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Fædrelandsvennen - In Print tomorrow - Full front page and 10 full pages - "Jehovah's witnesses own legal system"


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Massive article in print tomorrow, a follow up from the excellent "The Elder"-article printed earlier, that was made available for us in English version here.

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Tomorrow there's a huge follow-up, I will not share the full article now, due to respect of the amazing work that is done by the journalists, but I'm sure we will find a solution if you have som patience. Meanwhile there is a possibility to create an account and read the article in Norwegian here:

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I have made a translation of the headline and the intro:

Thus Jehovah's Witnesses operate outside the judicial system.

Members' gross offenses and sex lives are handled in their own judicial committee

Four Women - Four Stories - How Jehovah's Witnesses judicial committee operates serious matters internally, outside the Norwegian judicial system.

The elders manual, "Shepherd the Flock of God," shall not be read by anyone other than men who are elders in Jehovah's Witnesses. The book describes the tasks of the oldest. A large part of the book is about how the religious community will create and carry out its own religious tribunal.

Leak

After Fædrelandsvennen wrote the story of a 87-year-old elders in Jehovah's Witnesses who are imprisoned for sexual assault against a four-year-old, there were several tips and leaks of internal documents about how Jehovah's Witnesses are ruled.

The most important document in the leakages is the book " Shepherd the Flock of God ", the so-called "eldersmanual". Here's a detailed description of how Jehovah's Witnesses work with religious tribunals in Norway.

The main rule is that brothers and sisters in the religious community should not use the police and the Norwegian judicial system against each other.

Fædrelandsvennen knows people who have had to explain themselves to the judiciary in Sørlandet about a number of things.

A woman was interrogated by the men in a judicial selection on her sexual debut. Another woman feared expulsion and isolation after taking abortion.

One woman was saved in hospital. Violent blood loss during birth caused the doctors to intervene and inflicted blood while the woman was unable to explain. Afterwards, she had to respond to a court committee if she had done enough to oppose the treatment.

This is their stories:

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Link to the statement (behind paywall) Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Today we have TWO major articles as follow-up. Below is the editors statement:

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Link to the statement (behind paywall)

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Today we have TWO major articles as follow-up. Below is the editors statement:

Abuse of power in the name of God

Anyone who is concerned about receiving Islamic Sharia courts in our country should take the same fight against Jehovah's Witnesses practice!

They are nothing short of shocking, the stories we published Friday. They all focused on a religious congregation that addresses individuals. Judges and condemns them. In serious cases of violence and moral affairs. And in matters that concern individuals' privacy.

Everything outside of Norwegian justice. In the manual for the judicial committees which we have received as the first Norwegian newspaper, it is encouraged not to use the legal court system.

That is unacceptable.

This is a fine line between freedom of religion and the basic rules of society. Both parts are extremely important. Religious freedom must and must apply to all. Especially for minorities. Yes, that's what it's for. Those who do not believe in the same or who believe or practice their faith in a different way than the majority.

In many countries, Jehovah's Witnesses have been an oppressed minority. They have been persecuted for their faith and for the consequences they draw from it. In particular, their demands for non-military service provoked many regimes, both now and before. During World War II, several thousand witnesses were sent to concentration camps. While the Jews had to carry the yellow David star, Jehovah's Witnesses had to wear a small triangle.

The witnesses' struggle for recognition as a religious minority has helped promote this part of human rights in several countries. Paradoxically, they use their freedom to oppress single members in their own churches. This violation is also an offense of one of our fundamental foundations: the justice system.

Our legal system must be independent. It should treat everyone alike. And that should apply to everyone.

In Jehovah's Witnesses, judicial committees can not judge anyone in punishment in a legal sense. But they have assumed violent power over the lives of other people. Those who sit in these committees, without legal qualifications, abandon themselves to be entitled to have a faction on who of the right and who to be condemned. Thus, they inflict on a small group of people who lose a massive social penalty. Which may include public punishment from the congregation's chair.

In a democracy like ours, there can not be a parallel legal system

Another threat is social exclusion and isolation. For us outside such a sect or church it may seem strange that people who have experienced such abuse and lawlessness want to return to the church. But it is often something far more than that. The church is the social framework. Where you have grown up. There are close family members and friends. It's also where you've learned that everyone outside is wrong. A woman we mentioned on Friday's case used the following description on a life outside the church: "It is perceived as a death sentence."

