Yesterday the final (4th) installment of the 2018 volume of Journal of Biblical Literature was published. Among the articles in it is a new manuscript of the Gospel of John, dating to the third to fourth centuries. The manuscript is scrappy, as these things often are, a few verses from the end of chapter 1 and the beginning of chapter 2. On the back is a fragment of an unknown early Christian text. An rare instance of the word "God" in Greek, not in nomen sacrum form, but fully written out is one of the interesting findings in it.
For those interested in reading the article, here it is.
Willoughby John-JBL 2018.4.pdf
By JOHN BUTLER
"All Scripture is inspired of God and beneficial for teaching, for reproving, for setting things straight, for disciplining in righteousness,"
2 Timothy 3 v 16
Was this in it's way a small prophecy ?
The 2nd book of Timothy was written 65 C.E. However 1,2,3, John and Revelation were written much later.
So we have two points, 1. The writings were not complete when Paul wrote that information. 2, The Bible had not been constructed so no idea would have been formed as to what the Bible would contain.
Were there other writings ? Would they be considered as Scripture?
It seems that Paul was inspired to write that "All scripture is inspired.... "
By Srecko Sostar
Confusing and controversial ideas and perceptions we can find about God, life and death, feelings, acts/deeds of human and gods.
HOW GOD FEELS ABOUT LIFE
3. What did Jehovah do when Cain killed Abel?
3 The Bible teaches us that our life and the lives of other people are precious to Jehovah. For example, when Cain—Adam and Eve’s son—was very angry with his younger brother Abel, Jehovah warned Cain that he needed to control his anger. But Cain didn’t listen, and he became so angry that he “assaulted his brother Abel and killed him.” (Genesis 4:3-8) Jehovah punished Cain for murdering Abel. (Genesis 4:9-11) So anger and hatred are dangerous because they can make us become violent or cruel. A person who is like that cannot have everlasting life. (Read1 John 3:15.) To please Jehovah, we must learn to love all people.—1 John 3:11, 12. - https://www.jw.org/ase/publications/books/bible-study/respect-gods-gift-of-life-blood/
On other side we can find this in Bible, directly as words inspired to be written by Almighty God.
7 Remember, O Jehovah,What the Eʹdom·ites said on the day Jerusalem fell:“Tear it down! Tear it down to its foundations!”+
8 O daughter of Babylon, who is soon to be devastated,+Happy will be the one who rewards you With the treatment you inflicted on us.+
9 Happy will be the one who seizes your children And dashes them against the rocks.+ - https://www.jw.org/en/publications/bible/nwt/books/psalms/137/
Was the Bible written and compiled for everyone to understand fully or only for a 'chosen few' to fully understandBy JOHN BUTLER
I have always wondered if the Bible is for 'all of us' to understand fully, or if it's only for a chosen few to fully understand.
I don't mean is it just for one 'religion' to understand, I mean is it just for say 'an anointed group of people to understand'?
Jesus spoke in illustrations to the people, but the disciples asked Jesus what the illustrations meant. Then Jesus would explain the illustration to them fully.
Jesus told his disciples that 'to them the sacred secrets would be revealed' but that the crowd would not get the meaning of such things.
It was also that after Jesus was resurrected he opened the eyes of his disciples / apostles so that they began to fully understand all things.
For my part I would never expect to fully understand God's word the Bible. A lot of it is straight forward of course, and easy to comprehend.
But I think a lot of it is 'in deep code' so to speak, only fully understood by those that Jehovah chooses..
It still seems strange to me, but it would be a separate topic, that God allows it to be so difficult for people to find any truth amongst the huge amount of lies in 'religion'.
However, in my opinion, there has to be a 'group of humans' 'anointed people' that do have some direct contact with God, through Jesus Christ.
We no longer have 'miracles' being done in Christ's name, so it is difficult to know exactly who the 'chosen ones' are.
If there was a 'body of people' that could prove that they had God's approval and God's holy spirit, that would make life much easier.
However when those that say they are chosen either make mistakes or tell lies about the meaning of scripture, and then their predictions fail, then they seem to prove themselves false or without God's guidance.
So we go back to square one. Is there really a 'body of people' being truly guided and upbuilt by God's holy spirit at this time ?
Is the Bible and it's prophecies being fully opened up to such ones ?
By Guest Nicole
By Guest Nicole
By Israeli Bar Avaddhon
The glory and honor belong only to Jehovah - Psalm 150: 6 Keeping this in mind, the article that follows is not intended to be a personal celebration or celebration of the blog (Romans 3:23), but make a list of achievements will serve as encouragement to all those who wish to continue to examine the Bible without conditions. For many people, in fact, examine the Bible is "too hard", "it is just one group of people chosen", you have to have some kind of education or skills, you have to follow "what they write other", you should consult some kind of scholars etc etc . These ideas clash with scriptures as Proverbs 2: 1-6, Matthew 11:25, 26, John 17: 3; 2 Timothy 3:16, 17 and others. The Bible is a great gift that Jehovah has given to mankind and the only way to appreciate the show is to study hard and respect - Acts 17:11 Our loving Father desires that each of us is received accurate knowledge of truth so that no one is destroyed - Ezekiel 33:11; 1 Timothy 2: 4 Obviously if God deliberately prevented someone to know His Will would be a partial God but we know that is not so - Deuteronome 32: 4; Acts 10:34, 35 One of the fundamental reasons why God could "stop" to understand His Word has to do with the attitude of the person as we saw in Matthew 11:25, 26 (see also Daniel 12:10). Another reason could be that the time to understand certain details, including certain prophecies, has not yet reached - compare Daniel 9: 2; 12: 9 Perhaps there may also be other reasons, but other than that nowhere in the Bible it is said that to understand His Word is a privilege reserved for a few. On the contrary, the responsibility to investigate this remarkable book is aimed at all because even the decision will be a personal thing - John 3:19; Romans 14:10; Revelation 20:13 Beginning to overcome the barriers that exist only in our heads, maybe we can approach the study of writing having confidence that Jehovah will help us - James 1: 5 Since Jehovah's Witnesses want to be the Bible to speak and not their own ideas , some may wonder how it is possible to do this. It is useless to deny that the Bible is a very large book, and that some things are objectively difficult to understand - 2 Peter 3:15, 16 Before seeing the goals achieved, thus, the article will show which method was followed to date to ensure you have really talk about the Bible. What you will learn will highlight the guidelines of proper research and is not to be understood as something perfect and not customizable. We therefore invite all those readers who have appreciated at least some of the articles posted so far to assess the ability to break away from some paradigms and start their research autonomously using only the Bible to explain the Bible * (see footnote) The material. What do you need. The Bible (maybe three or four different translations) and Concordance. The Concordance is the publication which has been used in all the articles posted so far. Each aid can be useful but the Concordance is the only truly neutral publication because it "limits" to put the parties together without comment, outside of context and without giving emphasis to one side than the other. On more than seventy items previously posted were used books Insight three or four times (especially for historical references), we looked