: Jehovah's Witnesses List Prime Properties, //The New York Times – City Room//, September 16, 2011. "Witnesses knocking on $375M bldg. sale", //New York Post//, July 7, 2013. Hallelujah! "Jehovah's Witnesses land sell-off has Brooklyn dreaming big",//Crain's New York Business//, October 16, 2011. "No longer 'Vatican City' for Watchtower, Brooklyn watches jehovahs retreat",//Brooklyn Daily Eagle//, October 9, 2013 "Bible Truth Triumphs Amid Tradition", The Watchtower, May 15, 1985, page 27. "Your Will Be Done on Earth", The Watchtower, 1960, page 30. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 1959, p. 33 "Building to Jehovah’s Glory", The Watchtower, May 1, 1979, pages 26–29. 2012 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses p.32, 33, 55. Jehovah's Witnesses–Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watch Tower Society. 1993. p. 91. "How the Governing Body Differs From a Legal Corporation", The Watchtower, January 15, 2001, page 28. "Moving Ahead With God’s Organization", The Watchtower, September 1, 1983, page 13. "The Governing Body", 1974 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Watch Tower, page 258 "Background of N. H. Knorr", Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993 Watch Tower, page 91 "He Ran for 'The Prize of the Upward Call' and Won!", The Watchtower, September 15, 1974, page 554, "On October 31, 1932, he [Sullivan] was made a member of the board of directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania; he was also one of the eleven-member governing body of Jehovah’s witnesses." "A Time of Testing (1914–1918)", Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993 Watch Tower, page 71, "Thomas (Bud) Sullivan, who later served as a member of the Governing Body, recalled, "It was my privilege to visit Brooklyn Bethel in the late summer of 1918 during the brothers’ incarceration." "Happy are the dead who die in union with the Lord", The Watchtower, May 15, 1965, page 320. "Experiencing Jehovah’s Love", The Watchtower, September 15, 1964, page 571 "Announcements", The Watchtower, May 15, 1965, page 320, "Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society of Pennsylvania announces herewith the death of Brother Hugo H. Riemer on March 31, 1965. After years of service as a pioneer publisher in the field, he was called to the Society’s Brooklyn headquarters in 1918, since which time he served with the Society’s headquarters till his death at eighty-six years of age. He was on the boards of directors of both the Society’s Pennsylvania corporation and its New York corporation, also serving in the official capacity of assistant secretary-treasurer of both corporations." "Organization of the Work", Watch Tower, December 1, 1916, page 391, Reprints page 6024 Retrieved 2010-03-30, "Two days after his [C. T. Russell's 1916] death the Board met and elected Brother A. N. Pierson as a member of the Board to fill the vacancy caused by Brother Russell's change. The seven members of the Board as now constituted are A. I. Ritchie, W. E. Van Amburgh, H. C. Rockwell, J. D. Wright, I. F. Hoskins, A. N. Pierson and J. F. Rutherford." "A Time of Testing (1914–1918)", Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993 Watch Tower, page 65, "So, two days after Russell’s death, the board of directors met and elected A. N. Pierson to be a member. The seven members of the board at that point were A. I. Ritchie, W. E. Van Amburgh, H. C. Rockwell, J. D. Wright, I. F. Hoskins, A. N. Pierson, and J. F. Rutherford." "Moving Ahead With God’s Organization", The Watchtower, September 1, 1983, page 14, "The Society's secretary and treasurer, W. E. Van Amburgh, had become incapacitated due to advanced age and illness and so resigned from his position. I was elected to succeed him on February 6, 1947, and Brother Van Amburgh died the following day." "Testing and Sifting From Within", Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993 Watch Tower, page 622, "In 1916, W. E. Van Amburgh declared, "This great worldwide work is not the work of one person... It is God’s work." Although he saw others turn away, he remained firm in that conviction right down till his death in 1947, at 83 years of age." "How the Governing Body Differs From a Legal Corporation", The Watchtower, January 1, 2001, page 28, "In 1940, Hayden C. Covington—then the Society's legal counsel and one of the "other sheep," with the earthly hope—was elected a director of the Society. (John 10:16) He served as the Society’s vice president from 1942 to 1945. At that time, Brother Covington stepped aside as a director" Rutherford chaired executive meetings in 1916 but was not formally elected president until 1917. During Rutherford's 1918–1919 incarceration, vice-presidents Anderson and Wise chaired executive meetings. "A Time of Testing (1914–1918)", Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993 Watch Tower, page 68, "At the annual meeting held on January 5, 1918, the seven persons receiving the highest number of votes were J. F. Rutherford, C. H. Anderson, W. E. Van Amburgh, A. H. Macmillan, W. E. Spill, J. A. Bohnet, and G. H. Fisher. From these seven board members, the three officers were chosen—J. F. Rutherford as president, C. H. Anderson as vice president, and W. E. Van Amburgh as secretary-treasurer." Faith on the March by A. H. Macmillan, 1957, Prentice-Hall, pages 106, 110, "At New Year's time the Society held its [1919] annual election of officers in Pittsburgh... He [Rutherford] handed me a telegram saying that he had been elected president and C. A. Wise vice-president... C. A. Wise was there too. He had been elected vice-president while we were in prison." "Part 2—United States of America", 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Watch Tower, pages 113–114, "Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, January 2–5, 1919. This assembly was combined with the very significant annual meeting of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society on Saturday, January 4, 1919... There were nominations, a vote was taken and J. F. Rutherford was elected as president, C. A. Wise, as vice-president, and W. E. Van Amburgh, as secretary-treasurer." "Sweden", 1991 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Watch Tower, page 135 The Watchtower, October 15, 1939, pages 316–317 Watch Tower, December 15, 1923, page 333 The Watchtower, October 15, 1939, pages 316–317, "The Society’s annual meeting in 1919 Jan. 4 in Pittsburgh reelected J. F. Rutherford President and W. E. VanAmburgh Secretary-Treasurer. But the others elected to the Board of Directors, viz. C. A. Wise (Vice President), R. H. Barber [...] were freer to carry out their responsibilities. When the imprisoned leaders were released, Barber resigned" "Ritchie, A. I.", Watchtower Publications Index 1930–1985, "Ritchie, A. I. vice president of Watch Tower Society (1916)" Watch Tower, January 1885, Vol VI, No. 5, page 1, [Reprints page 707], "A charter of incorporation for Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society was granted December 13, 1884. ... The incorporators are the Directors, named below... Directors C. T. Russell, Pres., M. F. Russell, Sec and Treas., W. C. McMillan, W. I. Mann, Vice Pres., J. B. Adamson, J. F. Smith." "Passed Beyond the Vail", Watch Tower, April 15, 1906, page 126, Reprints page 3765, "ANOTHER member of the Board... Brother William M. Wright, passed beyond the vail, into the Most Holy, we trust, on April 3." "Harvest Gleanings III", Watch Tower, April 25, 1894, page 131, "The Corporation is to be managed by a Board of Directors consisting of seven members, and the names and residences of those already chosen directors are (we given names of the present board and officers) as follows: -Charles T Russell, President, W C McMillan, Henry Weber, Vice President, J B Adamson, Maria F Russell, Sec’y & Treas, Simon O Blunden. Rose J Ball." "Entered Into His Rest", Watch Tower, February 1, 1904, page 36, Reprints page 3314, Retrieved 2010-03-30, "PILGRIM Brother Henry Weber has passed beyond the vail, to be forever with the Lord. We rejoice on his behalf. He finished his earthly course on Thursday, January 21, at 2.15 pm, at his home --Oakland, Md.--and was buried on Saturday, the 23rd. A large gathering, composed of his family, friends and neighbors, was addressed by the Editor of this journal... we will sadly miss our dear Brother, as a friend and as a Pilgrim and as Vice-President of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society" "Part 1—United States of America", 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Watch Tower, pages 65–66, "During the trouble in 1894, Mrs. C. T. Russell (the former Maria Frances Ackley, whom Russell had married in 1879) undertook a tour from New York to Chicago, meeting with Bible Students along the way and speaking in her husband’s behalf. Being an educated, intelligent woman, she was well received when visiting the congregations at that time. Mrs. Russell was a director of the Watch Tower Society and served as its secretary and treasurer for some years." The January 15, 1955 The Watchtower, page 46, referred to the former "Maria Frances Ackley, who had become a colaborer and a contributor of articles to the Watch Tower magazine. They came to have no children. Nearly eighteen years later, in 1897, due to Watch Tower Society members’ objecting to a woman’s teaching and being a member of the board of directors contrary to 1 Timothy 2:12, Russell and his wife disagreed about the management of the journal, Zion’s Watch Tower. Thereupon she voluntarily separated herself" Franz 2007, pp. 614–654 Franz 2007, pp. 69–124 The Watchtower, February 15, 1976, page 124, as cited by R. Franz, "In Search if Christian Freedom", page 107,"Would not a failure to respond to direction from God through his organization really indicate a rejection of divine rulership?" "Do not be quickly shaken from your reason", Watchtower, March 15, 1986 "At which table are you feeding?" Watchtower, July 1, 1994 Franz 2007, pp. 391–431 Gruss 2003, pp. 110–114 Holden 2002, p. 32  
      Bibliography
      Penton, James M. (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable, London. Wills, Tony (2006). A People For His Name. Lulu Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-4303-0100-4. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society (1975). 1975 Yearbook. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society (1959). Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society (1993). Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. Macmillan, A. H. (1957). Faith on the March. Prentice-Hall. Rutherford, J. F. (August 1, 1917). Harvest Siftings. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. Retrieved July 19, 2009. Rutherford, J. F. (October 1, 1917). Harvest Siftings, Part II. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. Retrieved July 19, 2009. Pierson et al, A. N. (September 1, 1917). Light After Darkness. Retrieved July 21, 2009. Johnson, Paul S. L. (November 1, 1917). Harvest Siftings Reviewed. Retrieved July 21, 2009. Grizzuti Harrison, Barbara (1978). Visions of Glory – A History and a Memory of Jehovah's Witnesses. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7091-8013-5. Edmond C. Gruss, Edmond C. (2003). The Four Presidents of the Watch Tower Society. Xulon Press. ISBN 1-59467-131-1. Holden, Andrew (2002). Jehovah's Witnesses: Portrait of a Contemporary Religious Movement. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26609-2. Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.  
      wt charter Pennsylvania corp.pdf
    • By Jack Ryan
      1877_Advent_Christian_Times_Barbour_Russell.pdf
      They stated that Russell
      was causing divisions in adventists circles
      that he was preaching a different gospel/doctrine to his church at that time
      subversion
      they try to 'belittle' him
      their own boast that they have not succeeded
      do NOT go near them (shunning) or give them any support (countenance)
      In essence the words used labels Russell as an 'apostate' to his current church at that time.
      BONUS: If you look at the header of the paper the symbol of the Advent Christian Times is suspiciously close to the one Russell "created" for the Bible Students (or not to say the same, but without the laurels at the sides).
    • By The Librarian
      Charles Taze Russell (February 16, 1852 – October 31, 1916), or Pastor Russell, was a prominent early 20th century Christian restorationist minister from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and founder of what is now known as the Bible Student movement,[1][2] from which Jehovah's Witnesses and numerous independent Bible Student groups emerged after his death.

