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    • By Jack Ryan
      The locusts of Joel Chapter 2 no longer refer to Jehovah's Witnesses and events surrounding 1919.
      The locusts in Revelation chapter 22 however still do refer to the anointed, but are now no longer connected with the prophecy on Joel.
       
      Joel 2 now refers to the "Babylonians", the coalition of nations that will try to destroy God's people.
      The context of Joel chapter 2 points the time period of fulfillment to Jehovah's Day in the Great Tribulation and how God will save his people.

    • By The Librarian
      (If someone wants to start making a copy of this list in another language topic on here please do...or if I missed something please leave a comment below )
      Part of series on:

      Doctrines unchanged since 1879
      Biblical infallibility. Early copies of Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence made reference to the Bible as God's "infallible Word".[71] (this has slightly changed in 2015) God's name is Jehovah. Watch Tower Society founder Charles Taze Russell used the name "Jehovah" occasionally, but not consistently, when referring to God.[72] Jesus Christ gave his human life as a ransom sacrifice; belief in Jesus necessary for salvation. Russell believed that God's design for mankind was a restitution or restoration to the perfection and glory lost in Eden. This depended on God providing a ransom for all mankind to release them from the inevitability of death. Christ became that ransom sacrifice.[73][74] The timing of Christ's Second Coming, or "presence", can be calculated through Bible chronology. Russell believed the timing of Christ's advent could be calculated by determining the length and termination point of the "Gentile Times"[75][76] and also by calculating the close of six "thousand-year days" (6000 years) of human history, at which point God's Kingdom would be established.[62][77][78][79][80] Christ's return to earth was invisible. Russell claimed the Greek word parousia (Matthew 24:37) referred to a period of time, rendered more accurately as "presence" than "coming"[81] Paradise earth to be restored, humans to live forever.[82][83][84] Evolution is a teaching contrary to the Bible and denies the need of redemption by Christ.[85][need quotation to verify][86] Humans created as living souls.[87] The dead are unconscious, awaiting resurrection.[88] Anointed individuals are resurrected to heaven with spirit bodies.[89] God's Kingdom is an organized heavenly government over earth, ruled by Jesus and the anointed.[90] 1880–1889
      1880: Clergy-laity distinction viewed as unscriptural.[91] 1881: Rejection of the Trinity doctrine.[92][93][94] Russell claimed the Trinity doctrine had "not a word of Scripture" to support it. He explained: "We understand the Scriptures to teach that the Holy Spirit is not a separate and distinct person, but that it is the divine mind or influence—the motive power of Divinity exercised everywhere and for any purpose, at His pleasure."[95][96][97] In 1877 Russell and co-author N. H. Barbour had criticized the anti-Trinitarian view of the Christadelphians;[98] an 1880 book by Zion's Watch Tower writer J. H. Paton emphasised that the Holy Spirit was a person[99] and early Watch Tower issues referred to the Holy Spirit as "he"[100][101][102] and part of the "Divine Three".[103] 1881: Faith alone is not enough for someone's becoming a joint-heir with Christ in heaven, but also a life of "self-sacrifice in the service of the truth" is required.[104] 1882: No hellfire. According to Russell, most references to "hell" in the New Testament were more accurately translated as "grave".[105][106] 1887: The New Covenant, which Russell had claimed since 1880 would be inaugurated only after the last of the 144,000 anointed Christians had been taken to heaven,[107] was said to be "now in force".[108][109] 1890–1899[edit] 1890: The "Time of the End" of Daniel 12:4 is identified as beginning in October 1799—when Napoleon invaded Egypt and ended the power of the papacy—and closing in 1914, at which point violent worldwide revolution would mark the end of the old world order and the beginning of a new one.[110] 1891: Biblical rapture is not a sudden event. The anointed are changed into spirit form, throughout the whole period of Christ's presence, at the time of each one's physical death.[111][112] 1897: "This generation" of Matthew 23:36 defined as "people living contemporaneously."[113] 1900–1909
      1904: Worldwide descent into anarchy and disintegration of human rule, previously predicted to occur in October 1914,[114][115] changed to "after October 1914".[116] 1904: 144,000 "elect" to go to heaven. Russell believed God had chosen a "fixed and limited ... number who should constitute the New Creation of God". God had not foreordained individuals, but those who met his "moral qualities and heart measurements" would be chosen to go to heaven.[117][118] 1904: "Great Company" of Revelation 7:9, 14 identified as a secondary spiritual class who have "insufficient zeal for the Lord, the Truth and the brethren" who are granted heavenly life, but on a lower spiritual plane.[119] In heaven they serve as servants rather than kings and priests.[120][121]  
      1907: The inauguration of the New Covenant described as belonging "exclusively to the coming age."[122] Russell began to teach that the "church" (144,000 anointed Christians) had no mediator, but itself joined Christ as a joint messiah and mediator during the millennium.[109][123] 1910–1919
      1914: Length of each creative 'day' of Genesis defined as precisely 7000 years.[124] 1914: Russell "by no means confident" 1914 would bring the upheaval he had predicted.[125] 1916: Timing of Armageddon, previously claimed to have begun in 1874 and to culminate in 1914,[126][127] changed to have begun in 1914.[128][129] 1919: Preaching work displaces "character development" as the "chief concern" of Bible Students. Russell had taught that Christians should embark on the gradual process of "sanctification" and personality improvement to fight sinful inclinations[130][131] In 1919 The Watch Tower declared that the primary concern for Bible Students was to labor with God to find members of the elect class.[132] 1919: The seven angels, or "messengers", of Revelation chapters 1 and 2 are identified "for the first time in the history of the church" as St Paul, St John, Arius, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Martin Luther and Charles Taze Russell.[133] 1920–1929
      1920: Jesus Christ's crowning as king of God's kingdom, previously 1878,[134] changed to 1914.[135] 1920: The preaching of the gospel of the kingdom "in all the world for a witness unto all nations", (Matthew 24:14), previously claimed to have already been completed,[136] identified as a work for modern-day anointed Christians.[137] 1922: Establishment of God's kingdom over earth, previously expected to result in the destruction of human governments and a "new rule of righteousness" by the end of 1914[138] changed to an invisible event in heaven in 1914.[139][140] 1923: "Sheep class", mentioned at Matthew 25:31-46 defined as those who do good to "elect" class and are rewarded by surviving Armageddon and gaining life under Christ's thousand-year reign.[141][142][143] Russell had previously applied the parable to the work of dividing the people in the Millennial Age.[144] 1923: Limitations placed on extent of Christ's ransom and resurrection hope. Russell had taught that Christ had provided a ransom for all; a 1923 Watch Tower article asserted that clergymen would not be resurrected and benefit from the ransom;[145] later articles claimed that benefits of the ransom would also be denied to Adam and Eve; those who died in the Noachian flood; those who died at Sodom and Gomorrah; both the falls of Jerusalem and those who will die at Armageddon.[146] 1925: Armageddon identified as a battle between God and Satan, resulting in the overthrow of human governments and false religion. Armageddon had previously been understood to mean a "melee between contending forces of mankind", resulting in social revolution and political anarchy.[147][148][149][150][151][152] 1925: Michael, the dragon and the man-child in Revelation chapter 12, previously defined as the Pope, the Roman Empire and the papacy, redefined as Jesus, Satan and the New Nation (or Kingdom), respectively.[153][154] 1926: Use of name Jehovah, previously used sparingly at assemblies and in public preaching, given new emphasis. Announced in January 1, 1926 issue of The Watchtower.[155]   1926: "Satan's organization" defined as the rulers of politics, commerce and religion and all their followers.[156] 1927: "First resurrection" of "sleeping saints", previously 1878,[157] changed to 1918.[158][159] 1927: Identification of "time of the end" as a 115-year period from 1799 to 1914 discontinued.[160] Final reference appeared in J. F. Rutherford's Creation (1927).[161] 1927: "Faithful and wise servant" of Matthew 24:45-47, previously defined as Russell since 1897,[162][163][164][165] changed to a "class" comprising all remaining "anointed" Christians.[166] 1927: "This generation" of Matthew 23:36, previously defined as "people living contemporaneously"[113] changed to a remnant of the "anointed" on earth during Armageddon.[167] 1928: Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, previously regarded as a testimony to the Bible and its chronology,[48][168] declared to have no prophetic significance and built under the direction of Satan.[169] 1928: Celebration of Christmas, previously embraced as a "tribute of respect" to Christ,[170][171] discontinued because of its "pagan origin".[172] 1929: Honoring of God's name described as "the outstanding issue facing all intelligent creation".[173] 1929: "Superior authorities" of Romans 13:1 to whom Christians had to show subjection and obedience, previously defined as governmental authorities, redefined as God and Christ only.[174][175] Secular state then regarded as demonic and almost without redeeming features.[176] 1929: Beginning of "Time of the End" of Daniel 12:4 changed from 1799 to 1914.[177] 1930–1939