for an original Greek word with an explanation of the beauty of two times but every time it writes are compared via the Concordance and these comparisons are born articles. H with a Bible and a Concordance? Then you have 90% of the material you need. So grab a pen and paper and think of a subject, any. Following real example of how the articles until now have been developed. Subject: judgment, death and sin (chosen according to the doctrine which provides that death delete sins) The Bible is all you need As seen in the picture, you take the subject and put aside all the scriptures together with their context. Of course the context is very important and to understand it we must, at times, input entire previous and consecutive chapters. If only highlight writing mentioning that particular person would risk to make huge mistakes because, as Christianity has taught us well, even the Bible can do to say just about anything you want - compare Matthew 4: 5-7 In doing so, speaking of judgment, we might see as "the way of Jehovah" means to do righteousness and judgment, as the "breastplate of judgment" did robe of the High Priest and so on. Writing two or three keywords to all scriptures united by the same person, we have to learn many things on God Almighty even if they have to directly to do with what we were looking for . Let us not forget what we're looking for and why. Maybe we can set aside this information and resume them at another time. It is not excluded that a subject takes us somewhere else but for now we do not lose sight of the goal. We're trying to figure out if death really gates sin and if so you can not go to trial for the sins committed before he died. Going forward we will find Matthew chapters 5 to 23 (part highlighted in yellow), and here we begin to find something strange about current understanding. Matthew 7: 2, for example, says "because with what judgment judge, you will be judged, and the measure with which you measure, it shall be measured to you" and the question that should come to mind is "When? When will we be judged to the extent that we judged? ". The only way to make this statement of the Lord coincide with the official intention is to deduce that we will all be judged in this way before his death but also with this hypothesis things do not add up. Meanwhile, Jehovah does not put on trial the people of the first century (as is with us today) and if he did ... what's the point if then death would all be cleansed from sin and start from scratch ? That 'it s what we have been taught, right? Continuing towards the next write, we read that "the Day of Judgment it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah than for that city" - Matthew 10:15 Okay, we're told that Jesus used a hyperbole but we chose the Concordance because of its neutrality! Reading simply the context of Matthew 10, it does not seem that we should read something other than what is written simply. However we put aside even this writing, along with its context, and we score two or three keywords. Continuing in this way will come to light many other details. If the emerging framework goes to "bump" against our understanding, what should we do? Maybe we should "pretend nothing" thinking that is not our business, that there are people chosen specifically for these things, it is better not find out the "Pandora's box" because what we might discover could be very different from what we have been taught? This would denote love and loyalty to our religion, not against the Word of God - 2 Samuel 22:26: John 17:17 Collide with something different from what we have been taught reveals that there is more at heart - Matthew 6:21; 22:37 They make an honest examination of conscience those who, rather than questioning their own beliefs, they said they " can not follow the logic of the articles" . Is this really the problem? If, as mentioned, the picture that emerges seems to bump into one of our doctrine, then we have to go see what this doctrine is based. We all agree that the Bible does not contradict itself, is not it? Always following the same method we get to the crux of the dispute: " For he who has died has been acquitted from [his] sin" - Romans 6: 7 What, then? It is a contradiction? Just as we have done so far, we look at the context. If we make the effort to read without preconceptions context we will see how Paul speaks of death compared to sin (verse 2) that we all were baptized in the death of Jesus (verse 3), and said that we were indeed buried with him (verse 4). There seems honestly literal language? How many of us have been buried with Christ in baptism? In addition, "we know that our old self was put to the pole with [him], so that our sinful body might be made inactive" - Romans 6: 6 Has anyone killed us when we are baptized? It 'clear that Paul is doing a lot easier than it might seem speech. If we appreciate the solemnity of baptism, we will prove to be dead with reference to sin (ie, not sinning anymore). In fact, since we are baptized we started to live a new life. From other scriptures we understand that it is not possible to "sin no more" but relying redemption and continuing to make every earnest effort, we can have a clear conscience before God. All this talk is not about the dead ones literally but in fact is the example that Paul has to make sense. But "the wages sin pays is death" .... What, then? We are once again at the head point? Absolutely not, because writing mentions the obvious: the sin leads to death. This means that in order for sin to be paid must remain in that condition - compare James 1:15 Comparing each write in their context is really a complete picture of the matter. Sin leads to death. From dead, of course, there is no longer any sin. If there were no resurrection , no one would answer for their sins. In the future, however, there will be a resurrection and that the time will respond to it - compares John 5:29 This makes us understand that Jesus was not doing hyperbole when he spoke of Sodom and Gomorrah, the profound reason why we use the term "salary" as if sin is a debt and other interesting details. And of course, this understanding does not conflict with the doctrine of the ransom because maybe not all have noticed that it is death to take away sin, then it is not the blood of Christ to do so - compares Romans 6:23 And 'death to take away sin, or is the blood of Christ? Let this simple question. If it is the blood of Christ to take away sin, those who will take advantage of the ransom will not in court - John 5:24 This topic was covered in the article entitled "Death erases really sins?" at the following link http://attenzioneallaprofezia.blogspot.it/2017/06/la-morte-cancella-davvero-i-peccati.html As we have achieved this goal? We had to become experts in ancient greek, we consulted hundreds of ancient manuscripts, asked for advice to various scholars, learned something from other religions or have been around the world? Absolutely not (if we did, we'd be back with more confusion than before). We have only compared the writings in context. To understand the Bible, we used the work of better consultation, the most accurate, the most objective, the most accurate : the Bible. Surely it is challenging but not difficult. Any of us can compare scripture is not it? In this way also our wisdom (presumed) passes in the second floor - 2 Corinthians 3: 4-6 What will come of it it will show what the Bible says: It is all we really need. However the human being, has a strange emotional need to complicate your life. Really such a simple method can help to reveal the Book of God? This question can only be answered with facts. With that the assumptions made at the beginning in mind , let's see what goals have been achieved and why we can be reasonably confident of being on the right track. Each subject reported below has been treated in older articles. To "make sure of all things" the reader is invited to look for these items and see if they are in harmony with Scripture. Thanks to Jehovah, we realized that ... 