      Beginning in July 1879 he began publishing a monthly religious journal, Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence. The journal is now published by Jehovah's Witnesses on a semi-monthly basis under the name, The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah's Kingdom. In 1881 he co-founded Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society and in 1884 the corporation was officially registered, with Russell as president. Russell wrote many articles, books, tracts, pamphlets and sermons, totaling approximately 50,000 printed pages. From 1886 to 1904, he published a six-volume Bible study series originally entitled Millennial Dawn, later renamed Studies in the Scriptures, nearly 20 million copies of which were printed and distributed around the world in several languages during his lifetime.[3] (A seventh volume was commissioned by his successor as society president, Joseph Rutherford, and published in 1917.) The Watch Tower Society officially states that it ceased publication of Russell's writings in 1927,[4] though his books continue to be published by several independent groups.Russell was a charismatic figure, but claimed no special revelation or vision for his teachings and no special authority on his own behalf.[5] He stated that he did not seek to found a new denomination, but instead intended merely to gather together those who were seeking the truth of God's Word "during this harvest time".[6][7][8] He wrote that the "clear unfolding of truth" within his teachings was due to "the simple fact that God's due time has come; and if I did not speak, and no other agent could be found, the very stones would cry out."[9] He viewed himself—and all other Christians anointed with the Holy Spirit—as "God's mouthpiece" and an ambassador of Christ.[9] Later in his career he accepted without protest that many Bible Students viewed him as the "faithful and wise servant" of Matthew 24:45,[10] and was described by the Watch Towerafter his death as having been made "ruler of all the Lord's goods".[10]
      After Russell's death, a crisis arose surrounding Rutherford's leadership of the society, culminating in a movement-wide schism. As many as three-quarters of the approximately 50,000[11] Bible Students who had been associating in 1917 had left by 1931,[12][13] resulting in the formation of several groups that retained variations on the name Bible Students. Those who maintained fellowship with the Watch Tower Society adopted the name Jehovah's witnesses in 1931, while those who severed ties with the Society formed their own groups including the Pastoral Bible Institute in 1918, the Laymen's Home Missionary Movement in 1919, and the Dawn Bible Students Association in 1929.

      Early life
      The Russells lived in Philadelphia, as well as Allegheny, before moving to Pittsburgh, where they became members of the Presbyterian Church. In his early teens, Charles' father made him partner of his Pittsburgh haberdashery store. By age twelve, Russell was writing business contracts for customers and given charge of some of his father's other clothing stores.[16] At age thirteen, Charles left the Presbyterian Church to join the Congregational Church. In his youth he was known to chalk Bible verses on fence boards and city sidewalks to draw attention to the punishment of hell awaiting the unfaithful in an attempt to convert unbelievers.[17] Charles Taze Russell was born to Scottish-Irish parents,[14] immigrant Joseph Lytel (/ˈlɪtəl/) Russell (d. December 17, 1897) and Ann Eliza Birney (d. January 25, 1861), on February 16, 1852 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, USA. Charles was apparently the second of five children, and was one of only two to survive into adulthood.[15]
      At age sixteen, a discussion with a childhood friend on faults perceived in Christianity (such as contradictions in creeds, along with medieval traditions) led Charles to question his faith. He then began to investigate other religious views and philosophies, including Islam, Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism, but concluded that they did not provide the answers he was seeking.[18] In 1870, at age eighteen, he attended a presentation by Adventist minister Jonas Wendell. During his presentation Wendell outlined his belief that 1873 or 1874 would be the date for Christ's second coming. He later stated that although he did not entirely agree with the arguments presented by Wendell the presentation itself was sufficient to inspire within him a renewed zeal and re-establish his belief that the Bible is the word of God.[19] 
      Marriage
      On March 13, 1879, Russell married Maria Frances Ackley (/məˈraɪ.ə/; 1850–1938) after a few months' acquaintance.[20] The couple separated in 1897. Russell blamed the marriage breakup on disagreements over Maria's insistence for a greater editorial role in Zion's Watch Tower magazine,[21] though a later court judgment noted that he had labelled the marriage "a mistake" three years before the dispute over her editorial ambitions had arisen.[22] Maria Russell filed a suit for legal separation in the Court of Common Pleas at Pittsburgh in June 1903 and three years later filed for divorce under the claim of mental cruelty.[23]She was granted a divorce from bed and board, with alimony, in 1908.[24] Maria Russell died at the age of 88 in St. Petersburg, Florida on March 12, 1938 from complications related to Hodgkin's disease.[25] (See also: Letter from Maria Russell)

      He also had a foster daughter by the name of Rose Ball
      Ministry
      Beginnings
      Around January 1876 Russell received a copy of Nelson Barbour's Herald of the Morning in the mail. Russell telegraphed Barbour to set up a meeting. The first response was a visit by Barbour and John Henry Paton in Allegheny in March 1876 at Russell's expense to hear their arguments, and compare the conclusions that each side had made in their studies. Russell sponsored a speech by Barbour in St. George's Hall, Philadelphia in August 1876 and attended other lectures by Barbour.[30]
      See also: Charles T. Russell and the Bible Examiner
      His home in Allegheny, Pennsylvania
      About 1870, Russell and his father established a group with a number of acquaintances to undertake an analytical study of the Bible and the origins of Christian doctrine, creed, and tradition. The group, strongly influenced by the writings of Millerite Adventist ministers George Storrs and George Stetson, themselves frequent attendees, came to the conclusion that many of the primary doctrines of the established churches, including the trinity, hellfire and inherent immortality of the soul, were not substantiated by the scriptures.[26][27][28][29]
      Among the teachings Barbour introduced to Russell was the view that Christians who had died would be raised in April, 1878.[31] Russell, who had previously rejected prophetic chronology, was moved to devote his life to what he was convinced were now the last two years before the invisible, spiritual return of Christ.

      In 1877, at the age of 25, he sold his five clothing stores from his father's prospering business called J.L. Russell and Son for approximately $300,000 (current value $6,548,000). With Russell's encouragement and financial backing, Barbour wrote an outline of their views in Three Worlds and the Harvest of This World, published in 1877. A text Russell had previously written, entitled The Object and Manner of our Lord's Return, was published concurrently through the offices of the Herald of the Morning.[32] Russell was eager to lead a Christian revival and called two separate meetings of Christian leaders in Pittsburgh. Russell's ideas, particularly stressing the imminence of the rapture and the second advent of Christ, were rejected both times.[33][34]
       
       

      Split with Barbour
      See also: Nelson H. Barbour and Russell vs. Barbour

      When 1878 arrived, failure of the expected rapture of the saints brought great disappointment for Barbour and Russell, and their associates and readers. According to one of Russell's associates, A.H. Macmillan:
      While talking with Russell about the events of 1878, I told him that Pittsburgh papers had reported he was on the Sixth Street bridge dressed in a white robe on the night of the Memorial of Christ's death, expecting to be taken to heaven together with many others. I asked him, "Is that correct?" Russell laughed heartily and said: "I was in bed that night between 10:30 and 11:00 P.M. However, some of the more radical ones might have been there, but I was not. Neither did I expect to be taken to heaven at that time, for I felt there was much work to be done preaching the Kingdom message to the peoples of the earth before the church would be taken away.—A.H. Macmillan, Faith on the March, 1957, page 27 Confused by what was perceived to be an error in calculation, Russell re-examined the doctrine to see if he could determine whether it had biblical origins or was simply Christian tradition. His conclusion that it was tradition led him to begin teaching, through the pages of the Herald, what he believed to have discovered on the subject. Barbour, embarrassed by the failure of their expectations, rejected Russell's explanation and a debate ensued in successive issues of the journal from early 1878 to mid-1879. In a matter of months, Barbour's embarrassment led to a recanting of some of the views he and Russell had previously shared, including any reliance upon prophetic chronology. Their disagreements turned into a debate over Christ's ransom, resulting in a split between the two. Russell removed his financial support and started his own journal, Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, with the first issue published in July 1879. Barbour formed The Church of the Strangers that same year, continuing to publish Herald of the Morning.[35][36][37]

      Watch Tower Society
      In 1881, he founded Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society, with William Henry Conley as president and Russell as secretary-treasurer, for the purpose of disseminating tracts, papers, doctrinal treatises and Bibles. All materials were printed and bound by Russell's privately owned Tower Publishing Company for an agreed price,[38] then distributed by "colporteurs" (persons who travel to sell or publicize Bibles, religious tracts, etc.).[39] The Society was officially chartered in 1884, with Russell as President, and in 1886 its name was changed to Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.

