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JW Russia: In Ulyanovsk, court acts to suppress 5 Witnesses

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One believer was jailed and four others placed under house arrest February 28, 2019, in Ulyanovsk.  Svetlana Chebukina, a judge of the Leninsky District Court of Ulyanovsk, sent 53-year-old Sergey Mysin to jail after he was accused of “organizing an extremist organization” in connection with his religion. His wife, Natalya, as well as Andrey Tabakov, 43, Khoren Khachikyan, 33, and  Mikhail Zelensky, 58, were placed under house arrest.

The case against residents of Ulyanovsk who are suspected of being Jehovah's Witnesses was initiated by the local department of Federal Security Service (FSB). Worshippers are accused of “popularization of the ideas of Jehovah's Witnesses, promoting the superiority of these ideas over other religious teachings, finding venues for meetings of participants in this organization, and direct participation in meetings.” On February 27, their apartments were searched.

According to the court order, Sergey Mysin must be detained in SIZO-1 in the Ulyanovsk Region until April 23, 2019, inclusive.

Law enforcement officers repeatedly misconstrue normal worship as participation in the activities of an extremist organization. As these abuses mount, they have been noted and denounced by many observers including prominent public figures in Russia, the Human Rights Council under the President of the Russian Federation, the President of the Russian Federation, as well as international organizations like European External Action Service, observers of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. In actuality, Jehovah's Witnesses are in no way related to extremism and insist on their complete innocence. The Russian government has repeatedly stated that the decisions of the Russian courts to liquidate and ban the organizations of Jehovah's Witnesses “set out no assessment of the religious denomination of Jehovah’s Witnesses or limitation or prohibition to individually manifest the aforementioned denominations.”

https://jw-russia.org/en/news/19030120-650.html

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@James Thomas Rook Jr. The crazy thing is I spoke of a dark age regarding Russia in the comes days. Ever so slightly from that response I made a while back, things are coming to a fruition. The Russians who are not for the Kremlin/ROC see it, the West, and other parts of the world.

Whatever the Kremlin does, their allies is for them, which you can see a contrast regarding 2 superpowers with powerful allies under their belt.

 

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    • Guest
      By Guest
      In 1938, a family of Jehovah’s Witnesses was arrested after asking people on a New Haven, Conn., street if they would listen to the religious records. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1940 in favor of the Witnesses, holding that the state had violated their freedom of religion. #VinylRecordDay En 1938, una familia de testigos de Jehová fue arrestada después de preguntar a la gente en un nuevo refugio, conn., calle si se los registros religiosos. El Tribunal Supremo de ee. uu. Dictaminó en 1940 a favor de los testigos, sosteniendo que el estado había violado su libertad de religión. #Vinylrecordday
    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      Mingachevir: Challenge to illegal police raid fails
      On 18 September 2018, Judge Elchin Huseynov of Sheki Appeal Court rejected a civil case brought by four Jehovah’s Witnesses, Eldar Aliyev, Maryam Aliyeva, Elchin Bakirov and Bahruz Kerimov, against an illegal police raid on a worship meeting, according to the decision seen by Forum 18.

      Police had raided a Jehovah’s Witness meeting in Aliyev’s home in the north-western town of Mingachevir on 9 January 2016. Mingachevir City Court then fined Aliyev 1,500 Manats in March 2016, and Sheki Appeal Court upheld the fine the following month.

      The four lodged a civil suit to Mingachevir City Court, seeking redress for the police’s illegal entry into Aliyev’s home without a court order or search warrant, their “detention, verbal insults and humiliation”, and seizure of personal literature. But the court rejected the suit on 25 May 2018.
      https://www.eurasiareview.com/17062019-azerbaijan-appeals-fail-against-illegal-raids-fines/
    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      ChinaAid reports that 18 individuals have been indicted in Xinjiang, 17 for “using an evil religion organization” to “incite the obstruction of law enforcement,” and one of them for “obstructing law enforcement by organizing and using an evil religious organization.” ChinaAid also provides the names of all these indicted and further details.
      The formulae mentioned by ChinaAid correspond to Art. 300 of the Chinese Criminal Code, which establishes jail penalties of three to seven years “or more” for  “using a xie jiao” (sometimes translated as “evil cult” and in ChinaAid article as “evil religious organization,” while scholars point out that “heterodox teachings” would be a better translation). The formula “using a xie jiao for obstructing the law enforcement” (or “inciting the obstruction of law enforcement”) is also customary.
      While Chinese propaganda abroad insists that Art. 300 is only enforced against members of groups the CCP labels as xie jiao, including Falun Gong and The Church of Almighty God, who commit serious crimes, this case confirms once again that this interpretation is false. “Using a xie jiao for obstructing law enforcement” is a rhetoric formula used as a synonymous for “being active in an illegal religious organization.” In fact, the 18 Jehovah’s Witnesses were accused of “spreading superstition and heresy” and of inciting people not to join the CCP (Witnesses are forbidden by their religion from joining any political organization), not of any other crime. It is clear that Art. 300 is enforced against those who gather to profess, or spread, a banned faith, a typical “crime of conscience.” No other crime is required.
      It is the first time that Art. 300 is applied for a general crackdown against the Jehovah’s Witnesses. As far as Bitter Winter knows, they are not included in the current list of the xie jiao, yet the indictment in Xinjiang implies that they are regarded as a xie jiao. In fact, we have learned that recently pastors of the Three-Self Church insisted that the list of the xie jiao should be expanded, including new groups they regard as “heretic” (and perhaps as too successful in converting members of the same Three-Self Church).
      Read more: https://bitterwinter.org/persecution-against-jehovahs-witnesses-escalates-in-china/

    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      On May 24, 2019, Markus Grübel, the German Commissioner for Global Freedom of Religion, spoke in connection with the fact that the Russian appellate court upheld the sentence of Dennis Christensen. “I regret the decision of the court that rejected the appeal in the case of Christensen,” said Markus Grübel. “I am concerned about the situation of Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia. Freedom of religion and ideology is an important human right. Every state should respect it. Religious freedom is indivisible and is valid for all religious communities.”
      https://www.jw-russia.org/en/news/19061216-931.html

    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      Letters of support to Dennis Christensen can be sent to the Penal Colony #3 in the Kursk Region located: Primakova Street, 23A, Lgov, Kursk Region, 307754, Russian Federation. Emails are also accepted via the “FSIN-letter” system.

      https://jw-russia.org/en/news/19061115-921.html
    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      The FSB has detained representatives of 15 communities of the Jehovah’s Witnesses in Dagestan. They are accused of extremist activity (Article 282.2 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation), riadagestan.ru reports.
      A large number of “propaganda items” have been seized from community members, law enforcement officials say. According to the FSB, “for several years, members of the community carried out secret meetings to study extremist literature and coordinate activities to disseminate the ideology of the organization.”
      The exact number of people the special services detained on this case is not reported.
      Jehovah’s Witnesses is an international religious organization with millions of adherents around the world. Jehovah’s Witnesses conduct their activities in most countries of the world. At the same time, in some countries their activity is restricted or banned (among them China, Russia, Vietnam and some Islamic countries).
      Jehovah’s Witnesses organization was recognized as an extremist by the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in 2017. Its activity in Russia is prohibited. Human rights activists believe that Jehovah’s Witnesses are persecuted solely for their religious beliefs and have repeatedly demanded that political repression against the organization be stopped.
      https://belsat.eu/en/news/mass-arrests-of-jehovahs-witnesses-in-dagestan/
    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      Khujand court has extended Jehovah's Witness pensioner Shamil Khakimov's pre-trial detention for another month. His "crime", for which he was arrested in February, seems to be that he is thought to lead Khujand's Jehovah's Witness community. Against international human rights standards, he is not allowed to read his Bible.
      A court in the northern city of Khujand has again extended the pre-trial detention of 68-year-old Jehovah's Witness prisoner of conscience Shamil Khakimov until 26 June. He was arrested in February and is being investigated on criminal charges of allegedly "inciting religious hatred", which carry a jail term of between five and ten years. But his real "crime" seems to be that the regime thinks he leads Khujand's Jehovah's Witness community.
       
      Khujand City Court
      Radioi Ozodi (RFE/RL)
      Khakimov, a widower, suffers from high blood pressure and underwent major leg surgery not long before his February arrest.

      The court can legally continue extending Khakimov's pre-trial detention for up to one year – to 26 February 2020 – and an April extension of the detention took place illegally without his lawyer being informed (see below).

      Against international human rights standards, prisoner of conscience Khakimov is not being allowed the read his Bible (see below).

      In 2016 seven imam-hatyps of state-controlled cathedral mosques in Sogd Region were jailed, apparently for being educated abroad and being devout Muslims, and their sentences are due to expire between March and August 2019. But the regime is refusing to say when they will be released (see below).

      However, relatives of alleged Salafi Muslim Mukhtadi Abdulkodyrov, arrested in December 2018, said a Dushanbe court released him on parole in mid-March 2019 (see below).
       
      Pre-trial detention again extended

      Jehovah's Witness Shamil Rasulovich Khakimov (born 30 August 1950), a retired widower, arrested on 26 February and then put in pre-trial detention, has had his detention extended twice.

      Khujand City Court in the northern Sogd Region extended his detention for one month on 23 April, and then for a further month on 24 May. His pre-trial detention will now last until 26 June, Jehovah's Witnesses who wish to remain anonymous told Forum 18 on 27 May.

