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The water is lava: Aftermath of underwater volcano eruption

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but make sure not to drop your plastic straw in Portland, Oregon so we can keep the oceans clean!

Hmmm......

I think people forget how small we all really are sometimes.

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    • Guest
      By Guest
      Total homes destroyed by new criteria: 235.
      Improvements to map display and techniques used in assessing 'homes lost' have been made. Home status in this map now relies on the use of Hawaii County, Real Property Tax Department's publicly released information. The information from the County is used to locate, address, and account for homes lost. This allows for more accurate way to distinguish between a 'home' and a 'structure'. Each home now lists it's associated address. 
      Addresses are determined to be 'lost' via on the ground reporting, aerial comparisons, USGS lava flow surveys, and disclosures by home owners. Homes that have been damaged by cracks, SO2, and even properties totally surrounded by lava were not counted. Also, since this change in methodology relies on tax records many un-permitted homes, and Ohana homes on the same parcel as a primary home, have been excluded. 
      If there are in errors seen in locations of homes marked (not just the slightly off placement of dots) or something that is missed please post in the comments. My condolences to all homeowners who have lost their homes and displaced families. This is a hard time for everyone involved.
      Mahalo to Jen Naylor Sexton for assisting in the map parcel examination and compiling a list of addresses. Heath Dalton for his accurate and robust information on status of specific homes. Ryan Finlay for his many, many contributions. And all residents that have contributed in this hard time by providing information about the homes and neighborhoods in which they lived. Also, a Mahalo to Kris Burmeister and Andrew Hara for their reporting back of addresses as homes are lost. 
       
    • Guest
      By Guest
      @Lindsey Krewson
      @Schuyler
      Incredible footage of the eruptions in Hawaii.
    • By Bible Speaks
      Devastating Hawaii! Pray for Hawaii!
      Volcano ?.
      Tap on Video Link mp4 __________ ????
      .
      #Repost @miguelsaravia89

      B93B54E8-ABC2-4EA4-B5A8-B923F0AE979A.MP4
    • By Bible Speaks
      Massive New Fissures Open On Hawaiian Volcano, Prompting More Evacuations
      Some 37 buildings have been destroyed and nearly 2,000 people ordered to evacuate in the past 10 days.
      PAHOA, Hawaii, May 13 (Reuters) - Two new fissures opened on HawaiiÂ’s Kilauea volcano, hurling bursts of rock and magma with an ear-piercing screech on Sunday, threatening nearby homes and prompting authorities to order new evacuations.
      One new fissure from Sunday morning was a vivid gouge of magma with smoke pouring out both ends and was the 17th to open on the volcano since it began erupting on May 3. Some 37 buildings have been destroyed and nearly 2,000 people ordered to evacuate in the past 10 days.
      Viewed from a helicopter, the crack appeared to be about 1,000 feet (300 meters) long and among the largest of those fracturing the side of Kilauea, a 4,000-foot-high volcano with a lake of lava at its summit.
      “It is a near-constant roar akin to a full-throttle 747 interspersed with deafening, earth-shattering explosions that hurtle 100-pound lava bombs 100 feet into the air,” said Mark Clawson, 64, who lives uphill from the latest fissure and so far is defying an evacuation order.
      Read more:
      https://m.huffpost.com/us/entry/us_5af91febe4b00d7e4c1be095