      In 1909, Russell transferred the headquarters of the Watch Tower Society to its current location in Brooklyn, New York.
       
      Publications
      With the formation of the Watch Tower Society, Russell's ministry intensified. His Bible study group had grown to hundreds of local members, with followers throughout New England, the Virginias, Ohio, and elsewhere, who annually re-elected him "Pastor", and commonly referred to him as "Pastor Russell". Congregations that eventually formed in other nations also followed this tradition.[40][41]

      In 1881, he published his first prominent work entitled Food for Thinking Christians. The 162-page "pamphlet" was published using donated funds amounting to approximately $40,000 (current value $963,310).[42] It had a vast circulation of nearly 1.5 million copies over a period of four months distributed throughout the United States, Canada and Great Britain by various channels.[43][44] During the same year he published Tabernacle and its Teachings which was quickly expanded and reissued as Tabernacle Shadows of the "Better Sacrifices" outlining his interpretation of the various animal sacrifices and Tabernacle ceremonies instituted by Moses. The distribution of these works and other tracts by the Watch Tower Society during 1881 was claimed to have exceeded by eight times that of the American Tract Society for the year 1880.[45]
      In 1903, newspapers began publishing his written sermons. These newspaper sermons were syndicated worldwide in as many as 4,000 newspapers, eventually reaching an estimated readership of some 15 million in the United States and Canada.[40]
      In 1910 the secular journal Overland Monthly calculated that by 1909 Russell's writings had become the most distributed privately produced English-language works in the United States, and that the entire corpus of his works were the third most circulated on earth exceeded only by the Bible and the Chinese Almanac.[46] In 1912 The Continent, a Presbyterian journal, stated that in North America his writings had achieved a greater circulation "than the combined circulation of the writings of all the priests and preachers in North America."[47]
      Russell, however, had many critics and was often labeled a heretic.[48]
      Studies in the Scriptures

      Russell devoted nearly a tenth of his fortune, along with contributed funds, in publishing and distributing Food for Thinking Christians in 1881. In the same year followed The Tabernacle and its Teachings and Tabernacle Shadows of the Better Sacrifices. In 1886, after reportedly not making back most of the money spent publishing these three titles, he began publication of what was intended to be a seven-volume series. The volumes were collectively called Millennial Dawn, later renamed Studies in the Scriptures to clarify that they were not novels. Russell published six volumes in the series:
      The Plan of the Ages – later renamed The Divine Plan of the Ages (1886) The Time is at Hand (1889) Thy Kingdom Come (1891) The Day of Vengeance – later renamed The Battle of Armageddon (1897) The At-one-ment Between God and Men (1899) The New Creation (1904) The delayed publication of the seventh volume became a source of great anticipation and mystery among Bible Students. Following Russell's death in 1916, a seventh volume entitled The Finished Mystery was published in 1917, which was advertised as his "posthumous work". This seventh volume was a detailed interpretation of the Book of Revelation, but also included interpretations of Ezekiel and the Song of Solomon. Immediate controversy surrounded both its publication and content, and it soon became known that much of the contents were written and compiled by two of Russell's associates, Clayton J. Woodworth and George H. Fisher, and edited by Joseph Rutherford, by then the new president of the Watch Tower Society.
      Photo Drama of Creation
      See Main article: The Photo-Drama of Creation
      Russell directed the production of a worldwide roadshow presentation entitled The Photo-Drama of Creation, an innovative eight-hour religious film in four parts, incorporating sound, moving film, and color slides. It was the first major screenplay to synchronize sound with moving film. Production began as early as 1912, and the Drama was introduced in 1914 by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.[49][50] A book by the same name was also published. The project's expenses put the organization under some financial pressures; the full cost was estimated at about US$300,000 (current value $6,960,000).[51][52][53]
       

      Theology and teachings
      Following his analytical examination of the Bible, Russell and other Bible Students came to believe that Christian creeds and traditions were harmful errors, believing they had restored Christianity to the purity held in the first century. Such views and conclusions were viewed as heresy by many Church leaders and scholars in his day. Russell agreed with other Protestants on the primacy of the Bible, and justification by faith alone, but thought that errors had been introduced in interpretation. Russell agreed with many 19th century Protestants, including Millerites, in the concept of a Great Apostasy that began in the first century AD. He also agreed with many other contemporary Protestants in belief in the imminent Second Coming of Christ, and Armageddon. Some of the areas in which his Scriptural interpretations differed from those of Catholics, and many Protestants, include the following:
       

      The Chart of the Ages
       
      Hell. He maintained that there was a heavenly resurrection of 144,000 righteous, as well as a "great multitude", but believed that the remainder of mankind slept in death, awaiting an earthly resurrection. The Trinity. Russell believed in the divinity of Christ, but differed from orthodoxy by teaching Jesus had received that divinity as a gift from the Father, after dying on the cross. He also taught that the Holy Spirit is not a person, but the manifestation of God's power. Christ's Second Coming. Russell believed that Christ had returned invisibly in 1874, and that he had been ruling from the heavens since that date. He predicted that a period known as the "Gentile Times" would end in 1914, and that Christ would take power of Earth's affairs at that time. He interpreted the outbreak of World War I as the beginning of Armageddon, which he viewed to be both a gradual deterioration of civilized society, and a climactic multi-national attack on a restored Israel accompanied by worldwide anarchy. Pyramidology. Following views first taught by Christian writers such as John Taylor, Charles Piazzi Smyth and Joseph Seiss, he believed the Great Pyramid of Giza was built by the Hebrews (associated to the Hyksos) under God’s direction, but to be understood only in our day. He adopted and used Seiss's phrase referring to it as "the Bible in stone". He believed that certain biblical texts, including Isaiah 19:19–20 and others, prophesied a future understanding of the Great Pyramid and adopted the view that the various ascending and descending passages represented the fall of man, the provision of the Mosaic Law, the death of Christ, the exultation of the saints in heaven, etc. Calculations were made using the pattern of an inch per year. Dates such as 1874, 1914, and 1948 were purported to have been found through the study of this monument.[54]
      Pastor Russell at the Great Pyramid of Giza Christian Zionism. Expanding upon an idea suggested by Nelson Barbour, Russell taught as early as 1879 that God's favor had been restored to Jews as the result of a prophetic "double" which had ended in 1878 (favor from Jacob to Jesus, then disfavor from Jesus until 1878). In 1910, he conducted a meeting at the New York Hippodrome Theatre, with thousands of Jews attending. Jews and Christians alike were shocked by his teaching that Jews should not convert to Christianity. Russell believed that the land of Palestine belonged exclusively to the Jewish race, that God was now calling them back to their land, and that they would be the center of earthly leadership under God's Kingdom. Early in Russell's ministry, he speculated that the Jews would possibly flock to Palestine and form their own nation by the year 1910. Shortly before his death, he utilized the Jewish press to stress that 1914 prophetically marked the time when Gentile nations no longer had earthly authority with the result that all Jews were, from that time onward, permitted and guided by God to gather to Palestine and boldly reclaim the land for themselves. Climate change. In writings as early as 1883 (and through to the end of his life) Russell repeatedly expressed the view that the world's climate would gradually but significantly change as a prelude to the re-establishment of Eden-like conditions. These changes, he said, would include the gradual melting of the Greenland ice sheet, the Arctic and Antarctic polar ice caps, and the general warming of the earth.[55]    

      Death

      Telegram regarding Pastor Russell's Death
      40°30′35.27″N 80°0′56.65″W

      Russell's tombstone in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
      Russell's health had become increasingly poor in the last three years leading up to his death. During his final ministerial tour of the western and southwestern United States he became increasingly ill with cystitis,[56] but ignored advice to abandon the tour. He suffered severe chills during his last week, and at times had to be held in position in bed to prevent suffocation. He was forced to deliver some of his Bible discourses sitting in a chair, and on a few occasions his voice was so weak as to be barely audible.[57] Russell, aged 64 died on October 31, 1916, near Pampa, Texas, while returning to Brooklyn by train.[56][58][59][60][61][62]An associate of Russell's stated that at age 64 his body was more worn out than that of his father who died at age 89.[63] He was buried in Rosemont United Cemetery, Pittsburgh. The gravesite (vide coordinates above) is marked by a headstone, nearby stands a 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) pyramid memorial erected by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society in 1921.[64][65]
      See also: 1916 - Letter Regarding the Death of Pastor Russell
      Photo of the Funeral of Pastor Russell
      1919 IBSA Convention Report Building of the Pyramid Monument 

       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
      Pyramid memorial at Russell's gravesite in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
      Legacy
      See also: Watch Tower Society presidency dispute (1917)
      For more details on this topic, see Watch Tower Society Reorganization.
      In January 1917, Joseph Franklin Rutherford was elected president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, despite disputes over the election process. Further disputes arose over interpretation of sections of Russell's will dealing with the future contents of Zion's Watch Tower magazine, as well as who, if anyone, had authority to print new literature. By the end of the 1920s, nearly three quarters of the Bible Student congregations had rejected Rutherford's on-going changes in organizational structure, doctrinal interpretations, and congregational practices,[66][67][68] some of which began to appear in material printed by the Watch Tower Society as early as 1917. Many Bible Students were disaffected by Rutherford's rejection of Russell's views regarding his role in the restoration of the "truth"[69] and support of the Great Pyramid as having been built under God's direction.[70][71]
      Those remaining supportive of Rutherford adopted the new name "Jehovah's Witnesses" in 1931, and changed the keyword of their magazine from "Watch Tower" to "The Watchtower". Many of the most prominent Bible Students who had ceased association with the changing Watch Tower Society attempted a regathering of disaffected Bible Students in October 1929 by holding the First Annual Bible Students Reunion Convention in the old Pittsburgh "Bible House" long used by Russell.[72] These conventions were held yearly, but the process of regathering took nearly twenty years.[73]
       