      They pointed out that the authorities can legally continue extending the pre-trial detention for up to one year – to 26 February 2020.

      Judge Abruniso Mirasilzoda of Khujand City Court, who ordered the initial pre-trial detention, refused to explain the repeated extensions of the detention to Forum 18 on 29 May.
       
      "Inciting religious hatred", no arrests or prosecution of torturers

      Khakimov is being investigated for allegedly "inciting religious hatred", but his real "crime" appears to be that police think he leads Khujand's Jehovah's Witness community.

      Prisoner of conscience Khakimov's arrest came after police found his phone number on the phones of two female Jehovah's Witnesses they arrested for sharing their beliefs on the street. Investigator Nekruz Ibrokhimzoda of the Sogd Regional Police Organised Crime Department called Khakimov's number as well as other numbers on the phones, and then arrested Khakimov.

      Prisoner of conscience Khakimov's arrest followed raids and interrogations, in some cases involving torture, against Jehovah's Witnesses in Sogd Region and other religious communities nationwide.

      Despite Tajikistan's binding international obligations under the United Nations (UN) Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, no arrests or prosecutions appear to have taken place against officials who tortured Jehovah's Witnesses.
       
      Detention extended without lawyer, appeal refused

      On 23 April Khujand City Court extended Khakimov's pre-trial detention until 26 May, but illegally his lawyer was not informed of the court hearing. The detention was extended at the request of Investigator Nosirkhuja Dodokhonzoda of Sogd Regional Prosecutor's Office, who is now leading the case.

      Police had without explanation and illegally refused to allow a defence lawyer to be present during Khakimov's initial February interrogation. 

      On 29 April Sogd Regional Court rejected an appeal brought by Jehovah's Witnesses against the extension of Khakimov's pre-trial detention.

      Madina Mukumzoda, head of Khujand City Court's Chancellery, refused on 29 May to discuss the case with Forum 18.
       
      Prisoner of conscience Khakimov is being held under Criminal Code Article 189, Part 2 ("Inciting national, racial, local or religious hatred or dissension, humiliation of national dignity, as well as propaganda of the superiority of citizens based on their religion, national, racial, or local origin, if committed in public or using the mass media"). If tried and convicted he could be jailed for between five and 10 years, with an additional ban on specified activity.

      Prisoner of conscience Khakimov is currently held in Khujand's Investigation Prison:

      Ya/S 9/2 Investigation Prison
      Khujand
      Sogd Region
       
      No Bible reading allowed

      Khakimov's lawyer can visit him in prison. "His health is comparatively good, and he is being given medicines," Jehovah's Witnesses told Forum 18 on 4 June. "He can pray but he is not permitted to read his Bible."

      The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (known as the Mandela Rules - A/C.3/70/L.3) require governments to respect the freedom of religion and belief and other human rights of prisoners.

      "So far as practicable, every prisoner shall be allowed to satisfy the needs of his or her religious life by attending the services provided in the prison and having in his or her possession the books of religious observance and instruction of his or her denomination", Rule 66 notes.

      Prisoner of conscience Pastor Bakhrom Kholmatov, who led a Protestant Church in Khujand, was jailed for three years in July 2017 under Criminal Code Article 189, Part 1 for allegedly "singing extremist songs in church and so inciting 'religious hatred'".

      A Tajik Protestant who wishes to remain unnamed for fear of state reprisals told Forum 18 on 27 May that Pastor Kholmatov "was visited in prison recently, and is seemingly doing fine".
       
      Will jailed Sogd Muslims be released?

      In early March 2016, seven imam-hatyps of state-controlled cathedral mosques in Sogd Region were arrested on the initiative of the Regional Prosecutor's Office.

      Sulaymon Boltuyev was Imam of the cathedral Mosque in Guliston (former Kayrakkum), Maksud Urunov Imam of the cathedral Mosque in Kanibadam, and Abdujamil Yusufi of the cathedral Mosque in Bobojon Gofurov District. The other arrested imams were: Abbos Abdurakhmanov, Imam Urunov's deputy at the Kanibadam Cathedral Mosque; Khuseyn Tukhtayev, another imam-hatyp from Kanibadam's Cathedral Mosque; Hamzaali Sultanov of Khujand's Takvo Mosque; and Makhdi Boltayev (an Uzbek citizen) of Isfara's Navgilem Mosque.

      Bobojon Gofurov District Court sentenced all seven of the imams in June 2016 to between three years and three years and four months' imprisonment in strict regime labour camps.

      The jailings appear to have been part of a State Committee for Religious Affairs and Regulation of Traditions, Ceremonies and Rituals (SCRA) campaign to identify and fire all foreign-educated imams. Many other Muslims, including imams, were jailed at the same time for similar reasons.

      The seven imams' sentences are due to expire between March and August 2019, but officials are refusing to say whether they will be released. 

      An official who refused to give his name, but is an assistant to Lieutenant-General Mansurjon Umarov, Head of the Justice Ministry's Chief Directorate of Enforcement of Criminal Punishments, told Forum 18 on 29 May 2019 that the seven imams were prosecuted under Criminal Code Article 307-3, Part 2, which punishes "participation in the activity of political parties, social or religious organisations, or other organisations, liquidated or banned by a court for extremist activity".

      The official added that "those who are punished under such charges cannot be amnestied. They must serve their sentence till the end". However, he refused to say when the imams will be released, or if any have already been released.

      Lieutenant-General Umarov's assistant asked Forum 18 to call back the next day, 30 May, but has not answered his phone then or subsequently.
       
      2017 Sogd arrests, harsher jail sentences

      The jailing of the seven imams seems to have been the beginning of a wave of jailings in Sogd. In September 2017 42-year old Imam Ilkhomiddin Abdulloyev of the Chorrukh-Dorun Mosque in a suburb of Guliston and four members of the Mosque community, one of whom is named Kasymov, were arrested. In November 2017 all were jailed for five and half years.

      Human rights defender Faiziniso Vakhidova told Forum 18 in December 2017 that Imam Abdulloyev is "not an extremist at all, but a very peaceful believer" and a disciple of Imam Boltuyev who was imprisoned earlier under similar "extremism" charges. "Imam Abdulloyev may have been arrested for that reason", human rights defender Vakhidova commented.

      Also jailed in Sogd Region between August and December 2017 were other male Muslim prisoners of conscience, including a well-known heart surgeon. All were accused of being adherents of Salafi Islam, a movement banned since 2009.

      None of those jailed appears to have called for or committed any violation of the human rights of others, and officials refused to explain what exactly they had done wrong. But it appears that their "crime" was to be identified by regime officials as being devout Muslims. All received prison terms of at least five years.
       
      Alleged Salafi released on parole with restrictions
       
      Ismoili Somoni District Court, Dushanbe
      Radioi Ozodi (RFE/RL)
      About three months after his arrest, Dushanbe's Ismoili Somoni District Court handed alleged Salafi Muslim Mukhtadi Abdulkodyrov a term under probation. He was released on parole in mid-March, his relatives told Radio Free Europe (RFE) on 23 March. Tajikistan has banned Salafi Islam since 2009 as "extremist".

      Abdulkodyrov must not change his permanent place of residence, work, or education without notifying the authorities, the Court told RFE. If he does not follow these restrictions he can be taken back into custody.

      The National Security Committee (NSC) secret police arrested Abdulkodyrov on 1 December 2018 after his return from working in Saudi Arabia, despite writing a letter of "repentance" at the request of officials before his return.

      Prosecutors originally investigated Abdulkodyrov under Criminal Code Article 307, Part 2 ("organising the activity of an extremist organisation"). However, in January 2019 this was changed to a charge under Article 189, Part 1 ("Inciting national, racial, local or religious hatred or dissension, humiliation of national dignity, as well as propaganda of the superiority of citizens based on their religion, national, racial, or local origin, if committed in public or using the mass media"). This carries a maximum jail term of five years.

      An Ismoili Somoni District Court Chancellery official (who refused to give his name) on 29 May 2019 still refused to discuss Abdulkodyrov's punishment and referred Forum 18 to Court Chair Gayrat Sanginzoda. He did not answer his phone on either 29 or 30 May. Nor did Lieutenant-General Mansurjon Umarov, head of the Justice Ministry's Chief Directorate of Enforcement of Criminal Punishments, on 30 May. (END)
      http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2484
    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      The law enforcers, who conducted a search of the apartment of Arsen Abdullaev, a Jehovah's Witness (the organization, recognized as extremist and banned in Russia by the court), who was arrested in Dagestan, used threats and intimidation, Suat, Arsen's wife, has stated.
      The "Caucasian Knot" has reported that on June 1, searches were conducted in Makhachkala, Kaspiysk, Kizlyar and Derbent, after which Jehovah's Witnesses, Arsen Abdullaev, Maria Karpova, Anton Dergalyov and Marat Abdugalimov were detained. On June 3, the court arrestedthem for two months.
      Read more: https://www.eng.kavkaz-uzel.eu/articles/47378/
    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has categorically condemned the arrests of Jehovah’s Witnesses and demanded that Russia immediately free the worshippers. On May 29, 2019, the opinion of the special UN investigative body was rendered in the case of Dmitriy Mikhaylov v. Russia. The arrest of Dmitriy Mikhaylov, from Shuya (Ivanovo Region), was found to be religious discrimination. The document stresses that the “findings in this opinion apply to all others in the situations similar to that of Mr. Mikhaylov.” We publish the whole document in Russian.
      https://jw-russia.org/en/news/19060517-905.html

    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      Full list of 189 Jehovah's Witnesses (aged between 19 and 84) known to have been charged or named as suspects for "extremism"-related "crimes" as of 31 May 2019. Of these, 29 are in detention, 28 under house arrest and 73 under travel restrictions. Cases against three were handed to court in late May.
      As of today (31 May) at least 189 Jehovah's Witnesses across Russia face criminal prosecution for exercising their freedom of religion or belief on "extremism"-related charges, which they resolutely deny. The majority are in detention, under house arrest, or under travel restrictions. Armed raids continue on Jehovah's Witness homes, and some people have been arrested at their workplaces.
       