      1931: Adoption of the name "Jehovah's witnesses".[178] 1932: Assertion that God's Holy Spirit ceased operating on his people when "[Jesus] the Lord came to his tem ple, in 1918",[179][180] at which point Jesus 'took charge of feeding the flock'.[181] 1932: The "Jews" who will be restored to their homeland, previously defined as literal Jews,[182] redefined as the Christian congregation.[176][183][184] 1932: Identification of "Jonadabs", a "sheep" class of people who take a stand for righteousness and who are to be preserved by God through Armageddon to gain everlasting life on earth. The term was drawn from the account at 2 Kings 10.[185] In 1920 Rutherford had written that it was "unreasonable" to think God was developing any class other than the little flock (the 144,000 to attain heavenly kingship) and the "great company" (second spiritual class also with a heavenly hope). In 1934 the Watchtower explained that the "Jonadabs" survive Armageddon by living in the figurative "City of refuge", represented by remaining affiliated with the Watch Tower Society.[186] 1932: Watch Tower Society adherents with an earthly hope should join the worldwide preaching work.[187] In 1927 The Watchtower had directed that only anointed Christians were "entitled" to take part in the ministry.[188] 1933: Christ's parousia – his second coming or invisible "presence" – previously established as 1874 and reaffirmed as late as 1929,[189] changed to 1914.[190] 1934: Vindication of God's name becomes central doctrine.[191] Rutherford noted that God had provided Jesus Christ's sacrifice as the redemption price for sinful humankind, but wrote that this was "secondary to the vindication of Jehovah's name".[192] 1934: The 1917 teaching that Russell was exercising strong influence from heaven on the "harvesting" of anointed Christians[193] described as "foolish".[194] 1935: "Great crowd" of Revelation 7 defined as the "sheep" of Matthew 25, resulting in a redirection of proselytizing efforts from gathering the "elect" (remnant of the 144,000 with a heavenly destiny) to gathering an indeterminate number of people who could survive Armageddon and receive everlasting life on earth. Previously, the "great crowd" was believed to have a heavenly hope.[141][195] 1935: Tobacco use "unclean" and prohibited for Bethel (branch office) staff and traveling overseers.[196] 1935: Vaccines, described since 1921 as "devilish" and "an outrage",[197][198] condemned as a violation of God's law.[199] 1936: Device on which Jesus was killed, previously defined as a wooden cross, redefined as a "tree".[200] An image of the cross appeared on the front page of The Watch Tower until October 1931.[201] 1937: Jehovah's Witnesses with an earthly hope could be described as "Christian".[202] In 1930 the Watchtower had asserted that the term "Christian" could be applied only to anointed followers of Christ.[203] 1938: God's mandate to "be fruitful and multiply" said to apply only after the start of the millennium. The Watchtower said the mandate had never been carried out under righteous conditions, and so had failed to be fulfilled according to God's will. Rutherford urged Witnesses to delay marriage and the bearing of children until after Armageddon.[204] 1939: Witnesses required to demonstrate complete neutrality in worldly affairs.[205] 1940–1949
      1942: Tobacco prohibition applied to all appointed positions, such as congregation overseers and servants.[206] 1943: Destruction of Jerusalem moved from 606 BCE to 607 BCE, when the Watch Tower Society realised there was no year zero between 1 BCE and 1 CE, in order to maintain calculations regarding 1914; return of the Jews from Babylon to Jerusalem moved from 536 BCE to 537 BCE to maintain 70 years after 607 BCE.[207][208] 1943: Adam's creation, previously 4129 BCE[209] or 4128 BCE,[210] moved forward 100 years to 4028 BCE. The shift in dates also moved the termination point of 6,000 years of human history from October 1872[211] to 1972.[212][213] 1944: Responsibility for administering discipline, including disfellowshipping, of dissident members passed from entire congregation to congregational judicial committees.[214][215] Russell had recommended in a 1904 publication that a congregation "committee" investigate a congregant's serious "error or sin", but the entire congregation voted whether "to withdraw from him its fellowship".[216] 1944: Adam's creation, previously 4028 BCE, changed to 4026 BCE.[217] 1945: Blood transfusions forbidden.[218][219] Russell had viewed the prohibition on eating blood in Acts 15:19-29 as a "suggestion" to gentile Christians in order to "guard against stumbling themselves or becoming stumbling blocks to others"[220] and ensure peace within the early church.[221] 1950–1959
      1951: "This generation" of Matthew 23:36, previously defined as a remnant of the "anointed" on earth during Armageddon[167] changed to "a 'generation' in the ordinary sense" who were alive in 1914.[222] 1951: Celebration of birthdays considered "objectionable" because celebrations are "steeped in false worship" and exalt humans.[223] 1952: Vaccines, previously condemned, considered acceptable.[224][225] 1953: Adam's creation, previously 4026 BCE, changed to 4025 BCE. End of God's 6,000-year "rest day" ending in northern hemisphere autumn 1976.[226] 1954: Worship of Jesus, previously considered appropriate and necessary,[227][228][229] deemed inappropriate, with the New World Translation translating proskyne′ō as "do obeisance to" rather than "worship" (King James Version).[230] 1955: Operation of Holy Spirit, asserted in 1932 to have ceased in 1918, stated as having been still operative after 1918.[231]  
      1960–1969
      1961: Acceptance of blood transfusion deemed a disfellowshipping offence.[232] Acceptance of human organ transplant stipulated a personal matter to be decided without criticism.[233] 1962: "Superior authorities" of Romans 13:1 redefined as earthly governments, reverting the 1929 change[234] to
      ussell's 1886 teaching.[235] A year earlier, Russell's view was considered to have made the Watch Tower Bible Students unclean in God's eyes.[174][236] 1963: Adam's creation changed back to 4026 BCE.[237] End of 6,000 years of human history due in northern hemisphere autumn 1975.[238] 1967: Human organ transplants equated with cannibalism,[239] "a practice abhorrent to all civilized people", and said to be a procedure not permitted by God.[240] The Watchtower article announcing the view is interpreted by commentators as a prohibition.[9][241] In a 1972 article, Jehovah's Witnesses are described as having taken a "stand" against organ transplants, saving them from the consequences of such operations, on the basis of the description of the procedure as "a form of cannibalism".[242] 1968: Interval between Adam's creation and the close of the sixth creative "day", previously "quite some time",[213][217][243][244] changed to "a comparatively short period of time" that "may involve only a difference of weeks or months, not years." The change led to expectations that Christ's 1,000 year reign could begin in 1975.[245] 1970–1979
      1973: Tobacco use banned. Tobacco users not to be accepted for baptism and baptized Witnesses to be disfellowshipped if they continue to smoke after "a reasonable period of time, such as six months".[246] 1980–1989
      1980: Acceptance of human organ transplants stipulated as a matter of personal choice not warranting congregational discipline. View of transplants as cannibalism now said to be held only by "some Christians".[247] The Watchtower article is regarded by commentators as a reversal of Society's 1967 position that the procedure is not permitted by God.[9][241] 1981: Members who formally resign membership of the religion (disassociate) are to be shunned in the same manner as disfellowshipped Witnesses.[248] 1983: Martial arts and carrying "firearms for protection against humans" disqualify a Witness from "special privileges in the congregation", such as appointment as elder.[249] 1988: Length of creative 'days' in Genesis, previously defined as exactly 7,000 years each,[250] changed to "at least thousands of years in length" [emphasis added][251] 1990-1999