    • By Bible Speaks
      The Implacable Power of Volcanic Lava
      In 1935, lava from an eruption of the volcano Mauna Loa, on the Big Island of HawaiÂ’i, started oozing toward the Wailuku River, main source of water for the city of Hilo. This danger to the more than 15,000 residents of Hilo was exactly the opportunity that Thomas Jaggar, founder of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, had been waiting for: to blow up a volcano.
      This isnÂ’t as crazy as it sounds. Actually, no, it was crazy. Jaggar thought, based on the state of the science, that explosives would collapse and plug the channels and underground tubes through which lava flows.
      He approached the Army Air Corps, which had an airbase on the island of Oahu. There, a young lieutenant colonel named George Patton (yes, that Patton) planned a mission to deploy three Keystone B-3A bombers and two Keystone B-6As—biplanes!—to the slopes of Mauna Loa, where they’d drop 20 600-pound bombs on the lava. Five dropped onto red-hot flows, splashing lava 200 feet into the air upon detonation (which then punched holes through one of the bombers’ wings). Most of the other bombs hit the solidified sides of the flows. A US Geological Survey geologist on board one of the planes, Harold Stearns, reported that most of the bombs merely impacted on the surface.
      So did it work? Well, the lava diverted and stopped flowing before it reached the river. It remains Â… controversial as to whether the bombs or the cessation of the eruption did it. (Jaggar thought the explosions released enough pressure to stop the lava; no one else does.)
      Volcanoes have a lot of ways to kill people—caustic ash, superheated hurricane-like pyroclastic flows, incandescent mudslides called lahars...and, of course, lava. As the world watches the ongoing eruption of the volcano Kilauea, Mauna Loa’s neighbor to the east, you can see why Jaggar would resort to explosives, and why people have been trying to build lava barriers, unsuccessfully, since 1881. Lava’s appearance is rarely a surprise—but where it flows and how fast remain unpredictable. And it is, as researchers say, binary. Wherever it goes, it incinerates or buries everything in its path. There’s not much anyone can do about it except watch.
      “A lot of cultures around the world have come to the conclusion that it’s a bad idea to live too close to a volcano,” says Natalia Deligne, a volcanic hazard and risk modeler at GNS Science, the New Zealand equivalent of the USGS. That’s why lots of volcanoes are magically inside national parks. “If you look at indigenous traditions, often the vent area is a taboo area,” Deligne says. “That’s just another form of land use planning.”
      Unlike the ostentatious, once-in-a-blew-moon eruptors like the stratovolcanoes of the Cascades and the Andes, Hawaiian volcanoes are “shield volcanoes,” slow and steady pumps of relatively runny, low-silica lava. Volcanoes in general aren’t as murderous as other natural disasters—since 1900 volcanoes have killed about 280,000 humans, but in that same time earthquakes have killed more than 2 million. Lava comes in three types (highly viscous, deep “blocky” lava; chunky, fast-moving ‘a ‘a, and smooth pahoehoe), and it tends to move slow enough that it destroys property rather than kills people. So people continue to live on the slopes of the volcanoes. (Hawai'ian volcanoes also emit toxic, corrosive gas—sulfur dioxide turns into sulfuric acid on contact with the atmosphere, creating potentially deadly clouds called vog, short for “volcanic smog” [itself a contraction of “smoke” and “fog”].)
      That’s what’s happening at Kilauea; lava is emerging from 14 fissures in the volcano’s East Rift Zone, amid a housing subdivision called Leilani Estates. More than 1,700 people had to evacuate, and about a dozen homes were consumed. This has been the situation, on and off, since the 1980s. “The lava would flow for a certain distance, then stop, and then rather than resuming travel in the same direction it would go back toward the vent and break out somewhere else,” says Michael Lindell, an emeritus environmental psychologist at Texas A&M who studies attitudes toward volcano risk. “Volcanologists don’t thoroughly understand the underground plumbing. They’ve got a pretty good idea, but they keep getting surprised.”
      Even today, lava is unpredictable. Nobody really understands tube and channel formation or how a’a’ lava becomes pahoehoe and vice versa. Computers can forecast paths of flow from topography, but not speed or how wide the flow will be. (The USGS map of lava hazard zoneson Hawai’i hasn’t been updated since 1992.) “How fast it’s coming out of the vents, how hot it is, how fast it’s cooling, how many crystals you have in the lava—those are all parameters that will dictate how the lava will flow,” Deligne says.
      There’s not much to do about it when it does. Deligne says that hardly anyone actually zones construction or writes building codes with volcanoes in mind. And even if you did, what then? Ash, sure, just build your roofs with a pitch of greater than 35 degrees to shed the stuff. But lava? Maybe … round buildings? According to one of the few analyses of such things, a forensic look at a 2014 eruption of the Fogo volcano on Cape Verde, lava pushes them into compression, actually strengthening them; it tends to just push over flat walls.
      Sometimes the volcano is quiet; sometimes it’s not. “Pele, the goddess of Hawaiian volcanoes, whose home is in Halema‘uma‘u Crater within Kilauea Caldera, is always described with two personas,” young and beautiful—and old and cruel, write James Kauahikaua and Robert Tilling, two past heads of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
      Now, the observatory is warning that things could get worse. A rapid lowering of the lava level in the Overlook crater at Kilauea’s summit was the first sign that lava was on the move. If that lava dips below the groundwater level, it could start making steam, converting this to an explosive eruption, scientists warned at a press conference. The Washington Postreports that a nearby geothermal power plant is moving 12,000 gallons of a flammable fuel called pentane to an industrial park that’s out of range, just to be safe.
      But in the face of the threat, people’s attitudes toward volcanoes aren’t much different from how they feel about other hazards. Deligne loves volcanoes; she says she can’t imagine living anywhere there might be tornadoes. Lindell says if he had to live on the Big Island, he’d definitely try to stay on the north side—away from the volcanoes. As for the south side? “It’s incredibly cheap to live there and it’s a very pleasant life, so it’s an acceptable risk to them,” he says. “In some respects it’s no different than people living on the Hayward fault, or on the flood plain in Houston. They know the risk is getting worse, but they keep on rebuilding.”
      https://www.wired.com/story/the-implacable-power-of-volcanic-lava/?mbid=social_fb_sci