1) Babylon the Great is the modern nation of Israel, NOT the world empire of false religion, and this makes logical many things including the fact that it will see only after the Lord's day and ride the UN - compares Revelation 17: 3 2) Its destruction precedes Armageddon and not the great tribulation - see Revelation 16:12, 13; 19: 11-16 3) The horsemen of the apocalypse of war, famine and deadly plague are led into battle by Jesus Christ (it is his "arrows") and this is in keeping with many judgments of the past where Jehovah has used the pagan nations - see Revelation 6: 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and Psalm 45: 1-6 4) The first plagues of Revelation indiscriminately affect God's people as the people of the world just as happened during the plagues of Egypt. 5) There will be a world war that will bring down the king of the south and this harmonizes both Daniel and the last and only power that we see in Revelation and which so far has been erroneously identified as the Anglo-American empire. 6) The Revelation trumpets are sequential, and then is written in chronological order - compare 1 Corinthians 15:51, 52; Revelation 11:11, 12, 15 7) The anointed did not start to rise again in 1919 but will start to rise again at the sound of the seventh trumpet, shortly after the killing of two witnesses in sackcloth (future event). 8) The war in heaven break out soon after the ringing of the seventh trumpet, and will last about 30 days. These are also the "days shortened for the elect" in the likeness of what happened in the first century. 9) At the end of the war Satan will be thrown on the ground and from that moment can only act for 42 months (1260 days), which is a short period of time. 10) These are the 42 months of the great tribulation period. 11) At the end of the 1260 days of great tribulation will start Armageddon (with the fall of Babylon the Great), which will last 45 days. 12) Before Armageddon God he will lead his people to "Edom" and "Moab" that is, in a free zone where their lives and prepare to cross the Promised Land. The literal repopulation of Israel (after the destruction that has liberated from Babylon the Great) harmonises the scriptures that say that the people of Israel would be rejected but the nation was inhabited from generation to generation as the nation chosen by God to reside His Name. This situation makes us understand what it refers to writing when he says that the king of the north "will be troubled by news from the east and from the north" because it will come to know that God's people survived his fury and now is reaching promised land in fulfillment of Bible prophecy. 13) The War of the Great Day of God Almighty will take place in a relatively small area of the earth but it will be the greatest war in history where they will die the kings of the earth and their armies. 14) The Jerusalem Above is the organizational part of God's people and not heavenly organization made up of faithful spirit creatures and loyal men. This explains how it is possible that Satan tries to "drown her" spewing a river of water behind her. This awareness helps us to understand many basic things such as what is the one people of God on earth, because Christ is called "son of man" and the depth of meaning of Genesis 3:15 prophecy. 14 a ) The Above Jerusalem, towards the end of satanic system, will be led by members of the great crowd and be nourished by God to the end. 15) Armageddon will destroy the wild beast, the false prophet, all those who have the mark of the false prophet, who has opposed true Christians etc. There will be destroyed all people nor all the nations, apart from the dominant power that will end up in the lake of fire, the other kingdoms will be "removed the domain" but an extension of life will be granted for a time and a season. This period refers after Armageddon and until the end of the millennium .
This awareness helps us to understand how is it that Satan's bait to mislead "the nations which are in the four corners of the earth" after a thousand years of sinking and to understand who is Gog of Magog and how he can "check" in the middle of the Millennial Kingdom And many other things (the original post had a list of 26 important subjects but the article would become long, boring and certainly confusing for those who come to this post for the first time). Article wanted to highlight a simple concept as it is profound. The Bible was also written for you. You can understand it. If you will have the intellectual honesty to get back fully into question, they will come to understand many things. Do not be afraid to find things very different from what we have been taught. Paradoxically, although this process has called into question some doctrines and virtually all the prophecies , has also shown that there is only one people of God on earth and it is this . According to the prophecies of this people it will be disciplined for this reason. Know the prophecies will allow us to not be shocked when these things begin to come true. The prophecy enables us to see beyond the darkness that is going to get even giving us the chance to help others. The prophecy, among other things, says that at one point "knowledge will become abundant." We will be among those who have insight and who will enjoy the blessings future? By our attitude, we decide it even now.
If we continue to appreciate the Word of God above all else humbly asking Him to enlighten us to understand it, we will not be disappointed - Job 36:22; Psalm 119: 99 Footnote. The article is not meant to imply that, following such a method, you can not make mistakes. Even you do not want to diminish the importance of Hebrew or Ancient greek but today will be provided with many versions of the Bible that nornalmente you need to compare multiple versions to understand what fits best not with our preconceptions but with the context. The harmony of the Bible, alone, is able to refute all acts speeches to demonstrate unbiblical beliefs. Plaese, visit https://attenzioneallaprofezia.blogspot.it/
By Guest Nicole
The Five Fingers Rule
Sometimes I’ve tried to help others not using the Scriptures to proof any kind of idea or behavior one person could have. I’ve used what I’ve denominated “the five fingers rule”, from the weakest to the stronger evidence
Only one finger: the evidence is only in the same division of the Bible, Greek or Hebrew Scriptures.
This is the weakest evidence. The explanation about our verse under scrutiny is in the “other side” of the Bible. We’re trying to prove some idea based in the Hebrew Scriptures with another verse from Greek Scriptures, or vice versa. So, there are centuries of distance in the meaning, language, cultural environment and God’s dealings.
If we use this approach we should be very careful. Only if we have direct mention of some application in the Bible we should feel free to try the same, for example:
(Matthew 24:15) “…when you catch sight of the disgusting thing that causes desolation, as spoken about by Daniel the prophet…” In spite we have here one verse in the Greek against other in the Hebrew Scriptures, as we have the direct mention of Christ we can, with confidence apply the verses.
Conversely, when we read (Da 4:25) “seven times will pass over you, until you know that the Most High is Ruler in the kingdom of mankind and that he grants it to whomever he wants”, and we try to apply the seven times to Jesus words in Lu 21:24 “…Jerusalem will be trampled on by the nations until the appointed times of the nations are fulfilled” we only have a weak evidence. When we read in Daniel about “times”, we cannot think any mention in the Bible about “times” share the same or related meaning. And it seems a little bit farfetched to apply the Nebuchadnezzar happenings to Christ.
Two fingers: the writer is contemporary.
Either in the Greek or Hebrew period. Well, now our evidence has more weight.
(Isaiah 37:22) “…The virgin daughter of Zion despises you…” (Jeremiah 14:17) “…For the virgin daughter of my people has been completely crushed and broken…” No problem when applying the term virgin to the nation of Israel.
Three fingers: the verses share the same writer.
But, perhaps, not the same book.