      1990: Interval between Adam's creation and the close of the sixth creative "day" changed to "some time", employing a 1963 reference rather than the 1968 change.[252] 1992: The "modern-day Nethinim", previously defined as synonymous with the "other sheep",[253] redefined as a subset of the "other sheep" who serve in positions of authority within the organization as "helpers" to the Governing Body.[254] 1995: "This generation" at Matthew 23:36, previously defined as a typical human lifespan since Jesus' parousia in 1914,[222] redefined as a class of people displaying certain characteristics for an indefinite period of time.[255][256][257][258][259] 1995: Fulfillment of Jesus' parable of the separating of sheep and goats, previously considered to have been ongoing since 1914, changed to after the start of the 'great tribulation'.[260][261] 1995: The expression "vindication of Jehovah’s name" declared unnecessary, with emphasis on "vindicating his sovereignty" and "sanctifying his name" as being more accurate.[262] The former expression had not appeared in any publication since 1991.[263] 1999: Voting is no longer prohibited. It is also not encouraged. 2000–2009
      2007: Selection of the 144,000 "anointed", previously considered to have ended in 1935,[264] changed to an indefinite period.[265] 2008: "This generation" redefined as "anointed" believers, who will "not pass away" before the great tribulation begins.[266] This was a return to the belief held in 1927.[167] 2010–2019
      2010: "This generation" redefined to refer to a new generation of "anointed" whose lives "overlap" with "the anointed who were on hand when the sign began to become evident in 1914".[267] 2012: "Faithful and discreet slave", previously defined as synonymous with the "anointed" and represented by the Governing Body,[268] redefined to refer to the Governing Body only. The "domestics", previously defined as each member of the "anointed" individually, redefined as including all members of the "anointed" and the "great crowd". The "evil slave" of Matthew 24:48, previously defined as former "anointed" members who reject Jesus, redefined as a hypothetical warning to the "faithful slave".[269][270] 2014: "Third Heaven" meaning at 2 Corinthians 12:2-4 clarified to mean the Messianic Kingdom (first announced at the 'Keep Seeking First God's Kingdom!' - 2014 Regional Convention) 2014 Coordinator of the Body of Elders limited to 80 years of age. Aged Elders asked to consider stepping down as of September 1, 2014 2014: "Gog of Magog" redefined at the Annual Meeting 2014: Formerly avoided, TV style evangelism is now embraced with the new JW Broadcasting at the Annual Meeting differentiated by a lack of request for donations as other Televangelists. 2014: Text Messages are now counted as "return visits" 2015: Sponsoring of TV Game Shows is started 2015: The Inspired Word of God Can Include Imperfect Bible Translations 2016 Ezekiel chapter 9 - Identity of the man with the secretary's inkhorn changed from the anointed to Jesus Christ 2017 JW men sporting beards in field service appear more regularly - example 2018: "Russia and its Allies" are again "The King of the North" - 2018 Annual Meeting 2019: Two witness rule suspended in cases of Child Sexual Abuse after global outcry - Discussion here 2019: The understanding of the Locusts of Joel 2 and Revelation 22 changed - Discussion here  
      References
      71. Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, January 1, 1908, page 2.
      72. Franz 2007, p. 492
      73. Russell 1886, pp. 149–172
      74. Charles Taze Russell, "Harvest Gatherings and Siftings", Zion's Watch Tower, July 15, 1906, p. 3821 (reprint).
      75. 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, page 36.
      76. "Who Can Read the Sign Aright?", Watchtower, February 1, 1985, page 10.
      77. Rogerson, Alan (1969), Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses, Constable & Co, London, pp. 17–23, ISBN 978-0-09-455940-0
      78. Barbour 1877, pp. 67–77
      79. Penton 1997, p. 20
      80. Russell 1889, pp. 38, 39
      81. Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, August 1879, Reprints 20, page 3.
      82. C. T. Russell, The Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return, 1877.
      83. The Watch Tower, July 1, 1879, p. 7 (reprint).
      84. "Speak the Pure Language and Live Forever!", The Watchtower, May 1, 1991, page 17, "In 1879...a small Bible-study group led by Charles Taze Russell was meeting in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. They had become certain that Jesus’ second coming...would restore Paradise on earth, with eternal life for obedient humans."
      85. Charles Taze Russell, "Haverst Gatherings and Siftings", Zion's Watch Tower, July 15, 1906, p. 3824 (reprint).
      86. C. T. Russell, The Divine Plan of the Ages, 1886, study IX, page 172, "These things are clearly taught in the Scriptures, from beginning to end, and are in direct opposition to the Evolution theory; or, rather, such "babblings of science, falsely so called," are in violent and irreconcilable conflict with the Word of God."
      87. Barbour 1877, pp. 6, 42
      88. Barbour 1877, p. 42
      89. Barbour 1877, p. 165
      90. Barbour 1877, p. 48,49
      91. Watch Tower, January 1880, Watch Tower Reprints page 64 As Retrieved 2009-09-23, page 2
      92. Watch Tower, April 1881, Watch Tower Reprints page 207 As Retrieved 2009-09-23, page 7, "And why did they thus keep the people in ignorance? Because they feared that if people knew this, the only text which gives even a shadow of support to the doctrine of the TRINITY, to be an interpolation to support a papal error, they might renounce the error".
      93. Zion's Watch Tower, September 1881, Watch Tower Reprints page 278 As Retrieved 2009-09-23, page 132, "As to the motives and errors which may have led to these unwarranted interpolations of the [Bible] text, we may be able to offer a suggestion, viz., the last mentioned (1 John 5:7,8) was probably intended to give authority and sanction to the doctrine of the "Trinity."
      94. Watch Tower, October 1881, Watch Tower Reprints page 290 As Retrieved 2009-09-23, page 4, ""He gave his only begotten Son." This phraseology brings us into conflict with an old Babylonian theory, viz.: Trinitarianism. If that doctrine is true, how could there be any Son to give? A begotten Son, too? Impossible. If these three are one, did God send himself? And how could Jesus say: "My Father is greater than I." John 14:28. [emphasis retained from original]"
      95. Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, July 1882, Reprints 370, page 3.
      96. Penton, M. J. (1997), Apocalypse Delayed (2nd ed.), University of Toronto Press, p. 343, note 64, "Barbour and Paton were trinitarians ... although Henry Grew and George Stetson, two others who had influenced him, were non–trinitarians, Russell did not take a stand on the matter, at least publicly, until after his split with Paton."
      97. Jehovah's Witnesses, Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, page 120.
      98. N. H. Barbour, C. T. Russell, Three Worlds, 1877, page 57, "I am beginning to think Age-to-come people, and many others among pre-millennialists, do not believe in anything of a spiritual nature, or have the most remote comprehension of things of that order; either that the saint is raised 'a spiritual body,' or in the existence of spiritual beings, or even of the Holy Spirit itself. I know one class of age-to-come believers, the Christadelphians, do not. The Holy Spirit, say they, is but a principle, or element of power, and not an intelligence. It is nothing more nor less than 'electricity;' is taught in one of their books, now before me. What wonder they discern only a fleshly future."
      99. J. H. Paton, Day Dawn, A.D. Jones, 1880, page 225, 229, "The work of the Holy Spirit is one of the most important elements in the plan of revelation and salvation. He is always spoken of by the Saviour as a Person, and is called the " Spirit of truth." We will follow the Saviour's example in this, though we do not propose to deal with the philosophy of that fact. He being the Spirit of truth, it is His mission to make known the truth."
      100. Zion's Watch Tower, July 1880, page 8, "But the Spirit cannot resign his work until it is complete."
      101. Zion's Watch Tower, August 1880, page 4, "Then let the Spirit use his sword upon others as he may see fit to humble them, strip them of pride, and bring them to the rock that is higher than they."
      102. Zion's Watch Tower, November 1880, page 8, "The Spirit is still our leader and instructor. He is now telling us of Him who comes by way of unseen presence that He is here present."
      103. Zion's Watch Tower, March 1881, page 5, "The number three is surprisingly prominent, as the subject opens before us ... We would first call attention to the Divine Three – Father, Son and Holy Spirit – often mentioned in the Bible."