      Protest in support of Jehovah's Witnesses, St Petersburg, 23 March 2019
      Tatyana Voltskaya (RFE/RL)
      The cases against three of these individuals (in Tomsk and Polyarny) have already been completed and in late May were handed to court for trial (see below).

      The number of individuals facing criminal prosecution has been steadily rising. In September 2018 it had reached about 70. In February 2019 126 Jehovah's Witnesses were facing criminal prosecutions, the majority of whom were in detention, under house arrest, or under travel restrictions.
       
      40 women, 149 men, aged from 19 to 84

      The at least 40 female and 149 male Jehovah's Witnesses all face possible prosecution under Criminal Code Article 282.2, Part 1 ("Organisation of"), or Part 2 ("Participation in") ("the activity of a social or religious association or other organisation in relation to which a court has adopted a decision legally in force on liquidation or ban on the activity in connection with the carrying out of extremist activity"), or Part 1.1 ("Inclination, recruitment or other involvement of a person in an extremist organisation"), as well as Criminal Code Article 282.3, Part 1 ("Financing of extremist activity").

      The oldest and youngest facing criminal charges were born almost exactly 65 years apart. Yelena Zayshchuk, born in August 1934, is 84. Grigory Ozhiganov, born in August 1999, is 19.

      Of the 189 individuals known to be facing criminal prosecution:
      - 29 people (3 women, 26 men) are in pre-trial detention;
      - 2 people (both men) were ordered placed in pre-trial detention and are now wanted;
      - 28 people (4 women, 24 men) are under house arrest;
      - 73 people (26 women, 47 men) are under travel restrictions;
      - 16 people (1 woman, 15 men) are under specific sets of restrictions (such as not being allowed to go out at night or use the telephone or internet);
      - 5 people (1 woman, 4 men) are under an obligation to appear before investigators promptly when summoned;
      - 36 people (5 women, 31 men) appear to be under no restrictions.

      Officials have had 74 of these 189 individuals added to the Federal Financial Monitoring Service (Rosfinmonitoring) "List of Terrorists and Extremists", whose assets banks are obliged to freeze, except for small transactions. (Two already convicted, Dennis Christensen and Sergei Skrynnikov, also appear on the List.) Individuals do not need to have been convicted of any crime to be added to the list.

      Six people are on the Interior Ministry's federal wanted list as their whereabouts are unknown. Two are known to have left Russia.

      The Russian authorities have also opened criminal cases against three Jehovah's Witnesses in Russian-occupied Crimea. Sergei Filatov and Artyom Gerasimov have been charged, while Taras Kuzio is a suspect.
       
      Investigations follow 2017 Supreme Court ban

      The investigations are a direct result of the Supreme Court's 2017 ban on Jehovah's Witness activity throughout the country, and its decision to declare the Jehovah's Witness Administrative Centre and all 395 local communities "extremist organisations". No cases stemming from the nationwide ban have yet come to trial, although several investigations have recently been completed and two trials appear imminent.
       
      Dennis Christensen behind windows in court, 28 January 2019
      Human Rights Watch [CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 US]
      The registered Jehovah's Witness organisation in Oryol was earlier ruled "extremist" and ordered liquidated in June 2016. Stemming from that ban on 23 May 2019 Danish Citizen Dennis Christensen jailing for six years under Criminal Code Article 282.2, Part 1 was upheld by Oryol Appeal Court. 

      The prosecution stemming from the Oryol ban of Jehovah's Witness Sergei Skrynnikov which on 1 April 2019 led to him being fined fine of about a year and a half's average local wages under Criminal Code Article 282.2, Part 2. Skrynnikov's appeal is due to be heard on 13 June.

      In a case launched in June 2016 before the nationwide ban, in December 2018 Arkadya Akopyan, was initially found guilty under Criminal Code Article 282, Part 1 ("Actions directed at the incitement of hatred [nenavist] or enmity [vrazhda], as well as the humiliation of an individual or group of persons on the basis of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, attitude to religion, or social group") for allegedly giving "extremist" sermons and giving out banned literature. The prosecution produced apparently false witnesses in the case. But Akopyan was later acquitted in connection with the partial decriminalisation of this offence.
       
      Trial underway, two more trials imminent

      Yury Zalipayev, remains on trial under Criminal Code Article 280, Part 1 ("Public calls for extremist activity") for allegedly distributing material "inciting hatred and enmity towards a social group, 'Christian clergy'", but Jehovah's Witnesses insist that these materials were planted by FSB security service officers during a search.

      The criminal case against Sergei Klimov in Tomsk was handed to October District Court in late May. The Court told Forum 18 on 31 May that no date has yet been set for his trial to begin.

      The case against two men from Polyarny in Murmansk Region - Roman Markin and Viktor Trofimov – who were interrogated at the Investigative Department of the Russian Navy's Northern Fleet's Polyarny Flotilla was handed to Polyarny District Court in late May. The Court told Forum 18 on 31 May that no date has yet been set for their trial to begin.
       
      Nationwide raids

      Stemming from the 2017 nationwide ban, the authorities have from January 2018 onwards intensively raided Jehovah's Witness homes across Russia, continuing less frequent raids that took place before Jehovah's Witnesses were banned. 

      Between January 2018 and May 2019, raids have taken place in the following 36 of Russia's 83 federal subjects (not counting Crimea and Sevastopol): Amur, Arkhangelsk, Republic of Bashkortostan, Belgorod, Ivanovo, Jewish Autonomous Region, Kamchatka, Kemerovo, Khabarovsk, Republic of Khakasiya, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region, Kirov, Kostroma, Krasnoyarsk, Magadan, Republic of Mordoviya, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Oryol, Penza, Perm, Primorye, Pskov, Rostov, Republic of Sakha-Yakutiya, Sakhalin, Saratov, Smolensk, Stavropol, Sverdlovsk, Republic of Tatarstan, Tomsk, Ulyanovsk, and Volgograd.

      Despite the Jehovah's Witnesses being doctrinally pacifist, the raids often involve heavily armed riot police or National Guard troops carrying machine guns. The raids are usually led by the Investigative Committee, with the FSB security service and police Centre for Combating Extremism also often participating.

      The usual pattern for a raid is that officials, including armed men in masks and body armour, late at night or early in the morning arrive at Jehovah's Witnesses' homes. The occupants are sometimes made to lie on the floor or face the wall while the officers search their homes.

      "We quickly got dressed, opened the door, and in a second the apartment was filled with men in black. I was just shocked," Svetlana Suvorkova, whose husband Yevgeny was arrested in Kirov in October 2018, told the jw-russia website on 11 January 2019. Suvorkov is now under house arrest.

      Officials then confiscate personal possessions such as electronic devices, bank cards, personal photographs, and books. After this the Jehovah's Witnesses, including children and elderly people, are normally taken to one of the raiding agencies' buildings for questioning lasting several hours.
       
      Detention, house arrest, travel restrictions

      Most people are then released, some under travel restrictions. Others are kept in temporary detention until investigators decide whether to apply to a court for longer-term restrictive measures – they must do this within 48 hours of the initial detention.

      A judge then decides whether to grant an investigator's request to place an individual in detention, under house arrest, or under travel or other restrictions.

      House arrest means that an individual must remain within their home, possibly with other court-ordered restrictions, unless there is a medical reason to have treatment outside their home.

      An initial period of pre-trial detention or house arrest lasts for two months from the date of arrest. Criminal cases are usually opened on or shortly before the date of the raid. Towards the end of the two months, investigators must apply to a court again if they want an extension. Detainees themselves may appeal to a higher court to have these restrictive measures lifted or reduced. Sometimes such appeals have been successful.

      Detentions can be difficult for relatives to cope with, both practically and emotionally. Maksim Khalturin's father has health problems and relies largely on his support, the jw-russia.org website stated on 11 January 2019. "It is very hard for me without him. After all, I must take care of my husband alone. And I myself am 81 years old," said his mother Galina Khalturina. "For the first week I couldn't sleep at all," said Olga Korobeynikova, whose husband Vladimir is now under house arrest in Kirov. "When I wake up, there's just pain."
       
      Prosecutions despite Supreme Court claims
       
      Russia's Supreme Court, Moscow
      Anton Naumliuk (RFE/RL)
      Prosecutions of Jehovah's Witnesses are happening despite the Supreme Court' insistence when they issued the ruling that it "does not amount to prohibition of the religion of Jehovah's Witnesses as such", and despite the fact that the Russian government has twice claimed that the ban "does not contain a restriction or prohibition on individual profession of [Jehovah's Witness] teachings".