(Romans 3:20) “…no one will be declared righteous before him by works of law…” (Galatians 2:16) “…not by works of law, but only through faith…” When we develop the idea about how obtain salvation, we have strong evidence, from the same Bible writer, clarifying the meaning.
Four fingers. The evidence is in the same Bible book.
Now, the evidence is still stronger.
(Zechariah 1:8) “…I saw a vision in the night. There was a man riding on a red horse, and he stood still among the myrtle trees in the ravine; and behind him there were red, reddish-brown, and white horses...” (Zechariah 6:2, 3) “…The first chariot had red horses, and the second chariot, black horses. The third chariot had white horses, and the fourth chariot, speckled and dappled horses…” (Rev 6:4-7) “a fiery-colored horse… a black horse… a pale horse…” We have a good foundation If we think these horsemen represent angels. Both declaration in the same book of Zechariah share the same meaning: the horsemen meant spirits. And with Revelation, there is no other place in the Bible with this kind of visions.
Five fingers: the complete evidence.
Not only the same writer in the same book of the same period, but also in the immediate context.
(1 Corinthians 2:7-9) “…But we speak God’s wisdom in a sacred secret, the hidden wisdom, … But just as it is written: “Eye has not seen and ear has not heard, nor have there been conceived in the heart of man the things that God has prepared for those who love him.”
The application, based in the same context has to do with the secret, hidden purpose of God, only revealed by His spirit.
Applying the five fingers rule
(2 John 7-11) “For many deceivers have gone out into the world, those not acknowledging Jesus Christ as coming in the flesh. This is the deceiver and the antichrist… The one who does remain in this teaching is the one who has both the Father and the Son. If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your homes or say a greeting to him. For the one who says a greeting to him is a sharer in his wicked works. When we even refused to say hello to a disfellowshipped person, based in the previous word from John, are we aware than the apostle was writing about deceivers and antichrist? This is five fingers. But if we apply this radical behavior for the person being spoken in 1Cor. 5, we have only the two fingers evidence. The Corinthians received the instruction to avoid eating (fellowship).
One more example:
(Matthew 24:3) “...Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of your presence…” (Matthew 24:30) “…Then the sign of the Son of man will appear in heaven, and all the tribes of the earth will beat themselves in grief, …” The five fingers rule determine that the sign of the presence is the same as the sing of the Son of man. By the way, a sign completely visible, as the lightning.
Obviously they will be exceptions, but we should be cautious with these exceptions.
By Guest Nicole
The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., is now home to some of Ethiopia’s most important religious manuscripts after they were recently donated to the university by Chicago-based collectors Gerald and Barbara Weiner. The couple gave out the handmade leather manuscripts with the hope of allowing Ethiopians in the U.S. to use them for prayers and study, according to Catholic News Agency.
Dr. Aaron M. Butts, a professor of Semitic and Egyptian Languages and Literature at the university, put up a statement saying the collection “provides unparalleled primary sources for the study of Eastern Christianity.”
What’s In the Collection?
In total, the collection is comprised of 125 Christian manuscripts, including liturgical books, hagiographies, psalters, and 215 Islamic manuscripts, including the Quran and commentaries on Quran.
According to the Catholic News Agency, it’s the largest collection of Ethiopian Islamic manuscripts outside of Ethiopia.
More than 600 manuscripts were handmade using hides from calves, sheep, and goats, and are estimated to date back to the 18th and 19th century.
In the collection, there are over 350 “magic” scrolls, which are traditional Christian prayer talismans, and each was handwritten by a “debtera,” or a cleric in the Ethiopian church, and includes the name of the person it was written for.
Pieces of the manuscripts were worn around the neck for purposes of helping people with different kinds of ailments, including headaches, painful menstruation, and complicated childbirth.
Butts suggests that some of these scrolls, which were predominantly worn by women, may have been passed down through many generations, mainly from mother to daughter.
He added that the prayer jewels haven’t been studied much due to the personal nature of their use.
Washington, D.C., hosts one of the largest Ethiopian communities outside Ethiopia, and has several Ethiopian Orthodox and Catholic churches and cultural centers, making it the best location to donate the manuscripts.
Ethiopia is predominantly a Christian country, with the majority of Christians belonging to the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.
However, there are other small religious communities in the country, including Muslims, Judaists, and Pagans. There is also a minority section of Christians who are Roman Catholics or Protestants.
Many Ethiopians still use the prayer scrolls for protection and healing. They are often inscribed with prayers, spells, and charms to offer protection to their specific owner.
The text on these “magic” scrolls is often derived from the bible, which is why the majority of churches in the country tolerate despite their connection to magic.
Silly question. First and Second to the Corinthians, don’t you know how to add?
Now, open your Bible and read:
· (1 Corinthians 5:9) “In my letter I wrote you to stop keeping company with. . .”
Well, if we read in the FIRST letter Paul mention another previous letter, namely “In my letter”, there was one more, the, let’s say, zero to Corinthians!
Next, related question. Was this zero-letter inspired by God?
===========quote follows, with some remarks
*** w53 2/15 p. 127 Questions From Readers ***
That there actually existed at one time a letter to the Laodiceans seems established by Colossians 4:16. Do we have it today? Or do we have a replica of it? Maybe we do; maybe we do not. It may have been inspired; it may not have been inspired. But if it was not inspired that does not mean it was false, any more than statements that we might make today are necessarily false merely because they are uninspired. A statement can be absolutely true, though uninspired. So if the letter to the Laodiceans was not inspired, that does not make it false. Merely because it was not preserved in the Bible canon does not make it false. It was not included because it doubtless is not necessary for us today; other letters that are included may cover the same points for us. To include it might mean useless duplication. ==================
Let us admit this zero letter wasn’t inspired. Another question, a very important one:
· There is a possibility of errors in the apostle writing?
Well, as only the INSPIRED Word of God is errorless, the possibility existed. Perhaps this explains these words of Paul himself:
(Galatians 1:8) “However, even if we or an angel out of heaven were to declare to you as good news something beyond the good news we declared to you, let him be accursed”
Yes, it was a hyperbole. In another words, if I go crazy and declare you…etc. Naturally, Paul himself could develop a mental disorder and declare estrange things. And, in spite he was used to transmit inspired and errorless words, not always could be the case. In other moments, perhaps writing the zero to the Corinthians some minor errors could be introduced. Should the Corinthians be suspicious reading the inspired letters, because some of them weren’t? No, because the apostle himself mention regarding the INSPIRED letter (1 Corinthians 7:40) “I certainly think I also have God’s spirit.”