That's the way it's meant. The members must be scared, not to leave the church, not to question the way it works - and not to challenge the verdict.

And as almost always in religions, established for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years ago, who will make up the right and wrong: the rules are established by the men. The women are losers.

The right to believe and practice this is a human right. But human rights also protect the individual from injustice and abuse. Among other things, from religious leaders.

In a democracy like ours, there can not be a parallel legal system.

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Then we have another major article, with responses from politicians:

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The disclosure of Jehovah's Witnesses' Judicial Committees: - I respond with disgust

"Such attempts to establish parallel legal structures must be combated with the utmost importance," says Lene Vågslid (AP), chairman of the justice committee at the Norwegian Parlament.

OSLO / KRISTIANSAND: Politicians from a number of parties respond strongly to the revelations of Jehovah's Witnesses practice with their own judiciary on the side of the public justice system.

Fædrelandsvennen has received the internal book that the elders in the closed faith community use as guidance as they govern the organization and establish a judicial selection.

Fædrelandsvennen told Friday the story of four women who have met for the juidical committees, where only men with privileges as elders can judge.

The cases were about family violence, divorce after assault complaints, sex outside of marriage and abortion.

This is one of the controversial passages in the book "Be Shepherds of God's Herd", which has been leaked to the fathers' relatives. The book explains how the elders in the community of Jehovah's Witnesses will work with their own judiciary on the side of the official judiciary: “There is no difference between suing a single brother or sister, and to sue a company where all the owners are Jehovah’s Witnesses. The spirit in 1. Corintians 6:1-8 will be humiliated if someone turns to secular courts to settle business conflicts between companies that is owned by brothers.”

Labour Party: Reacts with disgust

"I react with disgust. Such attempts to establish parallel legal structures must be combated with utmost seriousness," said Lene Vågslid (AP), chairman of the justice committee at the Norwegian Parlament.

The Labor Party has previously raised issues related to social control and honorary culture in other religious communities, and VÃ¥gslid has been contacted by people with a background from Jehovah's Witnesses.

“Therefore I have heard about the problem before. But I have to say I am very pleased that you are in the press, now we are looking at this and showing what this means," said Vågslid.

She believes that an important limit is crossed when the religious community is explicitly encouraged not to use the public justice system.

"In men-dominated environments, both this and others, the legal certainty for children and women is important to take care of. All attempts to undermine our legal state are unacceptable", she says.

Minister of Culture: - Abuse of powers

"In Norway there is no one over the Norwegian legal system, and we are all equals to the law. We should not accept that anyone is standing outside or on the side, whether they call it Sharia law or they are called Jehovah's Witnesses", says Minister of Culture Trine Skei Grande (V).

She believes parallel systems seem to be undermining for the judiciary and the community of sinstitutions.

"It's totally reprehensible to create systems on the side of this. So simple, I have to say that. Those who do this abuse their power as religious leaders."

Krf (Christian Political Party): Warns strongly

Kjell Ingolf Ropstad in the Christian People's Party also reacts.

"I would strongly warn against the development of internal courts and parallel societies. We have a court and it is important that everyone relate to it. Offenses must be notified to the police and it is serious if for example gross violence and abuse are hidden.

He sees that religious communities need to defend their teachings, but believe what he has read now goes beyond a boundary.

"I am a strong defender of freedom of belief, but when religious communities rely on the right to deal with abuse and violence it is very serious and I would strongly warn against this," says Ropstad.

What do you think that members of this community are strongly encouraged not to use the "worldly justice system"?

"It is very problematic if trust in our common justice system is being destroyed, no matter what contexts it takes place. We must do our utmost to enable people to trust the judiciary, and try to establish better dialogue with the faith communities so that we can prevent the development of such self-sufficiency systems as referred to in this case.

SV: - Nobody should be denied protection

"There is nothing in the freedom of belief that allows such business. One can not hide such freedom when establishing such systems, " said Petter Eide, Justice Policy Spokesman in SV (left-wing party).

Prior to becoming a politician, Eide's background includes being the Secretary-General of Norwegian People's Aid and Amnesty. He has worked a lot with human rights, and believes the right to believe what one does not mean you can do what you want.