      Jehovah's Witnesses point out that the Supreme Court judges' claims are not reflected in reality. "Today it has become clear that the statements of the Russian authorities before international bodies that the liquidation of Jehovah's Witness legal entities 'do not contain any restriction or prohibition on practicing these teachings' is nothing more than slyness," spokesperson Yaroslav Sivulsky commented on 23 May. "In order to convict a person for extremism and an attempt on the constitutional order, and then punish him on a par with thieves and murderers, it is enough for law enforcement authorities to prove that he believes in God in the wrong way and catch him reading the Bible."

      Muslims who study the works of the late Muslim theologian Said Nursi face similar "extremism"-related prosecutions. In what appears to be a first, Yevgeny Kim, arrested in 2015 and convicted in 2017 for meeting with others to study Nursi's books, was deprived of his Russian citizenship, leaving him stateless, and on 10 April 2019 – the day he completed his prison term – was fined and ordered deported to his country of birth Uzbekistan.

      ==================================================
       
      Full list of 189 under criminal investigation, sentenced or on trial

      Name, date of birth – date of initial arrest; date of decision to put in detention/under house arrest/under travel restrictions; charged/suspect under Criminal Code Article; whether or not on Rosfinmonitoring "List of Terrorists and Extremists"

      ==================================================
       
      - Pre-trial Detention

      Ivanovo - Furmanovo

      1) Yevgeny Andreyevich Spirin, born 24 February 1986 – arrested on 27 January 2019; detained on 28 January 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Kemerovo

      2) Sergey Alekseyevich Britvin, born 18 August 1965 – arrested on 22 July 2018; detained on 24 July 2018; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 22 November 2018

      3) Vadim Anatolyevich Levchuk, born 6 February 1972 – arrested on 22 July 2018; detained on 24 July 2018; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 22 November 2018

      Khabarovsk

      4) Valery Vasilyevich Moskalenko, born 15 April 1967 – arrested on 2 August 2018; detained on 3 August 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Kirov

      5) Andrzej [Anatolyevich] Oniszczuk, Polish citizen, born 3 October 1968 – arrested on 9 October 2018; detained 12 October 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1, and Article 282.3, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 15 November 2018

      Krasnoyarsk – Sharypovo 

      6) Anton Olegovich Ostapenko, born 1991 – arrested on 19 April 2019; detained on 24 April 2019 for two months; Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Mordoviya – Saransk 

      7) Aleksandr Stanislavovich Shevchuk, born 31 August 1989 – arrested on 6 February 2019; detained no later than 8 February 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 11 April 2019

      Novosibirsk

      😎 Yury Prokopyevich Savelyov, born 1 January 1954 – arrested on 8 November 2018; detained on 8 November 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 18 December 2018

      Primorye – Spassk-Dalny

      9) Yury Nikolayevich Belosludtsev, born 1 May 1964 – arrested on 17 March 2019 in Luchegorsk; detained on 19 March 2019 for two months; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1 or 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 30 May 2019

      10) Sergei Aleksandrovich Sergeyev, born 1955 – arrested on 17 March 2019 in Luchegorsk; detained on 19 March 2019 for two months; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1 or 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Primorye – Vladivostok

      11) Dmitry Viktorovich Barmakin, born 30 May 1974 – arrested in Nakhodka on 28 July 2018; detained on 30 July 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 14 February 2019

      12) Irina Gennadyevna Buglak, born 25 January 1975 – arrested in Partizansk on 19 April 2019; detained on 20 April 2019 for two months; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Rostov-on-Don

      13) Arsen Vilenovich Avanesov, born 1983 – arrested on 22 May 2019; detained on 26 May 2019 for two months; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      14) Vilen Shagenovich Avanesov, born 1952 – arrested on 22 May 2019; detained on 26 May 2019 for two months; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      15) Aleksandr Mikhailovich Parkov, born 1967 – arrested on 22 May 2019; detained on 26 May 2019 for two months; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Smolensk

      16) Yevgeny Vladimirovich Deshko, born 1989 – arrested on 29 April 2019; detained on 1 May 2019 for two months; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      17) Ruslan Nikolayevich Korolyov, born 1982 – arrested on 25 April 2019; detained on 26 April 2019 for two months; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      18) Valery Anatolyevich Shalyev, born 1977 – arrested on 25 April 2019; detained on 26 April 2019 for two months; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      19) Viktor Ivanovich Malkov, born 1959 – arrested on 25 April 2019; detained on 26 April 2019 for two months; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      20) Tatyana Stepanovna Galkevich, born 1959 – arrested on 16 May 2019; detained on 18 May 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      21) Valentina Ivanovna Vladimirova, born 1956 – arrested on 16 May 2019; detained on 18 May 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Stavropol – Neftekumsk 

      22) Aleksandr Andreyevich Akopov, born 4 November 1992 – arrested on 9 December 2018; detained on 12 December 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      23) Konstantin Valeryevich Samsonov, born 8 April 1977 – arrested on 9 December 2018; detained on 12 December 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      24) Shamil Shapiyevich Sultanov, born 16 March 1977 – arrested on 9 December 2018; detained on 12 December 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Tomsk

      25) Sergey Gennadyevich Klimov, born 26 March 1970 – arrested on 3 June 2018; detained on 5 June 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Volgograd

      26) Sergei Nikolayevich Melnik, born 1972 – arrested on 16 May 2019; detained on 18 May 2019; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      27) Vyacheslav Ivanovich Osipov, born 1970 – arrested on 16 May 2019; detained on 18 May 2019; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      28) Valery Anatolyevich Rogozin, born 1962 – arrested on 16 May 2019; detained on 18 May 2019; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      29) Igor Artyomovich Yegozaryan, born 1965 – arrested on 16 May 2019; detained on 18 May 2019; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      ==================================================
       
      - Pre-trial Detention ordered in absentia

      Oryol

      1) Vitaly Gennadyevich Maksimov, born 27 December 1980 – detention ordered in absentia (on wanted list); charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 20 September 2018

      2) Dmitry Andreyevich Prikhodko, born 17 March 1986 – detention ordered in absentia (on wanted list); charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 20 September 2018

      ==================================================
       
      - House Arrest

      Kemerovo – Berezyovsky 

      1) Khasan Abduvaitovich Kogut, born 7 May 1983 – arrested on 6 February 2019 on being summoned to FSB office; detained for 48 hours then put under house arrest on 8 February 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 28 February 2019

      Kirov

      2) Vladimir Aleksandrovich Korobeynikov, born 14 December 1952 – arrested on 9 October 2018; detained on 12 October 2018; put under house arrest on 1 February 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1, and Article 282.3, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 15 November 2018

      3) Maksim Valeryevich Khalturin, born 3 September 1974 – arrested on 9 October 2018; detained on 12 October 2018; put under house arrest on 1 February 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1, and Article 282.3, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 15 November 2018

      4) Andrei Sergeyevich Suvorkov, 26 February 1993 – arrested on 9 October 2018; detained on 12 October 2018; put under house arrest on 1 February 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1, and Article 282.3, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 15 November 2018

      5) Yevgeny Anatolyevich Suvorkov, born 3 February 1978 – arrested on 9 October 2018; detained 12 October 2018; put under house arrest on 28 March 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1, and Article 282.3, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 15 November 2018

      Khabarovsk

      6) Stanislav Viktorovich Kim, born 5 July 1968 – arrested on 10 November 2018; detained on 12 November 2018; placed under house arrest on 30 January 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      7) Vitaly Vyacheslavovich Zhuk, born 8 April 1972 – arrested 10 November 2018; detained 12 November 2018; placed under house arrest on 14 January 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      😎 Nikolai Yuryevich Polevodov, born 10 February 1970 – arrested on 10 November 2018; detained on 12 November 2018; placed under house arrest on 14 January 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region – Uray 

      9) Andrey Vladimirovich Sazonov, born 1980 – arrested on 6 February 2019; detained on 8 February 2019; put under house arrest on 26 February 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List 

      10) Yevgeny Nikolayevich Kayrak, born 1986 – arrested on 15 February 2019 and detained for 48 hours; put under house arrest on 24 March 2019; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 1 or 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Krasnoyarsk

      11) Andrei Garafetanovich Stupnikov, born 17 September 1973 – arrested on 3 July 2018; detained on 4 July 2018; put under house arrest on 1 March 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Novosibirsk

      12) Aleksandr Ivanovich Seryodkin, born 1 December 1954 – arrested on 19 April 2019; put under house arrest on 21 April 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 8 May 2019

      13) Valery Vladimirovich Maletskov, born 13 September 1974 – arrested on 19 April 2019 and detained for 1 day; put under house arrest on 21 April 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 8 May 2019

      Penza

      14) Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kulyasov, born 17 April 1974 – arrested on 15 July 2018 and detained for 48 hours; put under house arrest on 17 July 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 6 September 2018

      15) Andrei Aleksandrovich Magliv, born 20 June 1984 – arrested on 15 July 2018 and detained for 48 hours; put under house arrest on 17 July 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 6 September 2018

      16) Denis Vladimirovich Timoshin, born 23 March 1980 – arrested on 15 July 2018 and detained for 48 hours; put under house arrest on 17 July 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 6 September 2018

      17) Vladimir Aleksandrovich Alushkin, born 30 June 1964 – arrested on 15 July 2018; detained on 17 July 2018; put under house arrest on 14 January 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 6 September 2018

      Primorye – Spassk-Dalny

      18) Dmitry Yuryevich Malyovany, born 24 April 1990 – arrested 25 November 2018 and detained for 48 hours; put under house arrest on 27 November 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 14 February 2019