Nowadays. We had our “steward” class. These brothers are being using for Jehovah to take care of the whole house of God. This is an enormous responsibility. Always are correct? No. Was Paul always right? Yes… WHEN INSPIRED. So, as the “slave” class is not inspired, grant these brothers at least the same weight than the zero to the Corinthians.
perhaps you had noticed that screen on the january broadcasting program.
I searched the internet to find that papyrus, so I like to share the information with all of you.
can anyone tell us, where is that from the bible ?
(and for those who like the greek letters),
can you see those 3 words ?
[my greetings to all]
What letter do you see in the attached photo? If you answer is an "A" well, you are right, but partially. Did you also observe the "B" close to the upper right corner? This aims to demonstrate the "evil" (side) effect of a spotlight: anything inside the focus obscures the surrounding area. And this is my question:
Have we, the JW put so much emphasis, for decades and decades, to the extended applications of some cherished, favorite verses till the point to obscure the more basic, beautiful and inspired meaning?
Only two examples:
(Proverbs 27:23) "You should know well the appearance of your flock…"
Ask any brother around the world about the meaning of this verse. "Easy: the spiritual shepherds should be familiar with the situation and problems of the brothers in the congregation." Right, this has been always the "spotlight" we've found reading our literature, hearing in the meetings and attending several schools. But this is an extended application. Not the real use for the writer of Proverbs. And this inspired meaning is, obviously more important than our "added" point.
Perhaps I'm wrong, but I've only read once in my life the exact meaning of the verse quoted:
w91 8/1 p. 31 Questions From Readers *** What basic counsel is Proverbs 27:23 offering to spiritual shepherds as well as to Christians in general?
Follow part of the article: ======================================
"...The book of Proverbs contains many verses that stand alone as pithy statements of counsel, but Proverbs 27:23 is part of a group of verses: “You ought to know positively the appearance of your flock. Set your heart to your droves; for treasure will not be to time indefinite, nor a diadem for all generations. The green grass has departed, and the new grass has appeared, and the vegetation of the mountains has been gathered. The young rams are for your clothing, and the he-goats are the price of the field. And there is a sufficiency of goats’ milk for your food, for the food of your household, and the means of life for your girls.”—Proverbs 27:23-27.
This inspired passage extols having a life-style marked by diligence, industriousness, simplicity, and recognition of our dependence on Jehovah. It does this by highlighting the pastoral life of an Israelite shepherd, perhaps in contrast with a flamboyant life based on business deals and quick riches...."
"...Proverbs 27:26, 27 mentions one result of such labor—food and clothing. Granted, the description is not of fancy convenience foods or gourmet specialties, nor does it give a laborer reason to expect clothing in the latest designer style or the best material. But if he was willing to put forth effort, the shepherd and his family could obtain from the flock milk (and thus cheese), as well as wool for weaving sturdy garments.
So the advice: “You ought to know positively the appearance of your flock” is not primarily for spiritual overseers; it is for all Christians. It underscores the value of our being content with sustenance and covering obtained by steady, diligent work,"
====================================== End of the quote
Aren't these fine admonitions! I'm sad that this basic, genuine and inspired teaching remains blurred under the light power of the dozens of our "extended" applications.
And what now? Are we without verses to encourage to our shepherds in this regard? By no means! Perhaps Acts 20:28 "Pay attention...to all the flock?" between many others.
Any way, if we are tempted to continue with our indiscriminate custom, let's consider this wise advice:
*** w72 8/15 p. 499 Questions That Disturb You—What Should You Do? ***
However, we should not be indiscriminate and careless in applying Bible texts, remembering, rather, that the contextual application is the primary and basic one. If it is possible to use the text in a secondary or broader application in principle, it can add force to our presentation to point out to our hearers the basic contextual sense and to make clear that we are using the text in its secondary application, applying it only in principle.
====================================== End of the quote
What do you think about my view? Ah, it remains another blatant example, but better for another post
My affection to everyone, and I apologize for my English, not my mother language.
Translating and printing was one thing. Getting the Bibles to Britain was another. Church agents and secular authorities were determined to prevent shipments across the English Channel, but friendly merchants had the answer. Hidden in bales of cloth and other merchandise, the volumes were smuggled to the shores of England and up into Scotland. Tyndale was encouraged, but his fight had only begun.
On February 11, 1526, Cardinal Wolsey, accompanied by 36 bishops and other church dignitaries, assembled near St. Paul’s Cathedral in London “to see great basketfuls of books cast into a fire.” Included among them were some copies of Tyndale’s precious translation. Of this first edition, there are now just two copies extant. The only complete one (lacking just the title page) is in the British Library. Ironically, the other, with 71 pages missing, was discovered in St. Paul’s Cathedral Library. How it got there, nobody knows.
Undaunted, Tyndale continued to produce fresh editions of his translation, which were systematically confiscated and burned by English clerics. Then Tunstall changed tactics. He struck a bargain with a merchant named Augustine Packington to buy any books written by Tyndale, including the New Testament, in order to burn them. This was arranged with Tyndale, with whom Packington had made an agreement. Halle’s Chronicle says: “The bishop had the books, Packington had the thanks, and Tyndale had the money. Afterward when more New Testaments were imprinted, they came thick and threefold into England.”
Why were the clergy so bitterly opposed to Tyndale’s translation? Whereas the Latin Vulgate tended to veil the sacred text, Tyndale’s rendering from the original Greek for the first time conveyed the Bible’s message in clear language to the English people. For example, Tyndale chose to translate the Greek word a·gaʹpe as “love” instead of “charity” in 1 Corinthians chapter 13. He insisted on “congregation” rather than “church” to emphasize worshipers, not church buildings. The last straw for the clergy, however, came when Tyndale replaced “priest” with “elder” and used “repent” rather than “do penance,” thereby stripping the clergy of their assumed priestly powers. David Daniell says in this regard: “Purgatory is not there; there is no aural confession and penance. Two supports of the Church’s wealth and power collapsed.” (William Tyndale—A Biography) That was the challenge Tyndale’s translation presented, and modern scholarship fully endorses the accuracy of his choice of words.
*** w95 11/15 p. 26 William Tyndale—A Man of Vision ***
*** na pp. 17-18 God’s Name and Bible Translators ***
The name first appeared in an English Bible in 1530, when William Tyndale published a translation of the first five books of the Bible.
By Guest Nicole
Showing a Bible study on how to use his new Hindi Bible! I was so happy because is much easier for us to help him find the scriptures, he kept thanking us for bringing this "holy book".