"There is nothing wrong with conflict resolution mechanisms. But you can not put obstacles in the way people use police and public justice. In the worst case, you are guilty of concealing crimes in this way. No citizen shall be denied the protection found in the judicial system, " said Eide.

He reacts strongly to the history of family violence. The mandatory laws allows you to be penalized for not reporting to the police.

Eide also draws a line to Norway's efforts for human rights in other countries.

Taking the matter to the Parlament

"Norway is often quick to criticize other countries whose local courts violate human rights in matters such as legal protection for women in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Then we have to clean up here at home when we see we have tendencies to this. What you point to here shows a very traditional male-structure that is completely outdated in modern society. There is a huge female suppression in the way this was put on, he says.

Now, SV will take up the case with Minister of Justice Tor Mikkel Wara, in the form of a written question in the Parlament.

"Parallel legal systems, as Jehovah's Witnesses practice, prevents individuals from being protected by fundamental human rights, such as the right to defendants, the right to get the case tried in an ordinary court," said Eide.

Democrats: Flashback from Iran

Makvan Kasheikal, party leader of the Democrats , is originally from Iran. He says he slept badly after reading the article on Thursday night.

"I got a flashback from my old home country. Iran is a country where religious men decide everything. There you call it Sharia law. So suddenly I sit in calm Kristiansand and read the rhetoric of killing and blood damage and I know it all too well again. This is shameful to read about in Norway! Yes, for any civilized society, he thunders."

Kashikal says that Fædrelandsvennen has revealed is completely unacceptable.

"It violates basic principles of law. We must have freedom of religion, but we must have the opportunity to safeguard individuals' rights. We shall not have other laws governing Norway's laws in this country."

Ministry of Justice: "A Public Task"

Fædrelandsvennen has tried to have an interview with Justice Minister Tor Mikkel Wara about the matter. He had no opportunity for it on Friday, but after going through the article, the communications department in the ministry has put the matter before him and sends the following statement:

"Treatment of abuse and violence is and should be a public task. There should be no room for serious cases to escape prosecution. The prosecutor is required to investigate and possibly prosecute criminal offenses they are familiar with. At the same time, this case shows that the police do not always receive such information. This is regrettable. The Ministry emphasizes that if you get to know, for example, serious abuse of others, retrieving information about such circumstances may in some cases be punishable as collusion or breach of contract. Retaining such information can be highly criticized and seriously harm the people concerned.

It is not allowed to make binding rules or agree to the right to report matters or to contact the police or other public authorities, no matter what the matter may be. The "court of law" must nevertheless relate to Norwegian law. Church communities have no greater or lesser right than other associations to adopt legally binding rules for the members.

A self-determination scheme may probably extend far beyond private law issues, as long as there are questions that you can freely regulate in accordance with general contractual rules, etc. Under no circumstances can the right of association exclude the legal test of prescriptive (compelling) rules. A number of other questions may also be tested to a greater or lesser extent by the judiciary, no matter how much "self-esteem" applies to the association. "