      19) Olga Alekseyevna Opaleva, born 22 April 1952 – arrested 25 November 2018 and detained for 48 hours; put under house arrest on 27 November 2018; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 14 February 2019

      20) Olga Aleksandrovna Panyuta, born 11 June 1959 – arrested 25 November 2018 and detained for 48 hours; put under house arrest on 27 November 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1.1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 14 February 2019

      21) Aleksei Borisovich Trofimov, born 23 April 1959 – arrested 25 November 2018 and detained for 48 hours; put under house arrest on 27 November 2018; suspect under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 14 February 2019

      Smolensk

      22) Natalya Igoryevna Sorokina, born 12 March 1975 – arrested in Sychyovka on 7 October 2018; detained on 9 October 2018; put under house arrest on 15 April 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      23) Mariya Vladimirovna Troshina, born 13 February 1977 – arrested in Sychyovka on 7 October 2018; detained on 9 October 2018; put under house arrest on 15 April 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Tatarstan – Naberezhniye Chelny

      24) Ilkham Shamilyevich Karimov, born 9 February 1981 – arrested on 27 May 2018; detained on 29 May 2018; put under house arrest on 2? November 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      25) Konstantin Viktorovich Matrashov, born 22 August 1988 arrested on 27 May 2018; detained on 29 May 2018; put under house arrest on 14 November 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Parts 1, 1.1, and 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      26) Vladimir Nikolayevich Myakushin, born 6 November 1987 – arrested on 27 May 2018; detained on 29 May 2018; put under house arrest on 13 November 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Parts 1, 1.1, and 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      27) Aydar Maratovich Yulmetyev, born August 1993 – arrested on 29 May 2018; detained on 31 May 2018; put under house arrest on 13 November 2018; charged under Article 282.2, Parts 1, 1.1, and 2; not on Rosfinmonitoring List

      Ulyanovsk

      28) Sergei Aleksandrovich Mysin, born 21 June 1965 – arrested on 27 February 2019; detained on 28 February 2019; put under house arrest on 23 April 2019; charged under Article 282.2, Part 1; added to Rosfinmonitoring List on 6 May 2019
      Read more: http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2482
    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      BILLINGS, Mont. (AP) — A state agency has determined that the Montana Women's Prison discriminated against an inmate on the basis of religion.
      The Billings Gazette reports that the Montana Human Rights Bureau found in February there was "reasonable cause" to believe there was discrimination against Mayson Simmons.
      Simmons' complaint filed in August says the Department of Corrections and the prison in Billings violated the law by allowing inmates of other religious faiths to use a prison chapel for services while denying access to Jehovah's Witnesses.
      The bureau says it did not find sufficient evidence to back up Simmons' claims she was denied a Jehovah's Witness bible or that she was discriminated against based on her gender and a disability.
      Prison officials deny any discrimination occurred.
      The case will proceed to a formal hearing.
      https://www.sfchronicle.com/news/article/Montana-agency-finds-religious-discrimination-13776486.php
    • Guest Indiana
      By Guest Indiana
      By Felix Corley, Forum 18
      In addition to one Muslim on trial in Shymkent, 18 individuals are known to be currently jailed for exercising freedom of religion or belief. All are Sunni Muslim men. A further 11 are serving restricted freedom sentences. A further 12 are under post-jailing bans on specific activity. A further 29 who have completed sentences still have their bank accounts blocked.
      As the criminal trial of Sunni Muslim Dilmurat Makhamatov continues in Shymkent, 18 individuals are known to be in jail for exercising their right to freedom of religion or belief. All of them are Sunni Muslim men. In addition, a further 11 individuals are known to be serving restricted freedom sentences for exercising their right to freedom of religion or belief. All but one of them are Sunni Muslim men.
        Prison at Zarechny, Almaty Region Kazis Toguzbaev (RFE/RL) The individuals or those close to them all deny that they harmed the human rights of others or called for the human rights of others to be harmed.

      Even when sentences are complete, punishment does not stop. A further 12 individuals who have completed prison terms or restricted freedom sentences are still under often vague post-jailing bans on specific activity. This is likely to be an underestimate, as such post-jailing bans are not often made public (see below). 

      Those serving restricted freedom sentences live at home under probation. They can be assigned community work and are banned from leaving the town or changing their job or residence without permission. They can also be banned from visiting locations, like cafes or casinos.

      Post-jailing bans on specific activity are handed down as part of the sentence. For those convicted to punish exercise of freedom of religion or belief, such bans – which can be vaguely worded - often include bans on visiting places of worship or sharing their faith with others (see below).

      In addition, a further 29 individuals who have completed prison terms or restricted freedom sentences, apparently as well as any possible post-jailing bans, still have access to any bank accounts blocked (see below).

      Individuals jailed on "extremism" or "terrorism" related charges remain on the list for six or eight years after the sentence is completed. The use of undefined terms, such as "extremism" and "terrorism", by officials and in laws, has been strongly criticised by Kazakh human rights defenders and the United Nations Human Rights Committee (see below).

      Criminal cases against almost all these individuals were initiated by the National Security Committee (KNB) secret police.

      The closed trial in Shymkent of 40-year-old Muslim Dilmurat Makhamatov began on 4 April. If convicted he faces up to 19 years' imprisonment. Kazakh police claimed he conducted "illegal preaching among Kazakhstanis via the internet" while in Saudi Arabia. Once he was back in Kazakhstan they revealed charges of "inciting religious hatred" and "propaganda of terrorism". His friends reject the accusations. The trial resumes on 22 April.

      Known individuals on trial (1 person), serving prison sentences (18), serving restricted freedom sentences (11), under post-jailing bans (12) and still on the financial blacklist after completing sentences (29) are listed below.
        Who are the victims?

      A large group of those jailed, sentenced to restricted freedom or under other restrictions are Muslims punished on charges of alleged membership of the Tabligh Jamaat Muslim missionary group. An Astana court banned the group in Kazakhstan in 2013.

      Some of the individuals admitted adherence to the group. Others were punished for discussing their faith with other Muslims in mosques, on the streets or in homes.

      The KNB secret police have also initiated criminal cases against Muslims who earlier studied their faith in Saudi Arabia.

      Another group are Muslims the Kazakh authorities have had returned from Saudi Arabia, who have been punished for talks or comments on Islam they or others have posted recordings on the internet or otherwise distributed.

      The authorities are still seeking the return of other Muslims now based abroad. They failed to have Murat Bakrayev returned from Germany, when in February a German court refused to extradite him.

      The KNB earlier arranged the criminal prosecution of three non-Muslims for talking about their faith to others, apparently set up by the KNB. Seventh-day Adventist Yklas Kabduakasov was jailed in 2015, while two Jehovah's Witnesses, Teymur Akhmedov and Asaf Guliyev were sentenced in 2017. Kabduakasov is still on the financial blacklist after completing his prison term, while Guliyev is still serving his restricted freedom sentence. 

      Then-President Nursultan Nazarbayev pardoned Akhmedov – a pensioner and cancer sufferer - in April 2018. He was freed from prison, had the post-prison three-year ban on exercising freedom of religion or belief removed and – one month later – was removed from the financial blacklist.
        Criminal Code charges

      All these individuals have been punished under one or several of three Articles of the current Criminal Code (or their earlier equivalents):

      - Criminal Code Article 174, which punishes "Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious discord, insult to the national honour and dignity or religious feelings of citizens, as well as propaganda of exclusivity, superiority or inferiority of citizens on grounds of their religion, class, national, generic or racial identity, committed publicly or with the use of mass media or information and communication networks, as well as by production or distribution of literature or other information media, promoting social, national, clan, racial, or religious discord".

      - Criminal Code Article 256, which punishes "Propaganda of terrorism or public calls to commit terrorism".

      - Criminal Code Article 405, which punishes "Organising or participating in the activity of a social or religious association or other organisation after a court decision banning their activity or their liquidation in connection with extremism or terrorism they have carried out".

      The use of undefined terms, such as "extremism" and "terrorism", by officials and in laws has been strongly criticised by Kazakh human rights defenders and the United Nations Human Rights Committee.
        Post-jail bans

      Post-jailing bans on specific activity are often handed down as part of the sentence. For those convicted to punish exercise of freedom of religion or belief, such bans – which can be vaguely worded - often include bans on visiting places of worship or sharing their faith with others.

      When a court jailed Muslim Saken Tulbayev in July 2015, it also banned him from exercising freedom of religion or belief, including praying with others and reading the Koran, until the end of 2022 three years after his release. In September 2016, the Supreme Court overturned the ban on exercising the right to freedom of religion or belief for three years after Tulbayev completes his prison term. However, it instead imposed a ban on any sharing of faith after his release.

      When an Astana court jailed Jehovah's Witness Teymur Akhmedov in May 2017, it also banned him from conducting "ideological/preaching activity in the area of religion" for three years after the end of his sentence. This ban was lifted when Akhmedov was freed and pardoned in April 2018.
        Financial blacklisting

      Those convicted for exercising freedom of religion or belief are almost always added to the Finance Ministry Financial Monitoring Committee List of individuals "connected with the financing of terrorism or extremism". Being added to the List means that any bank accounts an individual may have are blocked with no further legal process. Their families often find out about the blocking of accounts only when they go to the bank. Families are allowed to withdraw only small amounts for daily living if they do not have other sources of income.