By Bible Speaks
Bible Reading—Profitable and Pleasurable
“You must . . . read in it day and night.”—JOSHUA 1:8. The Bible’s Author, Jehovah God has preserved it through centuries of virulent opposition from its enemies, both religious and secular. Since it is his will that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth,” he has seen to it that his Word is made available to all humankind. (1 Timothy 2:4) It is estimated that about 80 percent of earth’s inhabitants can be reached by the use of 100 languages. The text of the entire Bible is available in 370 languages, and parts of the Scriptures can be read in a further 1,860 languages and dialects. Jehovah wants his people to read his Word. He blesses his servants who give attention to his Word, yes, who read it daily.—Psalm 1:1, 2.
Notice the reasons why Jehovah required all future kings of Israel to read the book of divine law daily: (1) “in order that he may learn to fear Jehovah his God so as to keep all the words of this law and these regulations by doing them”; (2) “that his heart may not exalt itself above his brothers”; (3) “that he may not turn aside from the commandment to the right or to the left.”
READ GOD'S WORDS TODAY AND BECOME WISE. JW.ORG
By Bible Speaks
What Does the Bible Say About Christmas? ???????
The Bible’s answer
The Bible does not give the date of Jesus’ birth, nor does it say that we should celebrate his birthday. As McClintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia states: “The observance of Christmas is not of divine appointment, nor is it of NT [New Testament] origin.” Instead, an examination of the history of Christmas exposes its roots in pagan religious rites. The Bible shows that we offend God if we try to worship him in a way that he does not approve of.—Exodus 32:5-7. History of Christmas customs
Celebrating Jesus’ birthday: “The early Christians did not celebrate [Jesus’] birth because they considered the celebration of anyone’s birth to be a pagan custom.”—The World Book Encyclopedia.
•December 25: There is no proof that Jesus was born on that date. Church leaders likely chose this date to coincide with pagan festivals held on or around the winter solstice.
•Gift-giving, feasting, partying: The Encyclopedia Americana says: “Saturnalia, a Roman feast celebrated in mid-December, provided the model for many of the merry-making customs of Christmas. From this celebration, for example, were derived the elaborate feasting, the giving of gifts, and the burning of candles.” The Encyclopædia Britannica notes that “all work and business were suspended” during Saturnalia.
•Christmas lights: According to The Encyclopedia of Religion, Europeans decorated their homes “with lights and evergreens of all kinds” to celebrate the winter solstice and to combat evil spirits.
•Mistletoe, holly: “The Druids ascribed magical properties to the mistletoe in particular. The evergreen holly was worshiped as a promise of the sun’s return.”—The Encyclopedia Americana.
•Christmas tree: “Tree worship, common among the pagan Europeans, survived after their conversion to Christianity.” One of the ways in which tree worship survived is in the custom of “placing a Yule tree at an entrance or inside the house in the midwinter holidays.”—Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.jw.org/en/bible-teachings/questions/bible-about-christmas/
By Bible Speaks
Jehovah’s Witnesses set up at a Book Fair in Bogota, Colombia. People were upset that the cheapest Bible was $150 at the Book Fair, and Witnesses handed them one for FREE. www.jw.org:
By Bible Speaks
The Jehovah's Witness movement has been on a year-long drive to recruit commuters at UK train stations, shopping centres and parks. It's a change of tactics, writes Sophie Robehmed. Everybody is familiar with the Jehovah's Witnesses' standard modus operandi. Two polite people knock at the door and try and engage a householder in conversation. The visit is often less than welcome and there are plenty of examples of comic sketches mocking the phenomenon. But for the last year, the Christian-based religious movement has been trying a different method in the UK. Volunteers are targeting train stations, as well as shopping centres and other busy places, in 14 cities across Britain and Ireland - Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Sheffield. In London alone, the movement says it has 1,000 people giving away literature - and they get through about 6,000 brochures, 20,000 books, and 100,000 magazines every month. The tactic was pioneered in New York three years ago and is set to expand further. At weekly congregation meetings, volunteers are encouraged to let passers-by approach rather than trying to stop them. The tactics seem the polar opposite of the doorstep approach - most of the day the volunteers stand there smiling but saying little. At Oxford Circus, in the centre of London and the fourth busiest underground/metro station in the UK, the Jehovah's Witnesses are passed by hundreds of thousands of people every week. Deep Singh, a coordinator for this latest street drive, who converted from Sikhism 23 years ago, stands with his arms outstretched, holding books with the title, What does the Bible really teach?, in capital letters. His wife, Ruth, meanwhile, hovers by a stand, stocked with copies of Awake!, the Jehovah's Witnesses' flagship magazine. The couple are joined by another volunteer. And the station's other entrances and exits are manned by other groups. Even standing by the volunteers for an hour, it seems that few passers-by stop to talk. The movement doesn't have figures for how many converts this part of its mission has produced. And it's emphasised that it's an addition rather than a departure from the door-to-door evangelism, but adherents are optimistic that the new tactic is making an impact. The UK Jehovah's Witnesses say that the May issue of Awake!, with its cover line Stress - Keys to Managing It, was the most popular of the current drive. "People were queuing up for a copy in the City [of London]," says Deep. "One woman asked if it was possible to take copies for her colleagues because she said her whole office was stressed." The Singhs are both cutting back on their paid work away from the movement in order to be, as Deep states on his WhatsApp mobile messaging profile, "On the Lord's Work!!" from 7am-7pm. "I feel for people. Life is a mess, and we help to improve people morally, spiritually and emotionally," says Deep. "This ministry is definitely better for secular people who like to be in control," he adds. "They can ignore us, ask questions or just pick up a book to get the answers they're looking for." Ruth, who grew up with a Jehovah's Witness mother and atheist father, agrees. "It makes sense," she says. "People are so busy and this ministry conveniently fits in with their hectic schedules." Founded in the US towards the end of the 19th Century, under the leadership of Charles Taze Russell. Headquarters of the movement in New York Although Christian-based, the group believes that the traditional Christian Churches have deviated from the true teachings of the Bible, and do not work in full harmony with God The traditional Christian Church does not regard the movement as a mainstream Christian denomination because it rejects the Christian doctrine of the Trinity Jehovah's witnesses believe that humanity is now in the 'last days' and that the final battle between good and evil will happen soon. http://m.bbc.com/news/magazine-28166192
By Bible Speaks
@ray_francessca from Albuquerque, New Mexico shares with us: “My sons and their good friend heading to the territory this morning. Their future goals include serving where the need is great, becoming ministerial servants, and helping each other stay strong in Jehovah’s service. So grateful for the wonderful influence they can have on each other.” Preaching Albuquerque New Mexico
By Guest Nicole
AN UNHOLY row has broken out after the Protestant owner of a Christian bookshop refused to sell a bible to a woman - because she is CATHOLIC.