      Controversies
      Leadership Style
      As early as 1892, Russell's views and management style were strongly criticized by certain individuals associated with his ministry. In 1893 a paper was written and circulated to Bible Students in Pittsburgh by associates Otto van Zech, Elmer Bryan, J.B. Adamson, S.G. Rogers, Paul Koetitz, and others. It accused Russell of being a dictatorial leader, a shrewd businessman who appeared eager to collect funds from the selling of the Millennial Dawn books, that he had cheated one of them out of financial gains, and that he issued thousands of Millennial Dawn books under a female pseudonym. A booklet entitled A Conspiracy Exposed and Harvest Siftings was written by Russell and issued as an extra to the April 1894 Zion's Watch Tower magazine in order to preempt attempts to have their views circulated to a wider audience of Bible Students. Russell printed copies of letters he had received from these former associates in order to show that their claims were false, and that those involved 'were guided by Satan in an attempt to subvert his work' as a "minister of the gospel".[74][75]

       
      Allegation of Immoral Conduct
      In 1897 Russell's wife, Maria, left him after a disagreement over the management of Zion's Watch Tower magazine. She believed that, as his wife, she should have equal control over its administration and equal privilege in writing articles, preaching, and traveling abroad as his representative.[76] In 1903 she filed for legal separation on the grounds of mental cruelty, because of what she considered to be forced celibacy and frequent cold, indifferent treatment. The separation was granted in 1906, with Russell charged to pay alimony.

      During the trial Mrs. Russell's attorney alleged that in 1894 Mr. Russell had engaged in "improper intimacy" with Rose Ball, by then a 25-year old woman whom the Russells had previously cared for as a foster daughter after claiming to be an orphan. Mrs. Russell alleged that Ball had told her Mr. Russell claimed to be an amorous "jellyfish floating around" to different women until someone responded to his advances. Mr. Russell denied the accusations and stated that he had never used such terminology to describe himself.[77] When the judge asked Mrs. Russell if she was accusing her husband of adultery, she replied, "No".[78]
      The Washington Post[79] and the Mission Friend of Chicago reprinted the "jellyfish" story while also accusing Russell of immoral conduct. Russell sued the papers for libel; the jury decided in his favor, awarding him one dollar. Following an appeal, Russell received a cash settlement of $15,000 (current value $388,000) plus court costs, and an agreement that the two papers publish his weekly syndicated sermons as well as a retraction defending his character.[80][81][82]
      Rose Ball Henninges died November 22, 1950 at the age of 81 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, having for several years been an author for The People's Paper and remained associated with the Bible Students in Australia until her death.[83][84]
      'Miracle Wheat'
      On March 22, 1911, The Brooklyn Daily Eagle published articles accusing Russell of gaining profit from a strain of wheat named "Miracle Wheat" by its alleged discoverer, K.B. Stoner of Fincastle, Virginia. Many critics insisted that Russell had deceived and defrauded many by selling the supposedly advanced strain of wheat for $60 per bushel, far above the average cost of wheat at the time. Throughout 1912 and 1913, the Eagle continued to report on Russell's alleged fraud. Russell sued the Eagle for libel, but lost. A government expert investigated the "Miracle Wheat" and said it "was low in the Government tests". Prior to entering the court, the Eagle declared that "at the trial it will show that "Pastor" Russell's religious cult is nothing more than a money-making scheme."[85] Russell defended himself publicly, and in writing, claiming that the wheat was donated to the Watch Tower Society, and although sold for $1 per pound, Mr. Stoner routinely sold it for a $1.25 per pound. Russell claimed to have no financial connection to the wheat, and that no one claimed a refund despite such an offer for up to a year later for any who were dissatisfied with their purchase.[86] According to official records, gross receipts from the fundraiser totaled "about $1800" (current value $45,000), of which "Russell himself did not get a penny" and "The Society itself made no claim for the wheat on its own knowledge and the money received went as a donation into Christian missionary work."[87]
       
      Qualifications
      In June 1912 Rev. J. J. Ross (1871–1935), Pastor of the James Street Baptist Church in Hamilton, Ontario, published and widely distributed a four-page leaflet entitled, Some facts about the Self-Styled "Pastor" Charles T. Russell (of Millennial Dawn Fame), alleging that Russell was involved in questionable business practices, had defrauded his estranged wife, and denounced his qualifications, legitimacy and moral example as a Pastor.[88] Russell in turn sued Ross for defamatory libel on December 2, 1912.[89] After several delays the case came before Police Court Magistrate G. F. Jelfs on March 17, 1913. During cross-examination Russell stated that he had attended public school for only seven years having left when he was about fourteen years of age after which he received instruction through private tutors.[90] He responded that he was versed in Latin terms "to an extent" but did not know Hebrew or Greek, that he had never been ordained by any bishop or minister, and had never attended a theological seminary or any schools of higher learning.[91][92] The Hamilton and Toronto Ontario newspapers reported the claims made by Ross and provided a brief outline of the court proceedings, but made no reference to misconduct on the part of Russell, and criticized Ross for having fled Ontario when summoned and not being present during any of the court proceedings.[93][94] On April 1, 1913 the High Court of Ontario returned a verdict of "No Bill" ruling that Russell was not entitled to damages because the libel was not likely to result in any violence within Canada.[95][96] Following the libel case Ross published an expanded edition of 48-pages entitled Some Facts and More Facts about the Self-Styled "Pastor" Charles T. Russell (of Millennial Dawn Fame). In this work Ross claimed that during the proceedings on March 17, 1913 Russell had repeatedly lied under oath by affirming that he was ordained but then denying the same when cross-examined, by affirming that he knew the Greek language, but when shown by Counselor Staunton an extract from the New Testament in Greek by Westcott & Hort he was unable to recognize it, and that he had not been divorced from his wife, but retracted the statement under cross-examination.[97] In response to Ross's accusations, Russell stated through various printed and public sources that he had never claimed knowledge of the Greek language, merely the alphabet[98] and that early Christians were also criticized by the religious authorities for being unlearned and ignorant.[99] He believed that his ordination was "of God" according to the biblical pattern, not requiring any denominational approval or theological training indicating that his annual election as "Pastor" by over 500 congregations worldwide constituted him as properly ordained.[100][101] Russell contended that Ross and others were attacking him because they were unable to answer his theological arguments preferring instead to resort to slander and character assassination.[102]
       
       
      Alleged connections with Freemasonry
      Several decades after his death, it was alleged that Russell had links with Freemasonry.[103] Some have claimed that various symbols Russell employed in his published literature are Masonic in nature, and that such associations implied he engaged in occult activity. In later editions of the Studies in the Scriptures series a winged solar disk was stamped on the front cover, a symbol that is also associated with Freemasonry.[citation needed] However, Russell's use of the winged solar-disk originated from his understanding of Malachi 4:2, which denotes a sun with wings, as a symbol that Christ's millennial Kingdom had begun to emerge.[104]Some critics also claim that the pyramid near Russell's gravesite is Masonic,[65][105][106][107] because of its shape and its use of the Cross and Crown symbol, although this remains disputed.[108][109]Despite these claims, the Grand Lodge officially stated that Russell was not a Freemason,[citation needed] and the symbols used are not exclusive to Masonry but pre-date the fraternity.[citation needed] The Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology notes that Russell's supporters, along with other Christian churches have "shown a marked aversion to Spiritualism and other occult phenomena. Very early in the group’s history Russell attacked Spiritualism (which he called Spiritism)".[110]
      In June 1913, during his transcontinental speaking tour, Russell gave a discourse in a Masonic hall in San Francisco, where he stated: "Although I have never been a Mason ... Something I do seems to be the same as Masons do, I don't know what it is; but they often give me all kinds of grips and I give them back, then I tell them I don't know anything about it except just a few grips that have come to me naturally".[111] Throughout his ministry he stated that he believed Christian identity is incompatible with Freemasonry,[112] and that Freemasonry, Knights of Pythias, Theosophy, and other such groups are "grievous evils" and "unclean".[113][114] A Freemasonry website states: "Russell was not a Freemason. Neither the symbols found in the Watchtower nor the cross and crown symbol are exclusively Masonic."[115]



      See also:
      Jehovah's Witnesses - Faith in Action Part 1 Out of Darkness
      Jehovah's Witnesses - Faith in Action Part 2 Let the Light Shine

      Pastor Russell visiting Russia

      Biography of Pastor Russell
      1916 - Letter Regarding the Death of Pastor Russell
      1919 - What Russell Taught by Leslie W. Jones
      Charles Taze Russell and Albert D. Jones
      Russell & Co.
      Pittsburg Kaolin Company
      400 Acres in Pinellas County Florida
      Charles Taze Russell and John William Snee
      Charles Taze Russell and Jesse Dubbs
      Huether Patent Chase Company / Huether Company
      Brazilian Turpentine Company
      Silica Brick Company Limited
      Allegheny Merchant v. Charles Taze Russell
      United States Investment Company Limited
      Rosemont, Mt. Hope and Evergreen United Cemeteries
      Jehovah's Kingdom Corporation
      Salon Society, Salon Journal and Salon Association



       
       