      104. Charles Taze Russell, "Harvest Gatherings and Siftings", Zion's Watch Tower, July 15, 1906, p. 3825 (reprint).
      105. Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, May 1882, Reprints 356, page 8.
      106. Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, September 1882, Reprints 392, page 4.
      107. "The Three Great Covenants", Zion's Watch Tower, March 1880.
      108. "The New Covenant vs the Law Covenant", Zion's Watch Tower, September 1887.
      109. Wills 2006, pp. 63–68
      110. Russell 1891, pp. 38,47–59
      111. Russell 1891, pp. 239–242
      112. Charles Taze Russell, "Harvest Gatherings and Siftings", Zion's Watch Tower, July 15, 1906, p. 3823 (reprint).
      113. Studies in the Scriptures 4. pp. 602–603.
      114. Russell 1889, p. 78
      115. "The Outlook - War & Prosperity", Zion's Watch Tower & Herald of Christ's Presence, September 15, 1901 (R2876 page 292)
      116. "Universal Anarchy", Zion's Watch Tower & Herald of Christ's Presence, July 1, 1904 (R3389 page 197)
      117. The New Creation, (Volume VI of Studies in the Scriptures), 1904, page 179: “We have every reason to believe that the definite, fixed number of the elect [chosen anointed ones] is that several times stated in Revelation (7:4; 14:1); namely, 144,000 ‘redeemed from amongst men."
      118. "The Great Company", Zion's Watch Tower, October 15, 1904.
      119. The New Creation, (Volume VI of Studies in the Scriptures), 1904, page 168-170.
      120. Wills 2006, pp. 57, 58
      121. "The Rank of the Ancient Worthies", "The Great Company", Zion's Watch Tower, October 15, 1904.
      122. "Our Advocate, the World's Mediator," Zion's Watch Tower, January 1, 1907.
      123. "The Word Mediator Used Differently,", Watch Tower, January 1909.
      124. Scenario of the Photo-Drama of Creation, ©1914 International Bible Students Association, page 3
      125. "Views from the Watch Tower", Zion's Watch Tower & Herald of Christ's Presence, January 1, 1914 (R5373: page 3)
      126. Russell 1889, p. 101
      127. "Overcome With Wine", Zion's Watch Tower & Herald of Christ's Presence, January 15, 1892 (R1357: page 27)
      128. "What Smiting of the Waters May Mean", Zion's Watch Tower & Herald of Christ's Presence, February 1, 1916 (R5845: page 38)
      129. "The Burning of the Tares", Zion's Watch Tower & Herald of Christ's Presence, September 1, 1916 (R5951: page 265)
      130. The Watch Tower, October 1, 1913, pgs 291-295.
      131. Zion's Watch Tower, April 1, 1916, pages 98-99.
      132. The Watch Tower, December 15, 1919, pg 375.
      133. "The Table of the Great King,", The Watchtower, April 1, 1919, as cited by James Penton, Apocalypse Delayed, pg 181.
      134. Russell 1889, p. 233
      135. Watch Tower, July 1, 1920, page 196.
      136. C. T. Russell, The Battle of Armageddon, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1897, page 568.
      137. "Gospel of the Kingdom", The Watchtower, July 1, 1920, pages 199-200.
      138. "View from the Tower", Zion's Watch Tower & Herald of Christ's Presence, January 15, 1892 (R1354: page 19)
      139. New Heavens and a New Earth, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1953, page 225.
      140. Watch Tower, November 1, 1922, pages 332-337.
      141. Penton 1997, p. 72
      142."The Keys of the Kingdom and the Great Crowd", Watchtower, October 1, 1971, page 14.
      143. "The Parable of the sheep and goats", The Watchtower, October 15, 1923, pages 307-314.
      144. Wills 2006, p. 113
      145. Watch Tower, October 15, 1923.
      146. Wills 2006, pp. 141, 142
      147. Watch Tower, January 1, 1925.
      148. Rutherford 1930, p. 134
      149. Rutherford 1930, p. 223
      150. Rutherford 1930, p. 251
      151. Zion's Watch Tower, August 1, 1892, page 238.
      152. The Finished Mystery, 1917, pages 256-258. See comment on Rev. 16:16-20.
      153. Watch Tower, March 1, 1925, page 69.
      154. J. F. Rutherford, The Battle of Armageddon, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1889, page 541.
      155. "Restoration of True Religion", Watchtower, March 1, 1954, page 150.
      156. J.F. Rutherford, Deliverance, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1926, pages 268,269.
      157. Russell 1891, p. 306
      158. Watch Tower, June 1, 1927.
      159. Rutherford 1930, p. 226
      160. Russell 1891, p. 23
      161. Creation by J.F. Rutherford, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1927, chapter 12, page 314.
      162. The Battle of Armageddon (Part IV, "Studies in the Scriptures") by C. T. Russell, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1897, page 613.
      163. Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, July 15, 1906, page 215.
      164. Franz 2002, pp. 78–79
      165. Watch Tower, March 1, 1923, pages 68 and 71, as cited by Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience, Commentary Press, 2007, page 63.
      166. Watch Tower, January 1, 1927 and February, pages 7, 51-7, as cited by Penton, Apocalypse Delayed.
      167.The Watchtower: 62. February 15, 1927.
      168. Watchtower, June 15, 1922, page 187, as reproduced by Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience, page 225, 226.
      169. Watchtower, 1928, pages 339-45, 355-62, as cited by M. James Penton, Apocalypse Delayed, University of Toronto Press, page 170.
      170. "The Prince of Peace", Zion's Watch Tower & Herald of Christ's Presence, December 1, 1904, page 364.
      171. The Golden Age, December 24, 1919, page 215: "Christmas is regarded by many people as the date of the birth of the babe Jesus in a manger at Bethlehem. Whether the date is correct or not is of small importance, but the event was and is of the greatest importance."
      172. 1975 Yearbook, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, page 146
      173. Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, page 152.
      174. Franz 2007, p. 484
      175. "The Higher Powers", Watch Tower, June 1929, pages 163-169, 179-185.
      176. Penton 1997, p. 65
      177. The Watchtower, December 1, 1929, pages 355-357, as cited by Edmond C. Gruss, The Four Presidents of the Watch Tower Society, page 117 and Tony Wills, A People For His name, page 48.
      178. Penton 1997, p. 62
      179. Preservation by J. F. Rutherford, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1932, page 103-194.
      180. Watch Tower, October 1, 1932, page 294.
      181. Preparation, ©1933 by J. F. Rutherford, Watch Tower, page 196
      182. The Watchtower, February 15, 1925, page 57, "We know the work of restitution must come to the Jews first, and through them to the rest of the world. As the Scriptures state that Jerusalem is to be the capital of the world and that the ancient worthies are to be princes in all the earth, we are warranted in expecting that the kingdom work will begin at Jerusalem."
      183. Vindication, Book 2, by J.F. Rutherford, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1932, pages 258, 269, 295.
      184. Vindication, Book 3, by J.F. Rutherford, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1932, page 333.
      185. Jehovah's Witnesses – Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, page 165.
      186. Watchtower, August 15, 1934, as cited by Tony Wills, A People For His Name, pg 192-193.
      187. Vindication, J. F. Rutherford, Book III, pages 83. 84.
      188. Watchtower, January 15, 1927, pg 26, 27, "He who is called to be a minister of God must be a new creature, begotten of God's Holy Spirit; none other can have a share. In this ministry only those who are new creatures in Jesus Christ are entitled to share." As cited by Tony Wills, A People For His Name,(2007), pg 194.
      189. Prophecy by J. F. Rutherford, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1929, chapter 4, page 65.
      190. Watch Tower, December 1, 1933, page 362: "In the year 1914 that due time of waiting came to an end. Christ Jesus received the authority of the kingdom and was sent forth by Jehovah to rule amidst his enemies. The year 1914, therefore, marks the second coming of the Lord Jesus Christ, the King of glory."
      191. Penton 1997, p. 69
      192. Jehovah, J.F. Rutherford, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1934.
      193. Watchtower, November 1, 1917, page 6161.
      194. J.F. Rutherford, Jehovah, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1934, page 191.
      195. Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1959, page 140.