      Individuals remain on the financial blacklist for six or eight years after their sentence has expired as they are deemed still to have a criminal record.
        On trial

      1) Dilmurat Sultanmuratovich Makhamatov; Sunni Muslim; born 21 February 1979; arrested 19 December 2018; trial began 4 April 2019 Shymkent's Al-Farabi District Court; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 2 and Article 256, Part 2.
        Jailed

      The 18 individuals (all of them Sunni Muslim men) known to be serving prison sentences to punish them for exercising freedom of religion or belief. Listed in reverse order of date of release.

      1) Dadash Temergaliyevich Mazhenov; Sunni Muslim; born 28 September 1990; arrested 23 April 2018; sentenced 16 November 2018 Burabai District Court; Criminal Code Article 256, Part 2; appeal rejected 30 January 2019 Akmola Regional Court; 7 years and 8 months in a general regime labour camp plus fee of 60,790.14 Tenge. Expected prison release date: December 2025.

      2) Galymzhan Ramazanovich Abilkairov; Sunni Muslim; born 29 January 1988; arrested 23 April 2018; sentenced 19 October 2018 Burabai District Court; Criminal Code Article 256, Part 2; appeal rejected 26 December 2018 Akmola Regional Court; 7 years and 7 months' jail term. Expected prison release date: November 2025.

      3) Abdukhalil Abdukhamidovich Abduzhabbarov; Sunni Muslim; born 6 April 1975; arrested 18 February 2017; sentenced 16 August 2017 Oral City Court; Old Criminal Code Article 164, Part 3 (equivalent to Article 174, Part 3 of new Code); 8 year prison term, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: February 2025.

      4) Nariman Kabdyrakhmanovich Seytzhanov; Sunni Muslim; born 2 May 1989; arrested 15 January 2017 (after earlier arrest in Kyrgyzstan); sentenced 9 June 2017 Kokshetau City Court; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1; appeal rejected 16 August 2017 Akmola Regional Court; 5 year prison term, plus 91,693.58 Tenge fee, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: January 2022.

      5) Satymzhan Bagytzhanuli Azatov; Sunni Muslim; born 17 September 1989; arrested 4 January 2017; sentenced 10 July 2017 Astana's Saryarka Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 and Article 256, Part 1; appeal rejected 12 September 2017 Astana City Court; 4 year and 8 month prison term, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: September 2021.

      6) Abilai Aidaruly Bokbasarov; Sunni Muslim; born 12 February 1991; arrested 13 August 2018; sentenced 9 January 2019 Balkhash City Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; no appeal; 3 years' imprisonment in a medium-security institution, plus 5-year post-prison ban on right to engage in religious activity. Expected prison release date: August 2021.

      7) Iliyan Raiymzhan; Sunni Muslim; born 8 February 1992; arrested April 2017; arrested April 2017; sentenced 1 August 2017 Tekeli City Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 19 September 2017 Almaty Regional Court 4 year prison term, plus 2 and a half years' post-prison ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: April 2021.

      😎 Kuanysh Ablayevich Bashpayev; Sunni Muslim; born 3 February 1987 ; arrested 12 October 2016; sentenced 7 April 2017 Pavlodar City Court No. 2; appeal 15 June 2017 Pavlodar Regional Court modified labour camp provision; Old Criminal Code Article 164, Part 1 (equivalent to Article 174, Part 1 of new Code); 4 and a half years' imprisonment, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: April 2021.

      9) Bakhytzhan Esimkhanovich Baimusayev; Sunni Muslim; born 15 November 1963; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 4 April 2017 Sairam District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; no appeal; 4 years' imprisonment, plus 4-year post-prison ban on activities, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: April 2021.

      10) Abduvakhab Salibekovich Shakirov; Sunni Muslim; born 21 December 1962; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 4 April 2017 Sairam District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; no appeal; 4 years' imprisonment, plus 4-year post-prison ban on activities, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: April 2021.

      11) Serik Elubayevich Kanaliyev; Sunni Muslim; born 25 April 1971; arrest date unknown; sentenced 22 December 2016 Zhanaozen City Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1 and Part 2; no appeal; 4 years' imprisonment. Expected prison release date: by December 2020.

      12) Kazbek Asylkhanovich Laubayev; Sunni Muslim; born 30 October 1978; arrested 30 October 2017; sentenced 6 April 2018 Karaganda's October District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; appeal rejected 22 May 2018 Karaganda Regional Court; 3 years' imprisonment in general regime labour camp. Expected prison release date: October 2020.

      13) Marat Amantayevich Konyrbayev; Sunni Muslim; born 16 March 1981; arrested 30 October 2017; sentenced 6 April 2018 Karaganda's October District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; appeal rejected 22 May 2018 Karaganda Regional Court; 3 years' imprisonment in general regime labour camp. Expected prison release date: October 2020.

      14) Taskali Nasipkaliyevich Naurzgaliyev; Sunni Muslim; born 3 May 1981; arrested 30 October 2017; sentenced 6 April 2018 Karaganda's October District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; appeal rejected 22 May 2018 Karaganda Regional Court; 3 years' imprisonment in general regime labour camp. Expected prison release date: October 2020.

      15) Saken Peisenovich Tulbayev; Sunni Muslim; born 16 June 1969; arrested 1 April 2015; sentenced 2 July 2015 Almaty's Bostandyk Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 and Article 405, Part 2; 4 years 8 months' imprisonment, plus 3-year ban on sharing his faith with others and membership of "extremist" organisations. Expected prison release date: December 2019.

      16) Rollan Talgatovich Arystanbekov; Sunni Muslim; born 5 December 1981; arrested November 2016; sentenced 28 June 2017 Atyrau City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 29 August 2017 Atyrau Regional Court; 3 year prison term, plus 2 or 3 year post-prison ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: November 2019.

      17) Dmitry Valeryevich Tsilenko; Sunni Muslim; born 7 February 1991; arrested 5 October 2016; sentenced 12 May 2017 Kostanai City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; appeal rejected 4 July 2017 Kostanai Regional Court; 3 year prison term, plus 278,038 Tenge fee, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: October 2019.

      18) Serik Kudaibergenovich Erimbetov; Sunni Muslim; born 12 September 1975; arrested 8 July 2016; sentenced 28 December 2016 Almaty Region's Zhambyl District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 28 February 2017 Almaty Regional Court; 3 years' prison, plus fee plus bank accounts blocked. Expected prison release date: July 2019.
        Restricted freedom sentences

      The 11 individuals (all but one of them Sunni Muslim men) known to be serving restricted freedom sentences to punish them for exercising freedom of religion or belief. Individuals live at home on probation and under restrictions. Listed in reverse order of date of release.

      1) Ermek Serikovich Kuanshaliyev; Sunni Muslim; born 29 December 1980; arrested 20 October 2018; sentenced 6 December 2018 Atyrau City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 and Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 3 and a half years' restricted freedom, plus book destruction. Expected restricted freedom release date: April 2022.

      2) Erzhan Ruslanovich Sharmukhambetov; Sunni Muslim; born 26 November 1980; arrested 20 October 2018; sentenced 6 December 2018 Atyrau City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 and Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 3 and a half years' restricted freedom. Expected restricted freedom release date: April 2022.

      3) Denis Valeryevich Korzhavin; Sunni Muslim; born 21 May 1983; arrested 18 February 2017; sentenced 11 May 2017 Almaty's Almaly District Court; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1; no appeal; 5 years' restricted freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected restricted freedom release date: February 2022.

      4) Asaf Gadzhiaga ogly Guliyev; Jehovah's Witness; born 4 October 1973; arrested 18 January 2017; sentenced 24 February 2017 Astana's Saryarka Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 2; no appeal; 5 years' restricted freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected restricted freedom release date: January 2022.

      5) Amanzhol Zhaksylykovich Kishkentekov; Sunni Muslim; born 10 December 1973; arrested May 2018; sentenced 9 July 2018 Aktobe City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; no appeal; 3 years' restricted freedom plus 120 hours' community service. Expected restricted freedom release date: May 2021.

      6) Zhanat Sabyrzhanuly Dosalin; Sunni Muslim; born 15 May 1981; arrested May 2018; sentenced 9 July 2018 Aktobe City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; no appeal; 3 years' restricted freedom. Expected restricted freedom release date: May 2021.

      7) Zhasulan Zhappargaliuly; Sunni Muslim; born 14 April 1980; sentenced 9 July 2018 Aktobe City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year's restricted freedom plus 120 hours' community service. Expected restricted freedom release date: July 2019.

      😎 Mukharam Bulikbayevich Baizakov; Sunni Muslim; born 13 February 1959; sentenced 9 July 2018 Aktobe City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year's restricted freedom plus 120 hours' community service. Expected restricted freedom release date: July 2019.

      9) Daulet Imanshapiuly Elemesov; Sunni Muslim; born 15 June 1989; sentenced 9 July 2018 Aktobe City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year's restricted freedom plus 120 hours' community service. Expected restricted freedom release date: July 2019.

      10) Aslan Ryskaliyevich Temiralin; Sunni Muslim; born 15 June 1974; sentenced 9 July 2018 Aktobe City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year's restricted freedom. Expected restricted freedom release date: July 2019.

      11) Miras Bisengaliyevich Murzagulov; Sunni Muslim; born 2 June 1984; sentenced 9 July 2018 Aktobe City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year's restricted freedom, plus book destruction. Expected restricted freedom release date: July 2019.
        Post-jail restrictions

      The 12 individuals (all of them Sunni Muslim men) under often vague bans on conducting specific activity (related to the exercise of freedom of religion or belief) now their prison term has ended. This is almost certainly an underestimate, as many such post-prison bans do not become public. Listed in reverse order of when such bans expire.