      References
      "Encyclopædia Britannica – Russell, Charles Taze" Parkinson, James The Bible Student Movement in the Days of CT Russell, 1975 Penton, M. James (1997, 2nd ed.). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 13–46. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. WTB&TS, "God's Kingdom of a Thousand Years Has Approached" (1973) page 347 George D. Chryssides, "Unrecognized charisma? A study of four charismatic leaders". Center of Studies on New Religions. Retrieved on 23 July 2008. Zion's Watch Tower, Sept. 15, 1895, pg 216: "Beware of "organization." It is wholly unnecessary. The Bible rules will be the only rules you will need. Do not seek to bind others' consciences, and do not permit others to bind yours." Studies in the Scriptures, Volume 4 //The Battle of Armageddon//, 1897, pp 157–159 Daschke, Dereck and W. Michael Ashcraft, eds. New Religious Movements. New York: New York UP, 2005. Print. Zion's Watch Tower, July 15, 1906, p. 229. Watch Tower, March 1, 1923, pages 68 and 71. The New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1910, vol 7, pg 374 Thirty Years a Watchtower Slave, William J. Schnell, Baker, Grand Rapids, 1956, as cited by Alan Rogerson, Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 1969, page 52. Rogerson notes that it is not clear exactly how many Bible Students left. Joseph Rutherford wrote in 1934 that "of the great multitude that left the world to follow Jesus Christ only a few are now in God's organization". Chicago Daily Tribune October 30, 1949 pg 18: "Pastor Russell died In 1916. In the 33 years since, the methods of this sect have deviated completely from those of Pastor Russell and his manner of teaching." "Part 1—Early Voices (1870–1878)". The Watchtower: 7. 1 January 1955. "Both parents were Presbyterians of Scottish-Irish lineage." Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose, 1959, p. 17 Jehovah's Witnesses Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993, p. 42 Overland Monthly February, 1917 pg 129: "Up to the age of fifteen ... his favorite teacher was Spurgeon, because, as he said, "he peppered it hot," his claim being that if one believed a thing he should tell it with all his might. So at the age of fifteen he used to go about the city of Pittsburg on Saturday evenings with a piece of chalk writing on the fence boards and telling the people not to fail to attend church on Sunday, so that they might escape the terrible hell in which he so firmly believed." The Bible Student Movement in the Days of CT Russell, 1975, p. A–1 Zion's Watch Tower, June 1, 1916 p. 170: "Though his Scripture exposition was not entirely clear, and though it was very far from what we now rejoice in, it was sufficient, under God, to reestablish my wavering faith in the Divine inspiration of the Bible, and to show that the records of the Apostles and the Prophets are indissolubly linked. What I heard sent me to my Bible to study with more zeal and care than ever before, and I shall ever thank the Lord for the leading; for although Adventism helped me to no single truth, it did help me greatly in the unlearning of errors, and thus prepared me for the Truth." Pittsburgh Gazette, March 14, 1879 Penton, M.J. (1997). Apocalypse Delayed. University of Toronto Press. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3, 9780802079732. Barbara Grizzuti Harrison, Visions of Glory - A History and Memory of Jehovah's Witnesses, Simon & Schuster, 1978, chapter 2. Jehovah's Witnesses in Canada: Champions of Freedom of Speech and Worship by M. James Penton, Macmillan of Canada, 1976, page 313, "Mrs. Russell obtained her "divorce", or separation, on grounds of mental cruelty" Jehovah's Witnesses: Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, p. 642 St. Petersburg Times, March 14, 1938. "Woman Religious Writer, Resident 16 Years, Passes". The Evening Independent. March 14, 1938. Penton, M. James (1997, 2nd ed.). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 14–17. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 6. Wills, Tony (2006). A People For His Name. Lulu Enterprises. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4303-0100-4. Zion's Watch Tower, June 1, 1916 pp. 170–175 Schulz and de Vienne: Nelson Barbour: The Millennium's Forgotten Prophet, Fluttering Wings Press via Lulu.com, 2009, pages 118–124. Herald of the Morning, July, 1878 p.5 Zion's Watch Tower, July 15, 1906, p. 230 The Bible Student Movement in the Days of CT Russell, 1975, pp A–2 Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose, 1959, pp. 18–19 Message to Herald of the Morning subscribers, Zion's Watch Tower, July 1, 1879, Supplement Rochester Union and Advertiser, October 5, 1895, p. 12 Zion's Watch Tower, June 1, 1916 p. 171 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, page 42 colporteurs Dictionary.com definition of "colporteur" Biography of Pastor Russell, Divine Plan of the Ages, 1918, p. 6 Great Battle in the Ecclesiastical Heavens, 1915 Overland Monthly, January 1917 p. 128 Watch Tower, December 1, 1916 p. 357 Zion's Watch Tower, September 1881 p. 5 Zion's Watch Tower, September 1881 p. 5: "As we were reaching Christians in the cities with the pamphlets, we sent the papers only with weekly and monthly journals, and hope thus to have reached many Christians in country districts. We sent out in this way over 400,000 copies. Thus you see that from an apparently small beginning, the tract work has spread to the immense proportions of 1,200,000 copies, or about 200,000,000 pages in four months, or about eight times as much (in number) as were distributed by the American Tract Society in the last year." Overland Monthly, January 1910 p. 130: "As a writer, Mr. Russell's books have enjoyed a larger circulation than any English work... Of his work entitled "Studies in the Scriptures," the average output is two thousand three hundred copies for each working day. We regret the records of 1909 are not yet complete, but in 1908 seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand, four hundred and seventy-four volumes were sold. Since publication, three million five hundred and thirty-four thousand volumes have been circulated. Last year, in addition to these there were three hundred and eight million pages of his tracts circulated. In all literature the Bible is about the only book that has had a larger circulation... In the literature of the world, the order would probably be as follows: The Bible, the Chinese Almanac, the "Studies in the Scriptures," "Don Quixote," "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and Hubbard's "Message to Garcia."" The Continent, McCormick Publishing Company, vol. 43, no. 40, October 3, 1912 p. 1354 Millennial Dawnism: The Annihilation of Jesus Christ by I.M. Haldeman, 1913; "Pastor" Russell's Position and Credentials by J.H. Burridge; Some Facts about the self-styled "Pastor" Charles T. Russell by J.J. Ross, 1912 IMDB article "Photo-Drama of Creation (1914), Retrieved 2009-04-15 "Timeline of Influential Milestones...1910s", American Movie Classics, retrieved 2009-04-15 "Society Uses Many Means to Expand Preaching", Centennial of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania 1884–1984, page 24, "The Photo-Drama presented the explanation of Bible truth from the time of creation, the fall into sin, the promises of God to redeem man and His dealings through history until the millennial restitution. It is believed to have been viewed by more than 9,000,000 people throughout North America and Europe, as well as many others in places around the world. It took two years and $300,000 to complete the project, many of the scenes being hand colored. Yet admission was free and no collections were taken." "United States of America", 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, page 59 The Warning Work (1909–1914)", The Watchtower, March 1, 1955, page 143 The Corroborative Testimony of God's stone witness and prophet, the Great Pyramid in Egypt 'Zion's Watch Tower' in the following issues: September 1883 page 8; September 1886 page 1; August 1896 page 189; May 1903 page 131; January 1913 page 11 Wills, Tony (2006). A People For His Name. Lulu Enterprises. pp. 35. ISBN 978-1-4303-0100-4. Zion's Watch Tower, December 1916, pages R6601: 360-R6006:366. Some early sources cited his death as November 1st. St. Paul Enterprise, November 14, 1916 p. 3 column 3, "The fact is he did not die of heart trouble, but of an inflammation of the bladder, and while writing you on Brother Bohnet’s desk I could not fail to see on the burial permit that the cause of death was given as ‘Cystitis’." Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. pp. 31.ISBN 09-455940-6. "The Jehovah's Witnesses", Extraordinary groups by W. W. Zellner, William M. Kephart, ©2000, page 338, "On October 31, 1916, the stormy life of Charles Russell came to an end. While on a nationwide lecture tour, he died unexpectedly of heart failure in a Pullman car near Pampa, Texas." Online New York Times, November 1, 1916, as cited by A.H. Macmillan, Faith on the March, 1957, page 62, "October 31: Charles Taze Russell, pastor of the Brooklyn Tabernacle, and known all over the country as "Pastor Russell," died from heart disease at 2:30 o'clock this afternoon on an Atchison, Topeka Santa Fe train, en route from Los Angeles to New York." St. Paul Enterprise November 14, 1916, pg 1 col 2: "Is it any wonder he died a score of years ahead of his natural time? His father looked younger at 84 than did the son at 64." Pictures from Russell's Gravesite Pyramid. Retrieved 2009-5-4. Your Will Be Done on Earth. Watchtower. 1958. pp. 337. Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose. Watchtower. 1959. pp. 313. M. James Penton. Apocalypse Delayed—The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. pp. 61. Attendance at the annual Memorial (statistics were published each year in the Watch Tower) shows the growth in the period before 1925. 1919: 17,961, 1922: 32,661, 1923: 42,000, 1924: 62,696, 1925: 90,434. 1926 marked the first decrease: 89,278. There are no published statistics from 1929–1934. In 1935, Memorial attendance was 63,146.Watchtower. August 15, 1996. pp. 31. Watch Tower, February 1927 Watch Tower, November 1928 Great Pyramid Passages, by John and Morton Edgar, Forward, 1928 edition Bible Student's Radio Echo, February 1929 p. 8 When Pastor Russell Died, pp. 26-30 A Conspiracy Exposed and Harvest Siftings, April 25, 1894 The Bible Student Movement in the Days of CT Russell, 1975, pp P–1 to P–4 J.F. Rutherford, A Great Battle in the Ecclesiastical Heavens, 1915, pg 17 Zion's Watch Tower July 15, 1906 pg 221: "The next day the husband [Mr. Russell] took the witness stand and swore that he had never used the language (and never had heard of it before) ... and that only an idiotic person would make such an uncomplimentary remark about himself." J.F. Rutherford, A Great Battle in the Ecclesiastical Heavens, 1915, pp 18-20 The Washington Post May 4, 1906 pg 6, "The Rev. Jellyfish Russell" J. Parkinson The Bible Student Movement in the Days of CT Russell, 1975, pg 45 J.F. Rutherford, A Great Battle in the Ecclesiastical Heavens, 1915, pg 20 Russell v Washington Post Company Opinion of the Court, May 5, 1908: "We think the defense of privilege is not applicable to the article published by the defendant. The article is unquestionably libelous ... It is not confined to comment and criticism on his acts as a public man or his public life, but, so far as this record discloses, falsely asserts that he has committed certain acts of an immoral nature in his private life." Deaths in the District of Melbourne, in Victoria. Registered by Arthur Fegan. Certificate #13463 The Bible Student Movement in the Days of C.T. Russell, 3rd edition, Notes The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, "Miracle Wheat Scandal," January 22, 1913, 2; "Testimony on Wheat," January 23, 1913, 3; "Financial Statements Proving Russell's Absolute Control," by Secretary-Treasurer Van Amberg, January 25, 1913, 16; "Government Experts Testify on 'Miracle Wheat' and Ascertain Its Ordinariness," January 27, 1913, 3; "Prosecution and Defense Closing Arguments," January 28, 1913, 2; "Russell Loses Libel Suit,” January 29, 1913, 16 (available on microfilm) A Great Battle in the Ecclesiastical Heavens, 1915, pp. 29–30 "United States of America", 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, page 71 Some facts about the Self-Styled "Pastor" Charles T. Russell (of Millennial Dawn Fame), 1912, pp. 1-3: "By thousands he is believed to be a religious fakir of the worst type... Years ago he gave himself the title of "Pastor" ... By "The Brooklyn Daily Eagle" he stands charged with ... having his name sensationally connected with those of numerous other women ... with publishing himself as giving addresses to great crowds in important places where he has not spoken at all ... with being illegally connected with lead, asphalt and turpentine companies, with selling or causing to be sold "Miracle Wheat" at $60 a bushel, with influencing the sick and dying to make their wills in his favor ... He is an eccentric individual and judging from his advertisements of himself, many do not think him normal, and some are persuaded that he is self-deceived." RG 22-329-0-6742 Record of Indictment: The King v. John Jacob Ross - Defamatory Libel, In the Supreme Court of Ontario, High Court Division and in the Court of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery in and for the County of Wentworth, pp. 1,5 The King v. John Jacob Ross, cross-examination by King's Counselor George Lynch-Staunton, March 17, 1913, section II, p. 6 The King v. John Jacob Ross, cross-examination by King's Counselor George Lynch-Staunton, March 17, 1913, section II, p. 4 http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/apl/jw/jehwit34.txt The Hamilton Spectator, Dec. 9, 1912; also Feb. 7, and March 17,18,22 1913 The Toronto Globe, March 18, 1913 The Watch Tower, October 15, 1914, p. 286: "The lower Court found him [Ross] guilty of libel. But when the case went to the second Judge he called up an English precedent, in which it was held that criminal libel would only operate in a case where the jury felt sure that there was danger of rioting or violence. As there was no danger that myself or friends would resort to rioting, the case was thrown out." A Great Battle in the Ecclesiastical Heavens, p. 31 Some Facts and More Facts about the Self-Styled 'Pastor' Charles T. Russell, pp. 18-23 The Watch Tower, October 15, 1914, p. 286: "As respects my education in Greek and Hebrew: Not only do I not claim very special knowledge of either language, but I claim that not one minister in a thousand is either a Hebrew or a Greek scholar." The Watch Tower, October 15, 1914, p. 287 The Watch Tower, December 1, 1915 p. 358–360 "Preaching Publicly and From House to House", Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, 1993, WTB&TS, page 560 The Watch Tower, October 15, 1914, p. 287: "What is the secret of the opposition and slander that is being raised up against me and against all who, like me, are Bible students? It is malice, hatred, envy, strife, on the part of those who are still hugging the nonsense of the Dark Ages and neglecting true Bible study. They see that their influence is waning. But they have not yet awakened to the true situation. They think that I am responsible for their smaller congregations and small collections. But not so. The real difficulty for them is that the people are becoming more intelligent and can no longer be driven with the crack of a merely man-made whip of fear." Springmeier, Fritz. The Watchtower & The Masons: A preliminary investigation. Portland, Or.: the author, 1990.[unreliable source?]. Zion's Watch Tower, Dec 1, 1911 pp. 443–444 Masonic. Retrieved 2009-5-4. Russell and The Great Pyramid. Retrieved 2009-5-6. ... Sec. 3, Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions. The cross and crown symbol does not appear on his gravestone in the Rosemont United Cemetery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania — it appears on a memorial erected some years later." Retrieved 2009-5-29. Masonic Emblem and Logo Collection. Retrieved 2009-5-29. J. Gordon Melton, Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Gale Group, 2001, Vol. 1, p. 829. Sermon title: "The Temple of God", Convention Report Sermons pages 359–365, "But now I am talking about this great order of masonry of which Jesus is the Grand Master. This Order is to be entered in a peculiar way. There are certain conditions, the low gate, the narrow way, the difficult path. Although I have never been a Mason, I have heard that in Masonry they have something which very closely illustrates all of this." 6MB download Was Pastor Russell a Freemason? Zion's Watch Tower, June, 1895, p. 143 The New Creation, pages 580–581 "Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions", from the web-site of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Retrieved on January 21, 2008.  
      For many posts tagged with Charles Taze Russell click here
      For a chronology of Charles and his wife Maria click here 
      -----------------------------------------
       