      196. The Watchtower, March 1, 1935
      197. The Golden Age, October 12, 1921, Page 17, "Vaccination never prevented anything and never will, and is the most barbarous practice ... We are in the last days; and the devil is slowly losing his hold, making a strenuous effort meanwhile to do all the damage he can, and to his credit can such evils be placed ... Use your rights as American citizens to forever abolish the devilish practice of vaccinations."
      198. The Golden Age, January 5, 1929, Page 502, "Thinking people would rather have smallpox than vaccination, because the latter sows seeds of syphilis, cancers, eczema, erysipelas, scrofula, consumption, even leprosy and many other loathsome affections. Hence the practice of vaccinations is a crime, an outrage, and a delusion."
      199. The Golden Age, April 2, 1935, Page 465, "As vaccination is a direct injection of animal matter in the blood stream, vaccination is a direct violation of the law of Jehovah God."
      200. Riches, by J.F. Rutherford, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1936, page 27.
      201. Franz 2007, p. 150
      202. Watchtower, November 1, 1937, page 336, as cited by Tony Wills, A People For His Name, pg 195.
      203. Watchtower, March 1, 1930, page 71, "Since "Christ' means the anointed of God, it is manifestly true that no one can properly be termed a Christian who is not in Christ and who has not received the anointing."
      204. A People for His Name, Tony Wills, pgs 186-187, citing Watchtower October 15, 1938, pg 307, Watchtower, November 1, 1938, page 323, Watchtower, November 15, 1938, page 346.
      205. Watch Tower, November 1, 1939, as cited by Jehovah's Witnesses, Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, page 193.
      206. The Watchtower, July 1, 1942, pages 205-206
      207. "Questions from Readers". The Watchtower: 94. February 1, 1955. "Jehovah's witnesses from 1877 up to and including the publishing of "The Truth Shall Make You Free" of 1943 considered 536 B.C. as the year for the return of the Jews to Palestine"
      208. "Determining the Year by Fact and Bible". The Watchtower: 271–2. May 1, 1952. "Concerning the first error, Russell and others considered 1 B.C. to A.D. 1 as being two years whereas in fact this is only one year because, as has been said above, there is no "zero" year in the B.C.-A.D. system for counting years."
      209. Russell 1889, p. 54
      210. Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, May 15, 1896, R1980 page 112.
      211. Three Worlds, by N. H. Barbour and C. T. Russell, 1877, pages 67, 186, as cited by Edmund Gruss, The Jehovah's Witnesses and Prophetic Speculation, 1972, pages 62-63.
      212. The Truth Shall Make You Free, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1943, chapter 11, page 151.
      213. Gruss, Edmond C. (1972), The Jehovah's Witnesses and Prophetic Speculation, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co, pp. 68–69, ISBN 0-87552-306-4
      214. Penton 1997, p. 89
      215. The Watchtower, May 15, 1944.
      216. The New Creation, Watch Tower, 1904, pages 289-290, "The administration of discipline is not the function of the elders only, but of the entire [congregation]. ... If the reproved one fails to clear himself, and continues in the error or sin, then two or three brethren without previous prejudice should be asked to hear the matter and advise the disputants. (Elders they may or may not be, but their eldership would add no force or authority in the case except as their judgment might be the riper and their influence the more potent.) If this committee decide unanimously with either party, the other should acquiesce and the matter be wholly at an end--correction, or restitution, so far as possible, being promptly made. If either of the original disputants still persists in the wrong course, the [accuser, a committee member] or, preferably, all of these together, may then (but not sooner) exercise their privilege of bringing the matter before the [congregation]. Thus it is evident that the Elders were in no sense to be judges of the members—hearing and judgment were left to the [congregation]. The two preliminary steps (above mentioned) having been taken, the facts being certified to the elders, it would be their duty to call a general meeting of the [congregation], as a court--to hear the case in all of its particulars, and in the name and reverence of its Head to render a decision. ... if the transgressor refuse to hear (obey) the decision of the entire [congregation], ... the [congregation] is to withdraw from him its fellowship and any and all signs or manifestations of brotherhood. [emphasis retained from original]
      217. "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, 1 February 1955: 94–95
      218. Penton 1997, p. 153
      219. The Watchtower, July 1. 1945.
      220. The Watch Tower, November 15, 1892 p. 351.
      221. The Watch Tower, April 15, 1909 pp. 116-117, "These prohibitions had never come to the Gentiles, because they had never been under the Law Covenant; but so deeply rooted were the Jewish ideas on this subject that it was necessary to the peace of the Church that the Gentiles should observe this matter also ... these items thus superadded to the Law of Love should be observed by all spiritual Israelites as representing the Divine will.”
      222. The Watchtower: 404. July 1, 1951.
      223. Questions From Readers, Watchtower, October 1, 1951.
      224. The Watchtower, December 15, 1952.
      225. "Questions From Readers", Watchtower, September 15, 1958: "Q: Are we to consider the injection of serums such as diphtheria toxin antitoxin and blood fractions such as gamma globulin into the blood stream, for the purpose of building up resistance to disease by means of antibodies, the same as the drinking of blood or the taking of blood or blood plasma by means of transfusion? A: No, it does not seem necessary that we put the two in the same category, although we have done so in times past.
      226. "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, 1 February 1955: 95
      227. "Interesting Queries", Watch Tower, July 15, 1898, page 216.
      228. Watchtower, November 15, 1939, page 339: "Jehovah God commands all to worship Christ Jesus because Christ Jesus is the express image of his Father, Jehovah"
      229. Watchtower, October 15, 1945, page 313: "Since Jehovah God now reigns as King by means of his capital organization Zion, then whosoever would worship Him must also worship and bow down to Jehovah's Chief One in that capital organization, namely, Christ Jesus."
      230. "Questions From Readers", Watchtower, January 1, 1954, page 30.
      231. "Modern Restoration of True Worship (1919-1932)", The Watchtower, May 15, 1955, page 296, "Jesus—then to expand on a global scale—so now in the spring of 1919 there was an outpouring of Jehovah’s Holy Spirit organizationally upon the Christian remnant."
      232. Watchtower, January 15, 1961, page 63.
      233. Watchtower, August 1, 1961, page 480.
      234. Watchtower, November 15, 1962.
      235. The Divine Plan of the Ages, by C. T. Russell, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1886, page 266: "They taught the Church to obey the laws, and to respect those in authority because of their office, even if they were not personally worthy of esteem; to pay their appointed taxes, and, except where they conflicted with God's laws (Acts 4: 19; 5: 29), to offer no resistance to any established law. (Rom. 13: 1 - 7)"
      236. "The Congregation in the Time of the End", Watchtower, March 1, 1961, page 146.
      237. All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1963, page 286.
      238. "The Removal of Mankind's Chief Disturber", The Watchtower, 15 July 1967: 446–447
      239. Awake, June 8, 1968, Page 21 “Christian witnesses of Jehovah,... consider all transplants between humans as cannibalism.”
      240. Watchtower, November 15, 1967, pages 702-704
      241. Penton, M. J. Penton, Apocalypse Delayed, University of Toronto Press, pp. 165–171, "In 1967 the society suddenly decided that what had been permissible no longer was. Organ transplants suddenly became a form of human cannibalism ... Yet after many faithful Jehovah's Witnesses had suffered for their faith by giving up transplants which in some cases could have made their lives more pleasant and comfortable and by saving them from early death in others, the society again reversed itself."
      242. "Keep Abstaining from Blood", Awake!, July 8, 1972, page 28, "The stand of the Christian witnesses of Jehovah—that such transplants are in effect a form of cannibalism—proved a safeguard. How so? In that it spared them much frustration, grief and anxiety, which were experienced not only by the patients and their relatives but even by many of the assisting medical personnel."
      243. "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, February 1, 1955, page 95, "However, from our present chronology (which is admitted imperfect) at best the fall of the year 1976 would be the end of 6,000 years of human history for mankind... Obviously, whatever amount of Adam’s 930 years was lived before the beginning of that seventh-day rest of Jehovah, that unknown amount would have to be added to the 1976 date."
      244. Thy Kingdom Come by C. T. Russell, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1889, pages 127-128. "long enough [for Adam] to realize his lack of a companion" and an additional "two years would not be an improbable estimate" to have passed between Adam's creation and Edenic expulsion (beginning the seventh creative day).