      1) Baurzhan Beisembai; Sunni Muslim; born 29 March 1982; arrested 1 August 2016; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1 and Part 2; two and a half years' imprisonment in general regime labour camp, plus five year ban on exercise of religious freedom. Expected end of post-prison ban: February 2024.

      2) Zhumabai Shaikhyuly Nurpeyis; Sunni Muslim; born 23 July 1961; arrested November 2016; sentenced 28 June 2017 Atyrau City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 29 August 2017 Atyrau Regional Court; 2 year prison term, plus 2 or 3 year post-prison ban on exercise of religious freedom. Expected end of post-prison ban: November 2020 or November 2021.

      3) Nurlan Amangeldyevich Ibrayev; Sunni Muslim; born 24 March 1977; arrested November 2016; sentenced 28 June 2017 Atyrau City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 29 August 2017 Atyrau Regional Court; 2 year prison term, plus 2 or 3 year post-prison ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: November 2020 or November 2021.

      4) Kanat Serikovich Shaigozhanov; Sunni Muslim; born 30 November 1984; arrested November 2016; sentenced 28 June 2017 Atyrau City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 29 August 2017 Atyrau Regional Court; 2 year prison term, plus 2 or 3 year post-prison ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: November 2020 or November 2021.

      5) Nuralim Archiyevich Tyupeyev; Sunni Muslim; born 13 November 1962; arrested November 2016; sentenced 28 June 2017 Atyrau City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 29 August 2017 Atyrau Regional Court; 2 year prison term, plus 2 or 3 year post-prison ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: November 2020 or November 2021.

      6) Ermek Tursynbayevich Akhmetov; Sunni Muslim; born 18 March 1964; arrested November 2016; sentenced 28 June 2017 Atyrau City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 29 August 2017 Atyrau Regional Court; 2 year prison term, plus 2 or 3 year post-prison ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: November 2020 or November 2021.

      7) Furkhat Farkhadovich Abatayev; Sunni Muslim; born 27 January 1965; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 4 April 2017 Sairam District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year imprisonment, plus two-year post-prison ban on ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: April 2020.

      😎 Abdivasit Abdikakharovich Abdirazakov; Sunni Muslim; born 28 August 1965; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 4 April 2017 Sairam District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year imprisonment, plus two-year post-prison ban on ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: April 2020.

      9) Murodzhon Abdivakhabovich Abdullayev; Sunni Muslim; born 21 January 1969; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 4 April 2017 Sairam District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year imprisonment, plus two-year post-prison ban on ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: April 2020.

      10) Zhenisbek Erakhmetovich Manbetov; Sunni Muslim; born 16 July 1983; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 4 April 2017 Sairam District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year imprisonment, plus two-year post-prison ban on ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: April 2020.

      11) Meirambek Amalbekuli Sarymsak; Sunni Muslim; born 8 March 1965; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 4 April 2017 Sairam District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year imprisonment, plus two-year post-prison ban on ban on exercise of religious freedom, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: April 2020.

      12) Estai Kanatbekovich Dzhakayev; Sunni Muslim; born 17 May 1978; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 11 March 2016 Alakol District Court, Almaty Region; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; no appeal; 3 years' imprisonment, plus post-prison ban on ban on exercise of religious freedom of unknown duration, plus bank accounts blocked. Expected end of post-prison ban: unknown.
        Bank accounts still blocked

      The 29 individuals known to have their bank accounts still blocked although they have completed their sentences (and possibly an additional post-jailing ban on specific activity). It is possible some of these are still serving post-jailing bans.

      1) Abdumazhit Kopurovich Abdullayev; Sunni Muslim; born 21 January 1968; arrested 8 July 2016; sentenced 28 December 2016 Almaty Region's Zhambyl District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 28 February 2017; 2 and a half years' prison. Bank accounts still blocked.

      2) Serzhan Dalelkhanovich Akhmetov; Sunni Muslim; born 20 June 1982; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; one year's imprisonment in a work camp. Bank accounts still blocked.

      3) Darkhan Baurzhanovich Amrenev; Sunni Muslim; born 29 December 1988; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; one year of restricted freedom. Bank accounts still blocked.

      4) Orazbek Kabdrashovich Apakashev; Sunni Muslim; born 3 November 1971; arrested 22 February 2015; sentenced 29 September 2015 Temirtau City Court, Karaganda Region; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 3 years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      5) Asimtulla Rakhimtullayevich Baiturynov; Sunni Muslim; born 1 September 1971; arrested 8 July 2016; sentenced 28 December 2016 Almaty Region's Zhambyl District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 28 February 2017; 1 and a half years' prison. Bank accounts still blocked.

      6) Baurzhan Beisembai; Sunni Muslim; born 29 March 1982; arrested 1 August 2016; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1 and Part 2; 2 and a half years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      7) Parkhat Abdilgafurovich Gafurov; Sunni Muslim; born 15 November 1977; arrested 8 July 2016; sentenced 28 December 2016 Almaty Region's Zhambyl District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 28 February 2017; 2 years' prison. Bank accounts still blocked.

      😎 Kublandy Urazbayevich Isatayev; Sunni Muslim; born 23 February 1977; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 6 October 2016 Aktobe Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; no appeal; 1 year's imprisonment, to be served in a work camp. Bank accounts still blocked.

      9) Yklas Kairullinovich Kabduakasov; Seventh-day Adventist; born 19 February 1961; Seventh-day Adventist; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1; sentenced 28 December 2015 Astana City Court; two years' imprisonment, plus book destruction. Bank accounts still blocked.

      10) Rauan Kuanganovich Karagyzov; Sunni Muslim; born 21 March 1986; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; one and a half years' imprisonment in a general regime labour camp. Bank accounts still blocked.

      11) Khalambakhi Khalym; born 12 August 1984; Sunni Muslim; arrested 23 September 2015; sentenced 18 February 2016 Astana's Saryarka District Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2, Article 174, Part 1; 2 and a half years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      12) Oralgazhi Omarkhanovich Koshtybayev; Sunni Muslim; born 2 October 1966; arrested 8 July 2016; sentenced 28 December 2016 Almaty Region's Zhambyl District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Parts 1 and 2; appeal rejected 28 February 2017; 1 and a half years' prison. Bank accounts still blocked.

      13) Bolatbek Kambarovich Kozhageldinov; Sunni Muslim; born 30 June 1977; arrested 23 September 2015; sentenced 18 February 2016 Astana's Saryarka District Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 2 years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      14) Darkhan Bekovich Kunapyanov; Sunni Muslim; born 21 August 1978; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; 1 year of restricted freedom. Bank accounts still blocked.

      15) Rustam Imenzhanovich Musayev; Sunni Muslim; born 17 April 1985; arrested 4 April 2016; sentenced 1 June 2016 Karasai District Court; Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1; no appeal; 2 years' imprisonment in general regime labour camp, plus 35,890 Tenge fee. Bank accounts still blocked.

      16) Nurzhan Beisembayevich Nuradilov; Sunni Muslim; born 13 January 1980; arrested 23 September 2015; sentenced 18 February 2016 Astana's Saryarka District Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 2 years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      17) Erbolat Kabzakievich Omarbekov; Sunni Muslim; born 10 July 1971; arrested 23 September 2015; sentenced 18 February 2016 Astana's Saryarka District Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 2 years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      18) Eldos Mukhametkarimovich Otarbayev; Sunni Muslim; born 15 August 1986; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; one year's imprisonment in a work camp. Bank accounts still blocked.

      19) Bauyrzhan Omirzhanovich Serikov; Sunni Muslim; born 20 November 1977; arrested 7 October 2015; sentenced 28 March 2016 Karaganda's Kazybek Bi District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 2 years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      20) Aidin Zulfukarovich Shakentayev; Sunni Muslim; born 15 August 1982; arrested 7 October 2015; sentenced 28 March 2016 Karaganda's Kazybek Bi District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 2 and a half years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      21) Murat Askarovich Shopenov; Sunni Muslim; born 15 November 1982; arrested 7 October 2015; sentenced 28 March 2016 Karaganda's Kazybek Bi District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 2 years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      22) Ulan Torekhanovich Smagulov; Sunni Muslim; born 25 August 1957; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; one and a half years' imprisonment in general regime labour camp. Bank accounts still blocked.

      23) Vakha Novlievich Surkhayev; Sunni Muslim; born 28 March 1963; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 11 March 2016 Alakol District Court, Almaty Region; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 1 year, 3 months' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      24) Murat Kazbekovich Takaumov; Sunni Muslim; born 14 November 1984; arrested 18 November 2015; sentenced 2 June 2016 Astana's Saryarka District Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; 9 months' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      25) Serik Kairbekovich Tastanbekov; Sunni Muslim; born 4 October 1971; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; one and a half years' imprisonment in general regime labour camp. Bank accounts still blocked.

      26) Duman Dautkanovich Toleukhanov; Sunni Muslim; born 24 October 1975; arrested at end of trial; sentenced 10 October 2016 Oskemen City Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; one and a half years' imprisonment in general regime labour camp. Bank accounts still blocked.

      27) Mamurzhan Rashidovich Turashov; Sunni Muslim; born 24 April 1973; arrest date unknown; sentenced 2 December 2014 Sairam District Court, South Kazakhstan Region; Article 337-1, Part 1 of old Criminal Code (equivalent of Article 405 of current Criminal Code); 3 years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      28) Kubaidolla Abishevich Tyulyubayev; Sunni Muslim; born 6 August 1962; arrested 28 September 2015; sentenced 18 February 2016 Astana's Saryarka District Court No. 2; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 1; 2 years' imprisonment. Bank accounts still blocked.