      Preceded by
      William Henry Conley  President of Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society 
      December 15, 1884–October 31, 1916 Succeeded by
      Joseph F. Rutherford  
    • By Jack Ryan
      The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, September 24, 1911

    • By Bible Speaks
      Pastor Charles Taze Russell visiting India. Is this the only picture in existence of him smiling?
    • By The Librarian
      1881 C.E. The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society is formed by C.T. Russell. At first, the Society distributed Bibles produced by other Bible societies. By 1890 C.E., the Society entered directly into Bible publishing, sponsoring the first of a number of Bible editions. See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12.

      w-E * Zion's Watch Tower
      The Tabernacle and Its Teachings
      Tabernacle Shadows of the "Better Sacrifices" (ed.1899) (Scan of the original)
      Food for Thinking Christians (free supplement to Zion's Watch Tower)



      Non- Watchtower Publications
      Wescott & Hort's Greek Interlinear
       
      Part of the ...
       
       
    • By The Librarian
      1881_food_for_thinking_christians.pdf
       
      PREFACE.
      THE design of this pamphlet is, first, to supply to such Christians as are alive and fully consecrated, and hungering and thirsting after a fuller knowledge of “Our Father” and his plans, what we believe to be “meat in due season;” leading such to perform all their consecration vows: secondly, to awaken those who are asleep in Zion—showing those who are not truth-hungry, what they are too much occupied with worldly plans to know, viz., that they are starving for the “good word of God,” though they say—We are “rich and increased in goods and have need of nothing.”
      “I love to tell the Story! More wonderful it seems,
      Than all the golden fancies Of all our golden dreams:
      I love to tell the Story!
      It did so much for me; And that is just the reason
      I tell it now to thee.”
      It is our part, under heavenly direction, to thus scatter the food—the seeds of thoughts; it is God’s part to water and give the increase—in some thirty, some sixty, and in some a hundred- fold to his praise. We leave the results with him.
      ZION’S WATCH TOWER.
      Part of the ...
       
       
       
    • By The Librarian
      Nelson H. Barbour was born in Throopsville, New York, August 21, 1824, and died in Tacoma, Washington, August 30, 1905.[1] Barbour was an influential Adventist writer and publisher, best known for his association with and later opposition to Charles Taze Russell.