      245. "Why Are You Looking Forward to 1975?", The Watchtower, August 15, 1968, page 499-500
      246. Watchtower, June 1, 1973, page 340.
      247. "Questions From Readers", Watchtower, March 15, 1980, page 31.
      248. John Dart, "Defectors Feel Witnsses' Wrath", Los Angeles Times, January 30, 1982, Part II, page 4, "The Sept. 15 Watchtower magazine told members that anyone who has written a letter of resignation should be shunned as if he had been 'disfellowshipped', or expelled ... 'This is a hardening, a tightening, of our policy,' confirmed William Van De Wall, a headquarters spokesman for the Watchtower Society. Denying any great membership losses, Van De Wall said the new directive was to counteract 'disgruntled' ex-members."
      249. “Seek Peace and Pursue It”, The Watchtower, July 15, 1983, page 25
      250. "Questions from readers", The Watchtower, January 1, 1987, page 30, "A study of the fulfillment of Bible prophecy and of our location in the stream of time strongly indicate that each of the creative days is 7,000 years long. It is understood that Christ’s reign of a thousand years will bring to a close God’s 7,000-year ‘rest day,’ the last ‘day’ of the creative week. Based on this reasoning, the entire creative week would be 49,000 years long."
      251. "Creation", Insight, volume 1, 1988 Watch Tower, page 545, "Since the seventh day has been continuing for thousands of years, it may reasonably be concluded that each of the six creative periods, or days, was at least thousands of years in length ... Ascribing not just 24 hours but a longer period of time, thousands of years, to each of the creative days better harmonizes with the evidence found in the earth itself."
      252. All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1990, page 286.
      253. Man's Salvation Out of World Distress at Hand!, pages 167–168 (1975)
      254. The Watchtower, April 15, 1992, pages 12–17
      255. Watchtower, November 1, 1995, page 20.
      256. The Watchtower, June 1, 1997, page 28: "The recent information in The Watchtower about "this generation" did not change our understanding of what occurred in 1914. But it did give us a clearer grasp of Jesus' use of the term "generation," helping us to see that his usage was no basis for calculating-counting from 1914 – how close to the end we are."
      257. Joel P. Engardio (December 18, 1995), "Apocalypse Later", Newsweek
      258. Penton 1997, p. 317
      259. John Dart, "Jehovah's Witnesses Abandon Key Tenet", Los Angeles Times, November 4, 1995.
      260. Watchtower, February 1, 1995.
      261. Penton 1997, p. 316
      262. "Part 2—Flashes of Light—Great and Small", The Watchtower, May 15, 1995, page 25
      263. "Chapter 24: Why Jesus Came to Earth", The Greatest Man Who Ever Lived, ©1991, "Jesus came to earth particularly to preach about God’s Kingdom, which will vindicate his Father’s name"
      264. Watchtower, February 15, 1995, p.19.
      265. Watchtower, May 1, 2007, pages 30-31: "It appears that we can not set a specific date for when the calling of Christians to the heavenly hope ends."
      266. "Watchtower", February 15, 2008, pages 23-24: "On the other hand, Christ's faithful anointed brothers, the modern-day John class, have recognized this sign as if it were a flash of lightning and have understood its true meaning. As a class, these anointed ones make up the modern-day "generation" of contemporaries that will not pass away "until all these things occur."* This suggests that some who are Christ's anointed brothers will still be alive on earth when the foretold great tribulation begins."
      267. "Holy spirit's role in the outworking of Jehovah's purposes", The Watchtower, 15 April 2010: 10
      268. "Your Leader Is One, the Christ". The Watchtower: 23. September 15, 2010.
      269. "Annual Meeting Report".
      270. The Watchtower: 20–25. July 15, 2013.
    • By Witness
      To get to the meaningful core of what Armageddon is about, which is the battle of truth against lies, we look at Israel’s sins of the past.  Today’s spiritual “Israel” comprised of the anointed ones, is also steeped in sin, resulting from a testing delusion put upon them by Satan; a delusion that is passionately called “the truth”.   Luke 22:31; 2 Thess 2:9-12; Rev 13:1,2,11 
      God does expect us to seek Truth.  Ps 25:5; Matt 7:7,8; John 4:23,24; 8:31,32; 14:6 
      Yet, today’s “Israel” is feeding on the lies of their leaders/prophets. Matt 7:15; Acts 20:29; Rev 16:13,14  
      When reading Ezekiel chapter 13, notice that the term “whitewash” helps reveal what is behind the organization’s ‘new light’ label.  Many translations use the phrase, “untempered mortar”, a few say “loose mud”, or “chalk”; all are descriptive of the organization’s attempt to cover over unstable teachings that do not last.  John 15:16,5 
      “untempered mortar” is defined as “whitewash" used to patch a wall, creating the facade of beauty.
      As an example:
      Matt 23:37 – “Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs, which look beautiful on the outside but on the inside are full of the bones of the dead and everything unclean.”
      Why were these teachers described by Jesus as whitewashed tombs?
      “You belong to your father, the devil, and you want to carry out your father’s desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, not holding to the truth, for there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks his native language, for he is a liar and the father of lies. Yet because I tell the truth, you do not believe me! 46 Can any of you prove me guilty of sin? If I am telling the truth, why don’t you believe me? 47 Whoever belongs to God hears what God says. The reason you do not hear is that you do not belong to God.”  John 8:44-47
      By choosing to deny Christ’s words of truth which offer eternal life, they remained in spiritual darkness, alienated from God and life.
       “The Spirit gives life; the flesh counts for nothing. The words I have spoken to you—they are full of the Spirit and life.”  John 6:63
      “If we claim to have fellowship with him and yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not live out the truth.” 1 John 1:6
      The battle of truth against lies was evident then, and is now, as it reaches the end point in these last days.  The “two witnesses” (“two “meaning truth – John 8:17) proclaim the revealing message from Christ, while false prophets battle against it, with their lies. Dan 12:9; Rev 1:11; 11:3; 1 John 4:6 
      Ezekiel chapter 13:
      The word of the Lord came to me: 2 “Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel who are now prophesying. Say to those who prophesy out of their own imagination: ‘Hear the word of the Lord!3 This is what the Sovereign Lord says: Woe to the foolish (“wicked”) prophets who follow their own spirit and have seen nothing! 
      4 Your prophets, Israel, are like jackals among ruins. (Lam 5:17,18; Ps 44:19)
       5 You have not gone up to the breaches in the wall to repair it for the people of Israel so that it will stand firm in the battle on the day of the Lord. ( Ezek 22:30)
      6 Their visions are false and their divinations a lie. Even though the Lord has not sent them, they say, “The Lord declares,” and expect Him to fulfill their words. (Ps 50:21; Isa 57:11) 
      7 Have you not seen false visions and uttered lying divinations when you say, “The Lord declares,” though I have not spoken? (Ezek 22:28; Rev 16:13,14) 
      8 “‘Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Because of your false words and lying visions, I am against you, declares the Sovereign Lord.9 My hand will be against the prophets who see false visions and utter lying divinations. They will not belong to the council of my people or be listed in the records of Israel, nor will they enter the land of Israel. Then you will know that I am the Sovereign Lord.  (Rev 13:8)   
      10 “‘Because they lead my people astray, saying, “Peace,” when there is no peace, and because, when a flimsy wall is built, they cover it with whitewash,  (Jer 23:13,17; 1 Thess 5:3) 
      11 therefore tell those who cover it with whitewash that it is going to fall. Rain will come in torrents, and I will send hailstones hurtling down, and violent winds will burst forth. 
      12 When the wall collapses, will people not ask you, “Where is the whitewash you covered it with?”
      13 “‘Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: In my wrath I will unleash a violent wind, and in my anger hailstones and torrents of rain will fall with destructive fury. (Ps 18:12,13; Isa 30:30 [Heb 12:1] Ps 147:17,18; Matt 24:30; Rev 11:3,5; Rev 8:7; Matt 7:24,25}  
      14 I will tear down the wall you have covered with whitewash and will level it to the ground so that its foundation will be laid bare. (Matt 7:26,27; 1 Cor 3:10,13)  When it falls, you will be destroyed in it; and you will know that I am the Lord.