Muriel Swan, 61, was told she should “get the Pope to open a few bookshops for her” after she was turned away from The Mustard Seed Christian Bookshop.
She went to the shop to look for a gift for her eight-year-old grandson Cameron for his first Holy Communion.
But she was left cross when, she claims, staff told her they didn't stock Catholic literature and goods - despite advertising themselves as a Christian bookshop.
Mrs Swan blasted the owner of shop in Gedling, Nottingham, for being "anti-Catholic".
The gran-of-six, a carer from Redhill, Nottingham, said: "We asked the lady in the shop if she had anything for first communion and the reaction we received left us reeling.
"In this day and age I was left speechless when she said the shop was anti-Catholic.
"She went almost into a rage, my grandson and daughter in law were upset by this, it was truly awful.
"I bought two bibles previously from there but when I mentioned buying one for Holy Communion she said we don't stock Catholic items.
"But a bible is a bible surely.
"That's not what really upset me though. It was the fact she said the words 'we are anti-Catholic.'
"It is like saying she is anti-Christ. It was verging on racism.
"I said 'well you do Confirmation gifts' and she said 'they are Church of England not Catholic.'
"I couldn't believe my ears, we just left the shop empty-handed and feeling dumbfounded.
"I've since found out although they are a Protestant shop but they also stock Jewish things too.
"I have come up against discrimination before but all the time I have lived in England this is the first time anti-Catholicism has reared its ugly head.
"There were other people in the shop and that made it worse.
"We just wanted to buy a special Bible."
The Mustard Seed, which has been running for more than 30 years, describes itself as "Nottingham's only Christian bookshop".
Defiant owner Chris Stala defended her store and said Muriel should "get the Pope to open a few bookshops for her".
She added: "We are Protestant, not Catholic.
"The bottom line is that if you want Catholic things go to a Catholic shop.
"The complaint is ridiculous and its just logical you won't get Catholic things here.
"If you want Catholic goods you go to a Catholic store.
"We are not anti-Catholic anyway. I am a Christian and she is too but we are part of different sects.
"You would not get Jehovah's Witnesses coming here either.
"We don't advertise as a Protestant shop but people who come here just know.
"She should get the Pope to open a few bookshops for her because he has plenty of money."
The Equality and Human Rights Commission refused to comment on the case as it is a private matter and said it was up to the shop what they sell.
John 1:1 Is Jesus Christ ‘a god’ or ‘God’?
Watchtower Teaching: The NWT translates the first ‘θεος’ in John 1:1 as ‘God’, and the second ‘θεος’ as ‘a god’. In the Greek, there is a definite article ‘the’ (‘ό ’) before the first occurrence of God (ό θεος = the God). However, there is no definite article ‘the’ before the
second occurrence of ‘God’.
The Watchtower argues (falsely) that, when a noun has a definite article (like ‘ό θεος’), it points to an identity or personality, such as the person of Jehovah God. The WT claims (falsely) that the same phrase (‘ό θεος’) is never used of Jesus Christ in the NT (Watchtower, 1 July 86, p31).
(Note: ‘ό θεος’ is used of Christ in Matthew 1:23, John 20:28 and Hebrews 1:8).
The Watchtower claims (falsely) that when a singular predicate noun has no definite article, and it occurs before a verb (as theos in John 1:1c), then it points to a quality about someone, so that here it says that Jesus (the Word) has a divine quality, but is not God Almighty (KIT, p.1139).
They alone translate Jesus as ‘a god’.
To support this view they quote:
i) Johannes Greber NT (1937), a SPIRITIST who claimed that spirits helped him translate the NT (Watchtower, 15 September 62, p.554; 15 October 73, p.640). The WT KNEW he was a spiritist in 1956 (Watchtower, 15 February 1956, p 110, 111), yet they still quoted him.
ii) Dr Julius Mantey, who REFUTES their translation saying: ‘They have forgotten entirely what the (word) order of the sentence indicates that the “ λογος” (“logos” or “Word” in English) has the same substance, nature or essence as the Father. To indicate that Jesus
was “a god” would need a completely different construction in the Greek. They misquoted me in support of their translation. 99% of Greek scholars and Bible translators in the world DISAGREE with JWs.’
Bible Teaching: The NWT is wrong in translating John 1:1 as ‘a god’ for these reasons:
1. JWs claim that, because the second ‘θεος’ (theos) has no definite article, we should translate it as ‘a god’. (Kingdom Interlinear Translation, p 1139). Then why has the NWT JW version broken their rule four times in John 1:6, 12, 13, 18 by translating ‘θεος’ with no
article as ‘God’? They are inconsistent, as seen below:
If the NWT was consistent, they should translate ‘θεος’ as ‘a god’ in these cases too:
v. 6 ‘There was a man sent from a god.’
v.12 ‘to them gave he power to become the children of a god.’
v.13 ‘nor of the will of man, but of a god.’
v.18 ‘no man hath seen a god at any time.’
This is clearly wrong and ridiculous. Why only in verse one do they refuse to translate ‘θεος’ as ‘God’? Because they don’t want Christ to be Jehovah God. The Watchtower’s mistranslation of John 1:1 is not supported by any Greek grammar textbook.
Many other verses have ‘θεος’ + no article, and yet are correctly translated as ‘God’, such as Matthew 5:9; 6:24; Luke 1:35, 78; 2:40; John 3:2, 21; 9:16, 33; I Corinthians 1:30; 15:10; Philippians 2:11,13; Titus 1:1; Romans 1:17, 18.
2. JWs say that by translating ‘θεος’ as ‘a god’, then Christ is a lesser god, a divine person.
Answer: If John had intended this adjectival sense (ie ‘the Word was divine’), he had an adjective θειος (theios=godlike2304) available to use as found in II Peter 1:3, 4 (‘divine power’ and ‘divine nature’), if Christ was just a divine lesser god.
Instead, John uses ‘θεος’ meaning ‘God’.
Spiros Zodhiates, in his book Was Christ God? ( p.102), states assertively: ‘It would, therefore, be totally wrong to translate the statement that John makes in John 1:1 as “the Word was divine”. The word which is used in the original Greek is θεος (theos) “God”, not θειος (theios) “divine”. Jesus Christ did not merely have divine
attributes, but He was God in His essence and nature. He was not a man who attained divinity, but God who humbled Himself to take upon Himself human nature in addition to His deity.’