      Life
      Barbour was the son of David Barbour and the grandson of Friend Barbour. Both the family and official documents use the spelling "Barbour" and its alternative spelling "Barber". He was related to a number of prominent New Yorkers including Dio Lewis. He attended Temple Hill Academy at Geneseo, New York, from 1839 to 1842. While at Temple Hill he also studied for the Methodist Episcopal ministry with an Elder Ferris, possibly William H. Ferris.[2]Barbour was introduced to Millerism through the efforts of a Mr. Johnson who lectured at Geneseo, in the winter of 1842. Barbour associated with other Millerites living in that area. These included Owen Crozier, William Marsh, and Daniel Cogswell. Cogswell would become a life-long friend as would Henry F. Hill. Cogswell would go on to become president of the New York Conference of the Advent Christian Church. Hill would become a prominent author associated with the Evangelical Adventists.Adventists in the Geneseo area met in Springwater to await the second coming in 1843. Their disappointment was profound, and Barbour suffered a crisis of faith. He later wrote: "We held together until the autumn of 1844. Then, as if a raft floating in deep water should suddenly disappear from under its living burden, so our platform went from under us, and we made for shore in every direction; but our unity was gone, and, like drowning men, we caught at straws."[3]Barbour pursued a medical career, becoming a medical electrician, a therapist who treated disease through the application of electric current, which was seen as a valid therapy at the time.He left for Australia to prospect for gold, returning via London in 1859. There is some evidence that he preached on occasion while in Australia.[4] A ship-board discussion with a clergyman reactivated his interest in Bible prophecy. He consulted books on prophetic themes at the British Library and became convinced that 1873 would mark the return of Christ, based on ideas advanced by others since at least as early as 1823.Returning to the United States, Barbour settled in New York City, continuing his studies in the Astor Library. When fully convinced, he wrote letters and visited those whom he felt might best spread his message, though few were interested.Barbour became an inventor and associated with Peter Cooper, the founder of Cooper Union. He patented several inventions. By 1863 he was in medical practice, dividing his time between Auburn and Rochester, New York. He returned to London in 1864 to demonstrate one of his inventions. He used his association with other inventors and scientists to spread his end-times doctrine, and some of his earliest associates in that belief were inventors and physicians.He published something as early as 1868, though it has been lost.[5] In 1871 he wrote and published a small book entitled Evidences for the Coming of the Lord in 1873, or The Midnight Cry, which had two printings. Articles by Barbour also appeared in the Second Adventist press, notably the World’s Crisis.A significant movement advocating 1873 developed, though it was divided into several parties. Jonas Wendell lead one; another centered on the magazine The Watchman’s Cry, and the rest associated most closely with Barbour. British Barbourites were represented by Elias H. Tuckett, a clergyman. Many gathered at Terry Island to await the return of Christ in late 1873. Barbour and others looked to the next year, which also proved disappointing.Led by Benjamin Wallis Keith, an associate of Barbour's since 1867, the group adopted the belief in a two-stage, initially invisible presence. They believed that Christ had indeed come in 1874 and would soon become visible for judgments. Barbour started a magazine in the fall of 1873 to promote his views, calling it The Midnight Cry. It was first issued as a pamphlet, with no apparent expectation of becoming a periodical. He quickly changed the name to Herald of the Morning, issuing it monthly from January 1874.
      Herald of the Morning, July 1878 showing Barbour as Editor In December 1875, Charles Taze Russell, then a businessman from Allegheny, received a copy of Herald of the Morning. He met the principals in the Barbourite movement and arranged for Barbour to speak in Philadelphia in 1876. Barbour and Russell began their association, during which Barbour wrote the book Three Worlds (1877) and published a small booklet by Russell entitled Object and Manner of Our Lord’s Return. Beginning in 1878, they each wrote conflicting views on Ransom and Atonement doctrine. By May 3, 1879, Russell wrote that their "points of variance seem to me to be so fundamental and important that... I feel that our relationship should cease." In a May 22, 1879 letter to Barbour, Russell explicitly resigned: "Now I leave the 'Herald' with you. I withdraw entirely from it, asking nothing from you . . . Please announce in next No. of the 'Herald' the dissolution and withdraw my name [as assistant editor on the masthead]." Beginning in July 1879, Russell began publishing the magazine now known as The Watchtower,[6] the principal journal for the initial Bible Student movement and eventually for Jehovah's Witnesses.By 1883 Barbour abandoned belief in an invisible presence and returned to more standard Adventist doctrine. He had organized a small congregation in Rochester in 1873, and by 1878 he was in better quarters.[7] At least by that year he left Adventism for Age-to-Come faith, a form of British Literalism. He changed the name of the congregation to Church of the Strangers. In later years the congregation associated with Mark Allen's Church of the Blessed Hope and call themselves Restitutionists. A photo of Nelson Barbour appeared in the Rochester Union and Advertiser in October 1895.Barbour continued the Herald of the Morning, though with breaks, until at least 1903, occasionally issuing statements critical of C. T. Russell. He wrote favorably though cautiously that he was persuaded 1896 was the date for Christ's visible return, an idea that had grown out of the Advent Christian Church. The last date set by Barbour for Christ's return was 1907.By the time of his death the Rochester church numbered about fifty, with very minor interest elsewhere. In 1903 Barbour participated in a conference on Mob Spirit in America. He advocated the establishment of a predominately black state in the American south west.Barbour died while on a trip to the west in 1905 of "exhaustion."[8]After his death some of his articles from The Herald of the Morning were collected and published in book form as Washed in His Blood (1908).
      Biography
      The Rochester Union and Advertiser for October 5, 1895, page 12 offers the following information on Nelson Barbour:"Nelson H. Barbour was born at Toupsville, three miles from Auburn, N. Y., in 1824. At an early age the family moved to Cohocton, Stueben County, N. Y. From the age of 15 to 18, he attended school at Temple Hill Academy, Genseco, New York; at which place he united with the Methodist Episcopal Church, and began a preparation for the ministry under elder Ferris. Having been brought up among Presbyterians, however, and having an investigating turn of mind, instead of quietly learning Methodist theology he troubled his teacher with questions of election, universal salvation, and many other subjects, until it was politely hinted that he was more likely to succeed in life as a farmer than as a clergyman. But his convictions were strong that he must preach the gospel even if he could not work in any theological harness. And at 19, he began his life work as an independent preacher. Since which, all that is worth reporting in his life is inseparable from his theological growth. He could not believe in an all wise and loving Father, permitting the fall; then leaving man's eternal destiny to a hap-hazard scramble between a luke-warm Church and a zealous devil. On the contrary he believed the fall was permitted for a wise purpose; and that God has a definite plan for man, in which nothing is left to chance or ignorance."Mr. Barbour believes that what he denominated the present babel of confusion in the churches is the result of false teaching and the literal interpretation of the parables."The Church of the Strangers was organized in 1879. Mr. Barbour has preached in England, in several Australian colonies, in Canada, and many states of the Union. For the past twenty-two years he has published the Herald of the Morning in this city; claiming that in his 'call' to preach, he confered [sic] not with flesh and blood. Nor was he called to convert the world; but independent of creed, to search for the truth 'as it is in Jesus,' the 'second man Adam,' believing that the restored faith is a precurser [sic] of the millenium [sic] and 'Times of restitution of all things.'"
      References
      An 1870 patent application by Barbour gives his middle name as Horatio. The New York Grave Index gives his name as Nelson Horatio Barbour. His middle name appears in the United States Library of Congress as Homer. B. Woodcroft: Alphabetical Index of Patentees and Applicants of Patents for Invention for the year 1870, page 79. Schulz and deVienne: Nelson Barbour: The Millennium's Forgotten Prophet, 2009, page 4. Elder Ferris' probable identity with William H. Ferris is discussed in Schulz and de Vienne, Nelson Barbour: The Millennium's Forgotten Prophet, pages 11-12 Barbour, N. H.: Evidences for the Coming of the Lord in 1873, Or the Midnight Cry, 1871, page 26. Barbour claimed to have preached in Australia in an interview printed in the Rochester Union and Advertiser. The article is quoted in full above. The only time he is known to have been in Australia is in the late 1850s. Letter from W. Valentine to Nelson Barbour and Barbour's reply: Herald of the Morning, August 1875, page 47. "Proclaiming the Lord’s Return (1870-1914)", Jehovah's Witnesses–Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, page 48 Barbour discusses the move in the May 1879 Herald of the Morning. Schulz and de Vienne, citing various obituaries including the original Washington State Death Record and The Auburn, New York, Citizen of October 20, 1905. See Also Barbour Russell Handbill from 1877
      External links
      Three Worlds, written by Barbour, and financed by Russell in 1877. Evidences for the Coming of the Lord in 1873, or The Midnight Cry Written by Barbour in 1871. Message to Herald of the Morning subscribers 1879 Pittsburgh, Pa; Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, July 1, 1879, Supplement Washed in the Blood Published anonymously but listed in the library of Congress card catalog as written by Nelson H. Barbour. Herald of the Morning Assorted Issues from 1874 to 1876.
    • By The Librarian
      1877_worlds.pdf
      Part of the ....
       
    • By Jack Ryan
      “Pastor Russell....discussed the mysteries of.......mental telepathy, mind reading and womenÂ’s intuition.”
      The Golden Age February 15, 1925 pg 332-3
       
    • Guest Nicole
    • Guest Nicole
    • By Kurt
      Russell's secretary, Menta Sturgeon, was with him when he died and related the events surrounding Russell's death in a talk given at the funeral, found in the December 1916 issue of the Watchtower. See Harvest Truth DataBase V5.0.  It was Sturgeon who wrapped him in the bed sheet, and Russell showed him how to make it look like a Roman toga. Russell did not simply drop suddenly, but his death was a lingering one in which he became progressively ill on his last preaching tour, traveling on the train. He never explained what the Roman toga meant, and both Sturgeon and Rutherford attempted to give explanations. Both agreed that Russell had finished his course victoriously.
      So if anyone wants to read Sturgeon's speech, go to the Harvest Truth Database V5.0 and look for the Watchtower of December 1916.
      Harvest Truth DataBase V5.0

      www.leocuellar.com
    • By The Librarian
      Share your photos with me too
    • By JW Insider
      Yesterday I responded to a months-old comment, here, about putting Charles Taze Russell on a pedestal, and it was under the wrong topic, so I am moving it here, and editing and splitting it into two or three comments because it is so long. The part about "canonizing" refers to the God's Kingdom Rules book,
      *** kr chap. 2 pp. 13-14 pars. 3-6 The Kingdom Is Born in Heaven ***
      For instance, consider the prophecy of Malachi 3:1: “Look! I am sending my messenger, and he will clear up a way before me. And suddenly the true Lord, whom you are seeking, will come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant will come, in whom you take delight.”  In the modern-day fulfillment, when did Jehovah, “the true Lord,” come to inspect those who were serving in the earthly courtyard of his spiritual temple? The prophecy explains that Jehovah would come with “the messenger of the covenant.” Who was that? None other than the Messianic King, Jesus Christ! (Luke 1:68-73) As the newly installed Ruler, he would inspect and refine God’s people on earth.—1 Pet. 4:17. 5 Who, though, was the other “messenger,” the first one mentioned at Malachi 3:1? This prophetic figure would be on the scene well before the Messianic King’s presence. In the decades before 1914, did anyone “clear up a way” before the Messianic King? . . . Those taking the lead among them—Charles T. Russell and his close associates—did, indeed, act as the foretold “messenger,” giving spiritual direction to God’s people and preparing them for the events ahead. Let us consider four ways in which the “messenger” did so.  
       