      15 So I will pour out my wrath against the wall and against those who covered it with whitewash. I will say to you, “The wall is gone and so are those who whitewashed it,16 those prophets of Israel who prophesied to Jerusalem and saw visions of peace for her when there was no peace, declares the Sovereign Lord.”’ 
      Pearl Doxsey:
      I have come to appreciate, that "walls" stand for doctrines/teachings. Just as the city wall protects the city from their enemies, so do doctrines defend against threats to faith, but they also offer boundaries to keep a "flock" in an enclosure. My point, is that Ezekiel "dug" a hole in the wall. (Ezek 12:4-7) We know the meaning of "digging" (Prov 2:2-5; Matt 13:44), and when we combine these symbols (digging, wall) I take it as scrutiny of teachings (1 John 4:1; 1 Thess 5:21) which weakens a wall of false doctrine, just as digging holes in a literal wall would. We are told (according to this symbolism) that the "wall" of apostate Jerusalem will fall (see Ezekiel 13:10,11,12,14,15), no matter how much they "whitewash" their teachings.
      I am certain of this connection and meaning of "wall", because the fall of Jericho’s wall is inextricably linked with the "end", and to Revelation (Heb 11:30; Luke 21:20; Josh 6:15,20,8; Rev 8:2,6).
      The "wall" of false teachings will "fall", leaving all those within that city defenseless and conquered. The wall they trusted in will fail them.
      (From “Wall/Christ’s Side” 4womaninthewilderness)
      As a child, I was occasionally assigned to clean the chalk boards after school, using water and a large cloth.  Most children rode the bus home to the far reaches of the farming community I lived in. I was one of the few who walked home from school, which gave me the opportunity to stay longer.  I remember the satisfaction of washing away the day’s writings to reveal a clean board, ready for the new day’s teachings. 
      JWs, from the outset, the organization has added layers and layers of decaying interpretations to its doctrines, like smudged chalk accumulating on a dirty chalkboard. This is the reality behind the organization’s new light philosophy.  In its history, it has never returned to the clean pure truth of Christ’s Word. 
      To understand why God allows his people to submit to this powerful delusion, please see:
       “Who is to Blame?”
      “Spreading Tribulation – Tainted or Tested?”
      “Satan’s Fall”
      4womaninthewilderness blogspot
       

    • By JOHN BUTLER
      I have no real idea of how to find out information about these things but some of you seem to have inside information. 
      This topic is aimed at the time lapse between new 'worldly information', 'worldly discoveries', 'worldly laws in different countries' and every type of worldly activity that affects the JW's in the Org.
      Such as how long does it take the GB to take action between something important happening in the 'world' then the GB having a reaction to it. 
      For instance Blood Fractions. How long had those Blood Fractions, of different types,  been available, before the GB authorised the use of them ?
      How long had the sex abuse reporting laws been in use or in force in different countries, different states, before the GB recognised them ? 
      How long did the GB know that the Superior Authorities scripture actually meant 'worldly authorities' before they changed it ? 
      The March Watchtower is proof perfect that the GB will act when pushed, not by God, but by problems within the JW Org.  But it would be good to have proof that the GB has deliberately delayed decisions on many things, even when a vast amount of information had been readily available. I don't have such proof but some of you might have.
      Why would the GB deliberately delay decisions ?  To maintain power over it's earthwide congregation. The GB recognise the power they have when people are anxiously awaiting a decision on an important matter. 
       
    • By Shiwiii
      Why does it take the Inquisition into the CSA by governments around the world, lawsuits in many countries and  the threat of non-profit status in a few countries to FORCE the wt/gb to amend the CSA policy?  The article is in the May 2019 WT and the title of the article is "Love and Justice in the Face of Wickedness". 
       
       
      "13 Do elders comply with secular laws about reporting an allegation of child abuse to the secular authorities? Yes. In places where such laws exist, elders endeavor to comply with secular laws about reporting allegations of abuse....So when they learn of an allegation, elders immediately seek direction on how they can comply with laws about reporting it."
       
      I can see that they still won't enforce reporting to the police each and every CSA case only if required by law.  Key word is "REQUIRED" .
       
      "14 Elders assure victims and their parents and others with knowledge of the  matter that they are free to report an allegation of abuse to the secular authorities. But what if the report is about someone who is a part of the congregation and the matter then becomes known in the community? Should the Christian who reported it feel that he has brought reproach on God’s name? No. The abuser is the one who brings reproach on God’s name."
       
      Finally, they finally get it that it is the wrong doer who is the bad guy and not the reporter.......but, I'm sure this is just lip service. And here's why:
       
       
      16 When they learn that someone in the congregation is accused of child abuse, elders endeavor to comply with any secular laws about reporting the matter, and then they conduct a Scriptural investigation. If the individual denies the accusation, the elders consider the testimony of witnesses. If at least two people—the one making the accusation and someone else who can verify this act or other acts of child abuse by the accused—establish the charge, a judicial committee is formed. 
       
      And there you have it, two witness rule still in effect and no mandatory reporting of CSA unless mandated by law.
      However, what is the true gain here? Not much, but some is better than nothing, the fact that whoever reports is not the bad guy, the abuser is.  What a wonderful provision made by the loving Jehoverning body. I hope that one day the gb/wt will be on par with humanity in reporting ALL accusations of CSA or any abuse for that matter. 
    • By Queen Esther
      NEW UNDERSTANDING, THAT ALMOST HAPPENS INADVERTED.....
      At the last meeting of the Watchtower, we were considering the article "Jehovah loves those who" bear fruit with endurance "
      In this article a new understanding on the part of the slave was opened to our mind.
      Paragraph 9 specifically says:
      "What is the fruit that we must produce?" Without a doubt, it must be something that we can all carry out, and what work has Jehovah commanded us all his servants? The preaching of the message of the Kingdom.
      Not many brothers and sisters captured this new understanding since they even came to quote me at the end of the meeting, an appointment that was made precisely the previous meeting based on a 2008 Watchtower, which says:
      8:15. To be one of those who "retain [the word] and bear fruit with endurance", we must understand, assimilate and recognize the value of the Word of God. When we read the Bible and Christian publications, we need to pray and meditate.
      The first type of terrain is hard, the second is shallow and the third is full of thorns. The fourth, on the other hand, is a good land that produces fruit (Luke 8: 8). Remember that the sower of the parable can not control the results. Knowing this comforts all Christians and in particular those who have been many years, even decades, preaching faithfully without much apparent results. Why is that fact comforting them? The sower's fidelity is not measured by the results of their work. This was confirmed by Paul when he said: "Each person will receive his own reward according to his own work" (1 Corinthians 3: 8). What is rewarded is the work, not the results
      A sower of the word may not see that his work is bearing much fruit; however, that does not mean that you have been less diligent or faithful than others
      (end of quote)
      According to the brothers, what was said in paragraph 9 of the study of the Watchtower IS THE SAME thing that the Watchtower of 2008 already said. Even the one in 2010 and the one in 2015, said the same thing.
      BUT THEY ARE IN AN ERROR
      It really does not say the same thing. Let's look good.
      According to these ancient Watchtowers, what is called FRUIT? TO THE RESULTS, to the disciples. Therefore, the slave used to say that we should not worry if we do not get much fruit in the form of disciples.
      But now, the new understanding, makes us see that the FRUIT IS THE OWN PREACHING and that the seed that we sow, does not produce fruits, but more seeds.
      This understanding is more adjusted to Jehovah's way of thinking, where endurance applies more to the fruit of PREACHING, and is what our Father rewards.
    • By Srecko Sostar
      “The Governing Body is neither inspired nor infallible. Therefore, it can err in doctrinal matters or in organizational direction. In fact, the Watch Tower Publications Index includes the heading “Beliefs Clarified,” which lists adjustments in our Scriptural understanding since 1870. Of course, Jesus did not tell us that his faithful slave would produce perfect spiritual food. So how can we answer Jesus’ question: “Who really is the faithful and discreet slave?” (Matt. 24:45) WT feb 2017
      What if a man claims his expressions are not inspired, but still expects us to follow his teachings and obey his direction?  Does he then get a free pass from testing process?  If we are commanded to test an expression which a man claims is inspired from God, how much more caution should we exercise when the man does not claim inspiration, yet expects us to accept his words as if he were channeling the Almighty? - 1 John 4:1
      “By word or action, may we never challenge the channel of communication that Jehovah is using today.” (w09 11/15 p.14 par. 5 "Treasure Your Place in the Congregation")
      To claim one is not speaking under inspiration, while simultaneously claiming one is God’s channel of communication is to speak a contradiction. 