    • By Bible Speaks
      Hawaii volcano poses a new threat: Acid from Kilauea's lava, called 'laze,' pouring into the ocean
      Chris Woodyard |  USA TODAYUpdated 11:21 a.m. EDT May 21, 2018
      https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2018/05/20/hawaii-volcano-acid-pouring-into-ocean-kilauea-new-threat/627012002/

    • Guest Nicole
      By Guest Nicole
      A tourist takes pictures of a lava lake inside the crater of the Masaya Volcano in Masaya, some 30km from Managua on May 19, 2016. (AFP)
      Native Central American people were terrified of a witch centuries ago, who they believed lived deep in the earth. They would sacrifice their children and young women to what today is known as Nicaragua’s Masaya volcano, one of the most popular tourist destinations.
      Today, the crater southwest of the capital Managua is an international tourist magnet, where photo-snapping visitors scramble among sulfurous fumes to get views of its bubbling lava — a rare sight.
      The only volcanoes in the world to boast lakes of incandescent magma are Masaya, Hawaii’s Kilauea and Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of Congo, explained a Nicaraguan geographer and environmentalist, Jaime Incer.
      “It’s something extraordinary, unique in the world,” said Noheli Pravia, a French visitor filming and photographing the scene which has happened every 20 to 25 years since 1902.
      The red-hot liquid performs an agitated ballet for the spectators, with a cloud of white smoke filling the active crater, whose name is Santiago.
      Masaya volcano is located in the most populated part of Nicaragua’s Pacific coastal stretch and is inside a nature reserve of some 50 square kilometers (20 square miles) where vast fields of petrified lava contrast with the white flowers of frangipanis.
      The 400-meter (1,300-foot) high volcano formed 5,000 years ago, and its activity has intensified in the past six months.
      “This is the first time I’ve seen something like this — it’s really impressive,” said Mijaela Cuba, an Austrian nurse, speaking above the waves of lava.

      The only volcanoes in the world to boast lakes of incandescent magma are Masaya, Hawaii’s Kilauea and Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of Congo, explained a Nicaraguan geographer and environmentalist, Jaime Incer. (Shutterstock)
       
      Toxic gases
      She was one of 4,000 tourists whom the Nicaraguan government has given permission to edge up close to the crater’s edge in the past two weeks. Each visit is limited to just a few minutes because of the risk from the toxic gases.
      The only signs of life in the walls of the crater that go down hundreds of meters are green parrots and bats.
      Masaya has erupted twice in recorded history: in 1670 and 1772, scaring the Spanish conquistadors.
      “It is a maw of fire that never ceases to burn,” the first governor of the region, Pedrarias Davila, wrote to the king of Spain in 1525.
      One monk, Francisco de Bobadilla, even considered it to be the gate to hell and erected a big cross on the edge of the crater.
      The pre-Columbian people who inhabited the area believed that a subterranean witch they called Chalchihuehe, lived inside, and they sacrificed young innocent lives to try to appease her.
      According to Incer, the risk now is that, if the lava keeps rising higher inside the volcano each time it appears, a new eruption could occur within the next 150 years on the scale of the one in 1772 -- when it reached as far 30 kilometers away, where today stands Nicaragua’s international airport.
      Source: http://www.hindustantimes.com/travel/active-nicaragua-volcano-a-hit-among-lava-loving-tourists/story-NIDHaWsCXmORzXW1GAtAyK.html
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