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      Prenons un exemple: Il y a quelques dizaines d’années, un jeune homme fréquentait l’université de Saskatchewan, au Canada. Au programme de sa formation figurait la biologie, et on lui a enseigné l’évolution. Après avoir été diplômé, il s’est spécialisé dans la physique nucléaire, profitant d’une bourse pour continuer ses études à l’université de Toronto. Au cours de ses études, il a constaté dans la structure des atomes révélaient des témoignages stupéfiants d’un ordre et d’une finalité extraordinaire . Mais personnes ne répondait pas à ces questions: Qui a conçu tout cela? Quand? Et pourquoi? Sans ces réponses, pouvait-il utiliser sagement ses connaissances dans un monde remplis interrogations ? Qu’est-ce qui le guiderait? Le nationalisme? Le désir de gratifications matérielles? Avait-il acquis la vraie sagesse?
      Peu après avoir été diplômé, cet homme ainsi que sa femme se sont mis à étudier la Bible avec les Témoins de Jéhovah. Dans la Parole de Dieu, ils ont peu à peu trouvé les réponses qui leur manquaient. Ils ont appris à connaître le Créateur, Jéhovah Dieu. En étudiant ce qui est arrivé à Moïse à la mer Rouge, à Daniel et à ses compagnons à Babylone, ils ont appris l’importance de craindre Dieu, et non les hommes (Exode 14:10-31; Daniel 3:8-30). Cette crainte pieuse mêlée d’un amour sincère pour Jéhovah a commencé à les animer. Rapidement, leur vie a changé. Enfin cet homme connaissait Celui dont il avait étudié l’œuvre en biologie. Il a progressivement compris le dessein de Celui dont il avait constaté la sagesse dans ses cours de physique. Au lieu d’employer sa connaissance à élaborer des instruments de destruction, il a choisi, avec sa femme, d’aider autrui à aimer Dieu et son prochain. Ils ont entrepris le service de prédicateurs du Royaume de Dieu à plein temps. Par la suite, ils ont suivi les cours de Galaad, l’École biblique de la Société Watchtower, et ont été nommés missionnaires.
      Bien entendu, tout le monde ne peut pas être missionnaire. Mais tous nous pouvons bénéficier de la sagesse fondée sur la crainte de Jéhovah. Si nous cultivons cette sagesse, nous ne consacrerons pas le meilleur de notre vie à étudier les philosophies humaines, qui n’échafaudent que des suppositions sur le but de la vie. Nous nous appliquerons à l’étude de la Bible, livre inspiré de Jéhovah Dieu, la Source de la vie, celui qui peut nous donner la vie éternelle (Psaume 36:9; Colossiens 2:8). Au lieu de nous rendre esclaves d’un système commercial chancelant, au bord de la ruine, nous écouterons Jéhovah, qui nous conseille de nous contenter de la nourriture et du vêtement, et d’accorder à nos relations avec lui la priorité dans notre existence (1 Timothée 6:8-12). Au lieu de nous comporter comme si notre avenir dépendait d’une belle situation dans le monde actuel, nous croirons la Parole de Jéhovah, qui nous affirme que le monde est en train de passer, de même que le désir du monde, alors que celui qui fait la volonté divine demeure pour toujours. — 1 Jean 2:17.
      Dans le livre de Proverbes 16:16, Salomon nous encourage par cette déclaration certaine: “Acquérir la sagesse [la sagesse qui commence par la crainte de Jéhovah], oh! combien cela vaut mieux que l’or! Et acquérir l’intelligence est préférable à l’argent.” Poussés par cette sagesse et cette intelligence, nous considérerons l’accomplissement de la volonté de Dieu comme le premier centre d’intérêt de notre vie. Et quelle activité Dieu a-t-il confiée à ses Témoins en cette période de l’histoire humaine? Faire connaître son Royaume par la prédication et aider les personnes sincères à devenir de vrais disciples de Jésus Christ (Matthieu 24:14; 28:19, 20). Il s’agit d’une activité dont on retire une satisfaction véritable et un grand bonheur. C’est donc à propos que la Bible dit: “Heureux l’homme qui a trouvé la sagesse, et l’homme qui acquiert le discernement.” — Proverbes 3:13.
      Elle nous retient de commettre le mal