    • By Matthew9969
      The only reference for new light is at 2Corinthians 11:14. The watchtower has had a lot of new light in it's history.
    • By The Librarian
      Is anyone else following the YouTube channel by a woman called Antoinette Mitchell?
       
       In very broad outline: 
      she comes from a JW family
      became active again 3 years ago
      got disfellowshipped 8 months ago
      came out as gay on YouTube at the same time
      talked about heartbreak of family and friends not talking to her
      determined to go back by attending all the meetings
      a few days ago got reinstated
      I feel sorry for what she's gone through and also glad she got reinstated.
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    • So the " great crowd"  will learn all things by themselves?  They do not need an organized  place to attend meetings? .... which is instructed by the bible to attend so we can strengthen each other? This is why I call you out as misleading and false....... where is your worldwide organization which is providing place for people of all nations to gather and worship jehovah?  And teach them live and neutrality so they truly view themselves as one nation with no borders dividing them...... There are so many other scriptures which indicate otherwise while you create an argument over the only scripture that 'may' indicate it because of an argument over a preposition....... are you changing the entire truth based on your 'desire' to start 'ruling now?    We are being 'taught ' now by that 'slave'  you hate.     But you may be running ahead about the 1000 year reign..... don't you think?   Don't be patronizing to me..... I know that because of jehovahs spirit working in them.   But the bible clearly indicates that they will judge and rule when they are in heaven......   
    • Nothing is beyond your extreme criticism lol.  Go buy yourself a little patch in London or in any other capital city like New York and see what it costs you.   If they needed a space for someone or a worker, or even for guests or whatever, they would have bought it because it was needed at the time and is now no longer needed.   Says the exceedingly worldly guy......  If they sell the property to help brothers they are wicked and if they buy it to help brothers they are wicked....... do you sound reasonable to yourselves?   Thanks to Jehovah you are not the final judges because you will put all JWs in Auschwitz......just for being JWs..... ah, you may still help the world to do that in future ..... who knows? 
    • Now I understand why many executives disallow any reports to them longer than one page. They KNOW how easy it is to be hypnotized by many words, which for some, is a finely tuned art form.
    • Lol. Same thoughts here. That is why I posted it, genuinely wondering if anyone really read it when it was first published. But then people did read a lot more 50 years ago...... but then they also might have been clueless and just, like I said, zeroed in on the number 1975, which was a mere 7 years away at the time..... If it's any consolation, I only read to about paragraph 10 😃
    • Nope we can’t blame their lack of inspiration by Holy Spirit on distance.  What they do blame it on, is Jesus.  Of course, Jesus did not tell us that his faithful slave would produce perfect spiritual food. w17 February p. 26 In light of this admittance, what is absolutely ironic is the emphasis on “pure language”. It is especially noteworthy that the language that God gives his servants is said to be pure. This is true, not because of grammatical construction, but because it gives evidence of moral and spiritual cleanness. There is no allowance in this language for lying, deceit, or a tricky tongue. Those who speak this language must always speak truth. w91 4/1 p. 24-25 The organization boasts that “pure language” is found in the organization, when at the same time its leaders fail in providing truth.  Jesus did promise to teach his faithful servants “all things”, which would be “perfect spiritual food”.  John 14:26; 1 John 2:27  Since the GB cannot receive it, neither do they receive the “pure language” from God...or anyone who learns from them.        
    • Anna: .... I tried to read all that stuff from the 1968 Watchtower you posted.  I REALLY did. But I concluded that the whole thing could probably be condensed to two short paragraphs, and to read it in it's entirety would probably be fatal to me, from the handful of caffeine tablets I would need to finish it. ...continuing with TTH's comments about John F. Kennedy being the impetus to get mankind to the Moon ..... the thought just occurred to me that with all his foibles, weaknesses, and missteps, ( Bay of Pigs .. what's THAT?), and setting the stage for the Vietnam War, etc., he was sorta like the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses, with all their foibles and general cluelessness. What he did RIGHT ... makes up for everything else, with change left over. Same thing.
    • My opening scriptures were Rev 5:9,10.  If you will look again at the WT’s Greek Interlinear, it states that the kings/priests will reign ON the earth.  Do you want to change that truth, Arauna?  If you could only see that a “new creation” is both heavenly and human.  They will serve God in heaven and as the early priests were commissioned to do – teach and serve the people under the direction of their High Priest, Jesus Christ..  Mal 2:7; Rev 1:5,6; 7:15  Can God’s priesthood teach the people if they remain in a spiritual state that the rest of God’s children do not have access to?  Can they say these words and be heard if they are out of contact with God’s future children?... “And the Spirit and the bride say, “Come!” And the one who hears, let him say, “Come!” And the one who is thirsty, let him come. The one who wants, let him take the water of life freely.”  Rev 22:17 Can “New Jerusalem” prepared as a bride, come down from heaven if it is to remain in heaven?  Rev 22:2 Remember, the “144,000” are the Temple, the Holy City.  They bring God’s Spirit/direction/guidance to His children.   And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Behold, the dwelling of God is with humanity, and he will take up residence with them, and they will be his people and God himself will be with them.  Rev 21:3 The dwelling of God is the Temple/House of God – 1 Cor 3:16,17; 1 Cor 6:19; Eph 2:20-22 So, his ability to come back to earth has now passed.  Is this what you are saying?  Where are the scriptures that support this?  I have provided scripture that show Jesus returning to the earth. And after he had said these things, while they were watching, he was taken up, and a cloud received him from their sight. 10 And as they were staring into the sky while he was departing, behold, two men in white clothing stood by them 11 who also said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand there lookin] into the sky? This Jesus who was taken up from you into heaven like this will come back in the same way you saw him departing into heaven!” Acts 1:9-11 And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, “And let all the angels of God worship him.”  Heb 1:6  I am pretty amazed that Gen 28:12-17 and John 1:51 do not help you see that Jesus will be on the earth in the Kingdom.  I hope you actually read them.  A symbolic stairway in Jacob's vision is set up between heaven and earth.  The descendants of Jacob in Genesis, are “Israel”.  His descendants, the “144,000” inherit the earth.  Jesus referred to the stairway again in John, with his “angel”/messengers “ascending and descending” upon the Son of Man.   An anointed, refined and found faithful can be sealed while on the earth.  Yet even so, their obedience only to Christ must continue until he returns.  1 Cor 1:21,22; Eph 1:13; 4:30 Can you see you are creating a doctrine with no sound basis?  How do you know this?  You speak of unity among all in the organization, yet they are all individuals, both men and women.  You have even in error, designated that the organization's members are the Body of Christ.  But, when it comes the the true anointed Body of Christ you now say there will be no men or women, but clones as your GB portray them, once God's Kingdom arrives.  You are applying two sets of standards, which is hypocrisy.    Yes they do...in heaven.   You can see the slaves however you like, but I detect you looking through the lens of the GB who are telling all JWs lies about the anointed ones.  I see what scripture points out clearly, that the elders have usurped the role of God’s priesthood. Matt 24:15,16; 2 Thess 2:3,4; Rev 11:1-3; 13:6  Revelation’s “Jezebel” feeds God’s servants/slaves lies, and expects gratitude given to an organization, an idol.  Your very words speak their lies. The ancient Jezebel killed the prophets of God (1 Kings 18:13);  today’s “Jezebel” spiritually “kills” any anointed as well as their companions who see truth and reveal “her” lies.  Rev 13:11,14-17 But I have against you that you tolerate the woman Jezebel, the one who calls herself a prophetess,(Rev 13:11) and teaches and deceives my slaves to commit sexual immorality (spiritual harlotry) and to eat food sacrificed to idols.  Rev 2:20 For false messiahs and false prophets will appear, and will produce great signs and wonders in order to deceive, if possible, even the elect    
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