3. Contrary to the Watchtower claim, ‘θεος’ (God) with the definite article (‘ό’) is used of Jesus Christ in the New Testament:
i) John 20:28.
ii) Matthew 1:23.
iii) Hebrews 1:8.
Hence, the same word ‘ό θεος’ (ho theos) used of the Father is also used of Christ.
4. JWs say that Jesus is ‘a god’. Jehovah disagrees with them in Isaiah 44:8 by saying: ‘Is there a God beside me? yea, there is no God; I know not any.’ (KJV and NWT).
Jehovah says that there is no ‘a God’ beside Him. This shows John 1:1 in the NWT to be wrong. Hence, Jesus cannot be ‘a God’, so He must be ‘the God’.
5. Ancient UNCIAL Greek manuscripts were all written in capital letters, so one could not distinguish between ‘God’ and ‘god’, except by the context, and whether the writer believed in one true God or in more than one god.
Ask: Did the Apostle John believe in one true God or more than one true God? Since John believed in one true God, we conclude that Jesus is the one true God in John 1:1.
6. JWs say that Jesus is ‘a god’ with Jehovah, as seen from ‘the Word was with God.’ They say that if Christ is ‘with’ God, He cannot be God.
Answer: ‘with’ (Greek ‘ προς’) means that Christ was so intimately connected with God, that He is God. ‘There are no gods together with me’. (Deuteronomy 32:39 NWT)
‘There is no god with me.’ (Deuteronomy 32:39 KJV)
Hence, Jehovah says that there are no gods with Jehovah, so Christ must be Jehovah God.
7. Every Greek scholar in the world is against the NWT translation of John 1:1 ‘the word was a god’. Examples include:
M.R.Vincent: ‘The λογος (logos) of John is the real personal God’.(Word Studies in Gk N,T ,p.383)
K.Wuest: ‘The Word was as to His essence absolute deity’.(Word Studies in Gk.NT p 209)
A.T.Robertson: ‘the Word was God, of Divine nature; not “a god”.’(Expositors Gk Testmnt, p.684)
Spiros Zodhiates: ‘In John 1:1, Jesus Christ in His pre-incarnate state is called the Word, presenting as the second person of the Godhead.’ (NT Word Study Dictionary, p 935)
W.E.Vine: ‘the λογος (logos), the Word, the personal manifestation, not of a part of the divine nature, but of the whole deity.’ (Complete Expository Dictionary of NT Words, p683)
8. All other gods are false gods.
Hence, Jesus Christ in John 1:1 must be either the only true God Jehovah or a false god. Which one?
9. Church Writers writing before 325 AD all agree that John 1:1 is ‘the Word was God’, and that it means that Jesus is fully God and man.
This verse was never disputed before the occultist Greber’s NT was published in 1937.
Notice 12 Church writers before 325 AD who all quote John 1:1 correctly as ‘the Word was God’.
Question: Why do NONE of them quote it as ‘a god’?
• These early Church writers knew Greek as their mother tongue and first language,
• These men often were quoting from the original autographs.
1) Irenaeus, (120-202 AD) Vol 1, p 328,Vol 1, p 428,Vol 1, p 546
2) Theophilus of Antioch (115-181 AD)Vol 2, p 103,
3) Clement of Alexandria (153-217 AD) Vol 2, p 173,
4) Tertullian (145-220 AD), Vol 3 p 488, p 489, p 602, p 607
5) Origen (185-254 AD), Vol.4 p 262, Origen de Principiis p 291,
p 553 Origen against Celsus p 603, p 642,
6) Cyprian (200-258 AD), Vol 5 p 516, p 518
7) Novatian (210-280 AD), Vol 5, p 624,p 624, p 642
8) Hippolytus (170-236 AD), Vol 5, p.288.
9) Thaumaturgus (205 AD), Vol 6,p.69
10) Methodius (260-312 AD), Vol 6,p.381.
11) Alexander (273-326 AD),Vol 6,p.292
12) Tatian’s Diatessaron (150 AD), Vol 10, p 43
Note: Compare these quotes by Ante-Nicene Church fathers which contradict the Watchtower’s invented quotes of Church fathers on p7 of ‘Should you believe in the Trinity?’
10. TheWatchtower’s Kingdom Interlinear Translation (KIT, p.401) quote of John 1:1, in the left hand column has ‘god was the Word’, which CONTRADICTS the right hand column NWT translation which says ‘the word was a god’. Hence the Word (Christ who became flesh, v.14) is called ‘God’ on the LHS of the page, and ‘a god’ on the RHS of the page.
11. Greek grammar rules out ‘a god’.
JWs say that for Jesus to be Jehovah God here, there should be the definite article ‘the’ (Greek ‘ό’) before God (θεος). Because ‘θεος’ does not have the definite article ‘ό’ before it, JWs conclude that ‘the word’ was indefinite, and means ‘a god’.
Answer: A.T. Robertson Greek authority says (A Grammar of Greek NT, p.767): ‘Nouns in the Predicate: The article is not essential to speech....The word with the article (“ό”) is then the subject of the sentence, whatever the word order may be. So in John 1:1, “
ό λογος” , the subject is perfectly clear (“the word” = “ό λογος”, and it can only be “the word was God”.’
Key: Hence the article ‘the’ (ό) points out the subject (ό λογος) of the clause, and points out the predicate (θεος ) without the article.
If John had written ‘ό θεος ην ό λογος’ as the JWs would want, then John would be teaching false doctrine of Sabellianism (that Christ is all of God, that God and Christ are interchangeable, that the Father was the one who became incarnate, suffered and died).
Note: If the article is used with both the subject (ie. λογος ) and the predicate (ie. θεος), they would then be interchangeable as the subject nouns are in I John 3:4 (η αµαρτια εστιν η ανοµια) then both ‘sin is transgression’ and ‘transgression is sin’ are true’.
But in I John 4:16, ‘ ’ can only be ‘God is Love’, not ‘Love is God’ (because the article points out the subject). If the Greek language allowed us to say ‘Love is God’ just as readily as ‘God is Love’ in this verse, then God would not be a person, but just an abstract quality.
(see Was Christ God?, Spiros Zodhiates, p.98).
Conclusion: Hence, the absence of the definite artice ‘?’ in John 1:1 is deliberate in order to identify ‘the Word’ as the subject of the sentence and to make it only to read as ‘the Word was God’. It has nothing to do with Christ being a lesser god as the JWs claim. Hence,
contrary to the NWT and The Emphatic Diaglott, the Greek grammatical construction leaves no doubt whatsoever that ‘the Word was God’ is the only possible rendering of the text.
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