      Un deuxième bienfait que nous procure la crainte de Dieu est qu’elle nous retient de commettre le mal. Celui qui respecte profondément Dieu ne détermine pas par lui-même ce qui est bien et mal. Il ne tient pas pour mauvais ce que Dieu déclare bon, ni ne considère comme bon ce que Dieu déclare mauvais (Psaume 37:1, 27; Ésaïe 5:20, 21). De plus, celui que motive la crainte pieuse ne se contente pas de savoir ce que Jéhovah déclare bon ou mauvais. Une telle personne aime ce que Jéhovah aime et elle hait ce que Jéhovah hait. En conséquence, elle agit en harmonie avec les préceptes divins. Ainsi, comme le dit Proverbes 16:6, “par la crainte de Jéhovah, on se détourne du mal”. Cette crainte pieuse devient une motivation puissante qui permet d’atteindre des résultats qu’on n’obtiendrait pas même si une personne commence tout juste à l’éprouver, la crainte pieuse peut lui donner le courage de ne pas faire quelque chose qu’elle regretterait le restant de ses jours. Au Mexique, par exemple, une femme enceinte a demandé à une chrétienne Témoin de Jéhovah ce qu’elle pensait de l’avortement. La chrétienne lui a lu plusieurs versets bibliques, puis lui a tenu ce raisonnement: “Pour le Créateur, la vie est très importante, même la vie de ceux qui ne sont pas encore nés.” (Exode 21:22, 23; Psaume 139:13-16). Des examens laissaient entendre que le bébé serait anormal. Néanmoins, après ce qu’elle avait vu dans la Parole de Dieu, cette femme a décidé de garder son enfant. Son médecin a refusé de la revoir, et son mari l’a menacée de la quitter, mais elle a tenu bon. Elle a finalement donné naissance à une magnifique petite fille, normale et en bonne santé. Par gratitude, elle a recherché les Témoins et s’est mise à étudier la Parole de Dieu avec eux. Moins d’un an après, son mari et elle se faisaient baptiser. Quelques années plus tard, à une assemblée de district, tous deux ont été enchantés de rencontrer la chrétienne qui avait parlé à la femme la première fois. Ils lui ont présenté leur jolie fillette de quatre ans. Incontestablement, le respect de Dieu et le désir puissant de ne pas lui déplaire exercent une grande influence.
      La crainte pieuse peut nous garder d’un grand nombre de mauvaises actions (2 Corinthiens 7:1). Cultivée avec soin, elle est capable d’aider quelqu’un à mettre un terme à des péchés cachés, connus de lui seul et de Jéhovah. Elle peut l’aider à se libérer de la dépendance de l’alcool ou de la drogue. Un ancien drogué d’Afrique du Sud a raconté: “Au fur et à mesure que j’apprenais à connaître Dieu, la crainte de le décevoir ou de lui déplaire grandissait en moi. Je savais qu’il m’observait, et je désirais ardemment son approbation. Cela m’a incité à me débarrasser de la drogue qui était en ma possession en la jetant dans les toilettes.” La crainte pieuse a aidé des milliers de personnes de la même manière. — Proverbes 5:21; 15:3.
      La crainte salutaire de Dieu nous préserve également de la crainte de l’homme. La plupart des humains connaissent, à des degrés divers, la crainte de l’homme. Les apôtres de Jésus Christ l’ont abandonné et se sont enfuis lorsque les soldats se sont emparés de lui dans le jardin de Gethsémané. Plus tard, dans la cour du grand prêtre, désarçonné et en proie à la crainte, Pierre a nié faire partie des disciples de Jésus et même le connaître (Marc 14:48-50, 66-72; Jean 18:15-27). Mais grâce à l’aide qu’ils ont reçue, les apôtres ont retrouvé leur équilibre spirituel. Par contre, aux jours du roi Jéhoïakim, Urie, fils de Schémaïah, fut terrassé par la crainte au point d’abandonner son service de prophète de Jéhovah et de fuir le pays, ce qui ne l’empêcha pas d’être capturé et tué. — Jérémie 26:20-23.
      Comment vaincre la crainte de l’homme? 
      Après nous avoir prévenus que “trembler devant les hommes, voilà ce qui tend un piège”, Proverbes 29:25 ajoute: “Mais celui qui se confie en Jéhovah sera protégé.” La réponse tient donc dans la confiance en Jéhovah. Cette confiance s’appuie sur la connaissance et l’expérience. L’étude de sa Parole nous démontre que les voies de Jéhovah sont droites. Nous découvrons des événements attestant qu’il est digne de confiance, que ses promesses sont sûres (y compris celle de la résurrection), qu’il est amour et qu’il est tout-puissant. Lorsqu’ensuite nous agissons conformément à cette connaissance, accomplissant ce que Jéhovah demande et rejetant fermement ce qu’il condamne, nous commençons à constater dans notre propre cas qu’il prend soin de ses serviteurs avec amour et que l’on peut compter sur lui. Nous acquérons personnellement la certitude que sa puissance est à l’œuvre pour que s’accomplisse sa volonté. Notre confiance en lui s’accroît, de même que notre amour pour lui et notre désir sincère de ne pas lui déplaire. Cette confiance est bâtie sur un fondement solide. Elle est un rempart contre la crainte de l’homme.