      29) Zholbarys Kaipbayevich Zhumanazarov; Sunni Muslim; born 3 August 1959; arrested unknown; sentenced 28 December 2017 Karasai District Court; Criminal Code Article 405, Part 2; 1 year prison term, plus 56,174 Tenge fee, plus bank accounts blocked. Bank accounts still blocked. (END)

      http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2469
    • By Kurt
      RUSSIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT AGREES THAT WEBSITE MAY BE RULED EXTREMIST FOR CONTENTS OF A SINGLE PAGE.
      Lenizdat.ru, 31 January 2016
      http://print.lenizdat.ru/articles/1136259/

      A decision about ruling a website to be extremist on the basis of materials that are contained on only one of its pages does not violate the constitution. The Constitutional Court of the RF came to this conclusion. A similar conclusion had already been made previously by the Supreme Court.
       
      The decision was made in response to an appeal by the company Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York (it conducts economic affairs of the Jehovah's Witnesses). The organization is also known as the Watchtower Society.
       
      In December 2014 a number of Jehovah's Witnesses' materials were ruled by the Supreme Court to be extremist. The topic involved three books: "What does the Bible really teach?" "Draw near to Jehovah," and "Come, follow me." In addition, the decision applied to the entire website of the organization, jw.org, as a whole.
       
      "Recognizing as extremist only a portion of informational materials of an Internet site does not eliminate the threat of subsequent posting on it of similar materials," the court's decision says.
       
      Representatives of the Watchtower Society tried to challenge this position in the Constitutional Court, but, according to a report from Fontanka.ru, it was unsuccessful.
       
      "Not only individual informational materials posted on the Internet network and pages of the site on the Internet network may be ruled extremist, but also the entire website as a whole. The disputed legal regulation, conditioned on the necessity of guaranteeing the security of the state and the protection of the rights and liberties of an unrestricted circle of persons, may not be viewed as violating the constitutional rights of the plaintiff," the Constitutional Court's decision says.
       
      We recall that this is not the first instance when Jehovah's Witnesses have challenged the decisions of Russian courts. In 2004, a court in Moscow disbanded their congregation and forbade its activity. The congregation was found guilty specifically of recruitment of children, encouraging believers to break with their families, and encouraging suicide and rejection of medical care.
       
      In 2010 the European Court for Human Rights found this decision of the court illegal and required Russia to pay the victims 70 thousand Euros. 
       
      CONSTITUTIONAL COURT REJECTS APPEAL OF JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES ON MECHANISM OF PROHIBITION OF WEBSITES FOR EXTREMISM
      SOVA Center for News and Analysis, 1 February 2016
       
      The Constitutional Court denied the Jehovah's Witnesses who were challenging several provisions of Russian laws on combating extremist activity and on information.
       
      On 13 November 2015 the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York (the parent structure of Jehovah's Witnesses, registered in the USA) filed an appeal in the Russian Constitutional Court against provisions of federal laws "On combating extremist activity" and "On information, information technology and on protection of information." The reason for this was the confirmation by the Supreme Court of the prohibition of the official website of Jehovah's Witnesses, which was imposed by the Central district court of Tver in September 2013.
       
      In the appeal Jehovah's Witnesses asked the court to examine the constitutionality of a number of provisions of laws which were the bases of the decision of the Tver court and the Supreme Court. First, the decision, referring to part 3 of article 1 and article 13 of the law "On combating extremist actions" pointed out that the law does not apply to foreign organizations and ruling a website as extremist does not affect the rights and legal interests of the foreign Watchtower Society, and thus its involvement in the trial is not required. In the opinion of the plaintiff such a procedure violates the principle of equality of all before the law and the court and it violates the constitutional rights of foreign organizations to protection of intellectual property and to judicial defense.
       
      This position is supported by the conclusions of an expert analysis that was conducted by the senior scientific associate of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irina Lukianova. Non-involvement in the trial of the Watchtower Society is, in the final analysis, a violation of the right to fair trial (article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights) and the reversal by the Supreme Court of the decision made on the results of an investigation with the participation of the owner of the website is evidence of the violation of the right to effective restoration of rights (article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), the expert indicated.
       
      Second, according to the provisions of the same articles, it is permitted to consider a whole website to be extremist, even if only a few materials considered to be extremist are posted on it. In reviewing the case of the Jehovah's Witnesses' website, the Supreme Court pointed out that its "partial" recognition as extremist "implies a threat of further distribution" of extremist information on it, although the prohibited materials at that moment had been removed from the website. At the same time, a ban on a variety of materials on the largest social networks, which are much more popular than the Jehovah's Witnesses' site, does not lead to the blocking of social networks as a whole. Finally, the law does not at all define in which cases it is necessary to prohibit whole websites by court order and in which cases it is necessary to prohibit individual pages and in which cases blocking is done out-of-court. The Jehovah's Witnesses indicate that such legal indefiniteness entails a threat of a discriminatory approach, which violates the rights and liberties of citizens guaranteed by the constitution.
       
      Third, the appeal points out that the laws do not contain procedures for removal of a website from the register of prohibited websites and the federal list of extremist materials, which leads to the restriction of freedom of speech.
       
      On 22 December 2015, the Constitutional Court issued a decision on the Jehovah's Witnesses' appeal. It says, specifically, that "recognition of a website on the Internet to be extremist on the whole is possible both in the case of systematic posting on it of extremist materials and in the case where such a site was specifically created by a public or religious association or another organization which are considered to be extremist and whose activity is prohibited on the territory of the Russian federation for the purpose of disseminating information of an extremist nature." At the same time the Constitutional Court clarified that "in resolving the issues of recognizing material on an Internet site or a part of it to be extremist, the court should take into account the basic principles established by the federal legislature for combating extremist activity and proceed from the necessity of using the most effective way of combating extremism in the actual circumstances established by it, including removal of the causes and conditions facilitating the mass distribution of information that has previously been ruled to be extremist."  As regards the removal of websites considered extremist from the federal list of extremist materials and from the integrated automated information system, as connected with overcoming the finality of judicial actions that have taken legal effect, the Constitutional Court limited itself to the consideration that it "is possible within the procedure provided by procedural legislation, . . . while the contested legal provisions, just like other norms of the said federal laws, do not establish the procedure of judicial investigation, including determining the participants of such an investigation and their procedural status." Thus the appeal was denied and important questions of the implementation of the law raised in it were left without an answer.
      --------------
      Prosecutor's lawsuit to declare Jehovah's Witnesses extremist
      PROVINCIAL COURT BEGINS CONSIDERATION OF CASE OF LOCAL JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES
      by Evgeny Filippov

      BelPressa [Belgorod], 2 February 2016
      http://www.belpressa.ru/news/news/oblastnoj-sud-nachal-rassmotrenie-dela-mestnyh-svidetelej-iegovy11865/
       
      The prosecutor of Belgorod province filed in court a lawsuit for ruling the religious organization of Jehovah's Witnesses of Belgorod extremist and for its liquidation and removal from the register of the Ministry of Justice.
       
      Representatives of the prosecutor's office consider that it is necessary to liquidate the religious organization in accordance with article 9 of the federal law "On combating extremist activity."
       
      During the session on 2 February, Judge Irina Naumova of the Belgorod provincial court received a number of petitions from participants in the trial.
       
      "I ask the court to attach to the case religious brochures 'Sacred Scripture—New World Translation' on the last page of which there is a reference to an Internet resource that is prohibited in our country," the deputy chief of the department of the prosecutor's office of the province, Valentina Brigadina, petitioned. "In addition, it is necessary to attach the brochure 'How to recognize true Christians' as extremist material that is contained in the federal list of the Ministry of Justice. And also 'Armageddon. What is it? When will it come?' ,'Is Satan real?', and 'Music. How does it affect you?', as publications referring readers to an Internet link that is included in the list of extremist materials."
       
      Representatives of the regional prosecutor's office also petitioned for summoning and questioning seven witnesses who, in their opinion, have suffered from the activity of Jehovah's Witnesses.
       
      Lawyers for the defendant—the leader of the Belgorod religious organization, Alexander Shchendrygin—did not agree with the representatives of the plaintiff and asked the court not to attach to the case the religious brochures cited above, as they have nothing to do with the substance of the lawsuit.
       
      "Several editions of the book 'Sacred Scripture—New World Translation' exist and I do not know just which the side of representatives of the provincial prosecutor's office is talking about," the attorney of the Administrative Center of Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia, Anton Omelchenko, noted. "So far as I know, there is no reference in the brochure to websites that are banned in Russia."
       
      In addition the side of the defense filed more than ten petitions: from attachment of documents confirming the harmlessness for society of the religious teachings of Jehovah's Witnesses to summons to court of activists of the local religious congregation. Most of the petitions of the defendant were rejected by the court. The trial will continue on 3 February.
       
      This is not the first instance when Belgorod Jehovists faced such accusations. In March 2015, by decision of the October district court of Belgorod, religious brochures "The Son wants to reveal the Father" and "Was life created?" were ruled to be extremist literature.
       
      On 5 February, the Belgorod provincial court will begin consideration of a similar lawsuit, but against the religious organization of Jehovah's Witnesses of Stary Oskol.
       
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