      I can't help but see that he very carefully and deliberately put himself on a pedestal. It appears to have been his plan from the moment he began spending money to put himself on Barbour's masthead. His publishing career started with material he borrowed and presented as his own, but with added "humility" about how he is just God's servant which soon turned into a very humble way of saying that he was "God's mouthpiece."
      It's just that he was so good at 19th century "mock humility" that people truly thought he was humble.
      But a good portion of the Bible Students acted in the ways in which we think of certain groups as "cults" today, in a pejorative sense. Many members of the Bible Students worshiped Russell but would never have noticed this, thinking of it as only love for their leader. Russell didn't ask for a high level of control at first, but the format of his interactions with them were mesmerizing, including the way the Watch Tower publications presented ideas. 
      The Proclaimers book very clearly admits the "cult" attitudes:
      *** jv chap. 6 p. 65 A Time of Testing (1914-1918) ***
      Others, on account of their deep respect for Brother Russell, seemed more concerned with trying to copy his qualities and develop a sort of cult around him.
      People were naming their first male child after Russell and additional children after his most trusted associates. People were willing to believe constantly changing, contradictory and failing information about when the rapture would occur, when the door of opportunity to heaven was being shut, the "divination" of lengths of the entrails (passages) criss-crossing within the pyramids. Russell could do no wrong. Russell made up stories about his divorce trial that can now be shown to be outright fabrications. But he continued to print letters of praise about himself and letters that called him the "faithful and wise servant." Without a kind of cult following, you can't get away with claiming that you are the one and only faithful and discreet slave, and the one and only mouthpiece of God, and the one and only channel of communication through which the "wise virgins" can prove themselves to be wise and not foolish.
      Rutherford, who wanted the high level of control, but without the mesmerizing charisma, was very clear about the fact that Russell was being worshiped. Referring to the attitudes toward Russell, Rutherford said the following, according to the Watchtower (and "Faith on the March" by MacMillan):
      *** w66 8/15 pp. 508-509 Doing God’s Will Has Been My Delight ***
      Why, brother, if I ever get out of here, by God’s grace I’ll crush all this business of creature worship. The 1975 Yearbook says the same:
      *** yb75 p. 88 Part 1—United States of America ***
      With the passing of time, however, the idea adopted by many was that C. T. Russell himself was the “faithful and wise servant.” This led some into the snare of creature worship. They felt that all the truth God saw fit to reveal to his people had been presented through Brother Russell, that nothing more could be brought forth. Annie Poggensee writes: “This caused a great sifting out of those who chose to stay back with Russell’s works.” In February 1927 this erroneous thought that Russell himself was the “faithful and wise servant” was cleared up. Of course it was Russell himself who pushed that idea that he alone was the "faithful and wise servant." He was satisfied for years to say it was all true Christians in this role, even while claiming that "meat in due season" came through the channel of the Watch Tower Society. But after about 18 years of publishing such claims in the Watch Tower he finally claimed (in 1896/7) that this role could be only one individual person at a time. He published several letters addressing him as "that Servant, faithful and wise" ["the faithful and discreet slave"] who provides "meat in due season" ["food at the proper time"].
      *** yb74 pp. 97-98 Part 1—Germany ***
      For that reason Brother Balzereit asked Brother Rutherford for permission to buy a rotary press. Brother Rutherford saw the necessity and agreed, but on one condition. He had noticed that over the years Brother Balzereit had grown a beard very similar to the one that had been worn by Brother Russell. His example soon caught on, for there were others who also wanted to look like Brother Russell. This could give rise to a tendency toward creature worship, and Brother Rutherford wanted to prevent this. So during his next visit, within hearing of all the Bible House family, he told Brother Balzereit that he could buy the rotary press but only on the condition that he shave off his beard. This type of thinking was evidently still going on. Rutherford knew that up until the 1920's pictures of Russell and his close associates were still being sold. (I have a couple from about 1915 with Russell, Rutherford and my great-grandfather.) But this evidently was still going on in 1931:
      *** yb74 p. 106 Part 1—Germany ***
      Now at the Berlin assembly [1931] he called attention to the many pictures of himself and of Brother Russell that were being sold in the form of postcards or pictures, some of which were even framed. After discovering these pictures at the numerous tables in the corridors around the hall, he mentioned them in his next talk, urging those in attendance not to buy any of them and asking the servants in charge in plain words to remove the pictures from their frames and to destroy them, which was then done. He wanted to avoid anything that could lead to creature worship. Even in one of our most current and recent study books, we have a similar claim about Russell:
      *** kr chap. 2 pp. 22-23 par. 32 The Kingdom Is Born in Heaven ***
      From within, the organization suffered turmoil as well. In 1916, Brother Russell died at only 64 years of age, leaving many of God’s people in shock. His death revealed that some had been placing too much emphasis on one exemplary man. Though Brother Russell wanted no such reverence, a measure of creature worship had grown up around him. Rutherford himself said this about Russell at his funeral:
      "Charles Taze Russell, thou hast by the Lord, been crowned a king, and through the everlasting ages thy name shall be known amongst the people, and thy enemies shall come and worship at thy feet." Then of course, Rutherford approved and praised the importance of a book in 1917, The Finished Mystery, and proudly distributed it until 1932. It said the following (with page numbers, unchecked, as copied from Gruss):
      "The special messenger to the last Age of the Church was Charles T. Russell.... He has privately admitted his belief that he was chosen for his great work from before his birth" (53). "Pastor Russell was the voice used. Beautiful voice of the Lord: strong, humble, wise, loving, gentle, just, merciful, faithful, self-sacrificing; one of the noblest, grandest characters or all history...Without a blemish in his character, with the loftiest ideals of God, and the possibilities of man, he towers like a giant, unmatched"'( 125). 'The mind of Pastor Russell was filled with Truth.... The mind of God's steward was as adamant. Adamant is literally, in Hebrew, 'a diamond point"' (383). "In 1878 the stewardship of the things of God, the teaching of Bible truths, was taken from the clergy, unfaithful to their age-long stewardship, and given to Pastor Russell" (386-87). "Then, in 1881, he became God's watchman for all Christendom, and began his gigantic work of witness.... He listened to the word direct from the mouth of God, spoken by holy men of old as moved by the Holy Spirit.(2 Peter 1:21.)... Pastor Russell's warning to Christendom, coming direct from God.... He said that he could never have written his books himself. It came from God, through the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit" (387). "Pastor Russell was the most prolific writer of Biblical truth that ever lived.—Ezek. 9:2,3" (65). "The man in linen" was the Laodicean servant, the Lord's faithful and wise steward, Pastor Russell" (418). "The preaching and writings of Pastor Russell were heard by all classes of believers and unbelievers. It was the voice of Jehovah, represented as almighty to save, that was heard throughout the world" (422). The June 1, 1917 Watch Tower published by Rutherford, says:
      "Truly there lived among us in these last days a prophet of the Lord.... Any thoughtful man can interpret prophecy after is has been fulfilled. Pastor Russell interpreted these prophecies twenty years ago...." Throughout the 1920's, the Society began distributing the "Biography of Charles Taze Russell" included with Studies in the Scriptures claiming that Russell himself privately admitted to others that he was the "faithful and wise servant."
       
    • By Jack Ryan
      While he publicly denied being a Freemason, much of his symbolism and focus on the pyramids mirrors the masons.
      Being buried so close to a Freemason cemetery.... I wonder what connection he had.

    • By Kurt
      Charles Taze Russell Not a False Prophet
      Uploads
    • By Queen Esther
      A  letter  personal  of  JW  C. T.  Russel !  Its  hand-writed,  now  safe  in  a  Bethel  house....
      We  can  see  it  in  Bethel  *London* ;-))
       
         March 21, 0 [1900]
      Dear Brother,
             Just a word of greetings to accompany lists I am now sending - not knowing what use you might have for them before reaching London. I have written you more at length by type-writer not yet ready.
             Glad to know of your safe arrival and glad to hope that you are still well & that the Lord's blessing attends your efforts to know his name & to bless his flock.
             My love to you & to all the dear ones with whom you are now associating - Bro. F. et al.
                                Yours in our dear Redeemer
                                C. T. Russell
       
      ( A help from our JW Insider,  for  better  reading  the  old  letter... Thank  you ! )
    • By The Librarian
      1916 - Charles Taze Russell Dies
    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      Was it due to his ownership of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania or because he engaged in the work of the Lord to a greater extent than his peers of that day?
       
    • By The Librarian
      Charles Taze Russell fell ill from heart disease while traveling on a speaking circuit. After a doctor confirming he was indeed near death, Russell requested that he be wrapped in a toga (made from a bed sheet) and died at the age of 64 on Tuesday, October 31, 1916 while aboard a train traveling through Pampa, TX. His body traveled by train to Kansas City, where his body was embalmed. It was then taken by train, routed through Chicago to New York on November 3rd.
       
      From the Watchtower, December 1, 1916: 
       
       
      Picture that appeared in Watchtower, December 1, 1916. Russell's funeral at Russell Temple in Manhattan.

       
      THREE funeral services for Charles Taze Russell were held at The Temple in New York City on Sunday, November 5, 1916, where 17 "brothers" spoke. His body was transported to Pennsylvania and ANOTHER funeral service was held at Carnegie Hall in Pittsburgh on Monday, November 6th.
      Russell's funeral inside Allegheny's Carnegie Hall:

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