      Notre confiance en Jéhovah, alliée à la crainte pieuse, nous rendra fermes en faveur du bien dans le cas où un employeur menacerait de nous renvoyer si nous refusions de participer à des pratiques commerciales malhonnêtes (voir Michée 6:11, 12). Grâce à cette crainte pieuse, des milliers de chrétiens persévèrent dans le vrai culte malgré l’opposition de membres de leur famille. Elle donne aussi aux jeunes le courage de se faire connaître comme Témoins de Jéhovah à l’école, et elle les affermit face aux moqueries de leurs camarades de classe qui méprisent les principes bibliques. Ainsi, une adolescente Témoin de Jéhovah a dit: “Ce qu’ils pensent m’est bien égal. L’important, c’est ce que pense Jéhovah.”
      La même conviction donne aux vrais chrétiens la force de rester attachés aux voies de Jéhovah lorsque leur vie est en jeu. Ils savent qu’ils risquent d’être persécutés par le monde. Ils sont conscients que les apôtres ont été fouettés et que même Jésus Christ a été frappé et tué par des hommes méchants (Marc 14:65; 15:15-39; Actes 5:40; voir aussi Daniel 3:16-18). Mais les serviteurs de Jéhovah sont assurés qu’il peut leur donner la force d’endurer, qu’avec son aide ils peuvent remporter la victoire, que Jéhovah récompensera sans faute ses fidèles, si besoin en les ressuscitant dans son monde nouveau. Leur amour pour Dieu ajouté à la crainte pieuse les pousse puissamment à éviter toute action qui pourrait lui déplaire.
      C’est parce qu’ils étaient animés d’une telle motivation que les Témoins de Jéhovah ont supporté les horreurs des camps de concentration nazis dans les années 30 et 40. Ils ont pris à cœur le conseil de Jésus consigné en Luc 12:4, 5: “D’autre part, je vous le dis à vous, mes amis: Ne craignez pas ceux qui tuent le corps, et qui après cela ne peuvent rien faire de plus. Mais je vais vous indiquer qui vous devez craindre: craignez celui qui, après avoir tué, a le pouvoir de jeter dans la Géhenne. Oui, je vous le dis, Celui-là, craignez-le.” Par exemple, Gustav Auschner, un Témoin qui avait été interné dans le camp de concentration de Sachsenhausen, a écrit plus tard: ‘Les SS ont exécuté August Dickmann et ont menacé de nous passer tous par les armes si nous refusions de signer un document par lequel nous abjurions notre foi. Pas un seul n’a signé. Notre crainte de déplaire à Jéhovah était plus forte que la crainte de leurs balles.’ La crainte de l’homme mène aux compromis, mais la crainte de Dieu nous affermit pour faire le bien.
      La préservation de la vie
      Noé a connu les derniers jours du monde antédiluvien. Jéhovah avait décidé de détruire le monde d’alors en raison de la méchanceté des humains. Toutefois, en attendant, Noé a vécu dans un monde où régnaient la violence, l’immoralité sexuelle choquante et le mépris de la volonté divine. Noé a prêché la justice, et pourtant “ils ne s’aperçurent de rien jusqu’à ce que le déluge vînt et les emportât tous”. (Matthieu 24:39.) Noé n’a cependant pas renoncé à l’activité que Dieu lui avait confiée. Il fit “selon tout ce que Dieu lui avait ordonné. Ainsi fit-il”. (Genèse 6:22.) Qu’est-ce qui a permis à Noé, année après année et jusqu’au déluge, de toujours agir comme il convenait? Hébreux 11:7 répond: “Par la foi, Noé, divinement averti de choses qu’on ne voyait pas encore, fit montre d’une crainte pieuse.” Pour cette raison, sa femme, ses fils, leurs femmes et lui ont été sauvés du déluge.
       Notre époque ressemble de bien des manières à celle de Noé (Luc 17:26, 27). De nouveau un avertissement est lancé. Révélation 14:6, 7 parle d’un ange qui vole au milieu du ciel et invite les gens de toute nation et tribu et langue à ‘craindre Dieu et à lui donner gloire’. Quel que puisse être le comportement du monde autour de vous, obéissez à ces paroles, puis transmettez l’invitation à autrui. À l’instar de Noé, agissons avec foi et manifestons une crainte pieuse. Par cela, des vies peuvent être sauvées: la vôtre et celle de nombre de vos semblables. Lorsque nous considérons les bienfaits dont profitent ceux qui craignent le vrai Dieu, nous ne pouvons que souscrire aux paroles du psalmiste divinement inspiré qui chanta: 
      “Heureux est l’homme qui craint Jéhovah, dans les commandements de qui il prend grand plaisir!” — Psaume 112:1.

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    • Darlene  »  T.B. (Twyla)

      I can not open study material 
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