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A Difficult Doctrine. With an easy explanation.

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After today's WT study I was reminded of how much simpler and clearer we have become. There are still some speculative elements there, but overall its nothing compared to some past WT studies, and although this might be slightly off topic here (but still on topic with regard to "difficult doctrine") I would just like to post one example from 1968. (WT 68/8/15) 

Either people were more patient and studious than they are now, or even back then, perhaps only a handful were able to wrap their heads around this study. I will be bold enough to say many may have just heard "end in 1975", and that's it.

Why Are You Looking Forward to 1975?

1, 2. (a) What has sparked special interest in the year 1975, and with what results? (b) But what questions are raised?

WHAT about all this talk concerning the year 1975? Lively discussions, some based on speculation, have burst into flame during recent months among serious students of the Bible. Their interest has been kindled by the belief that 1975 will mark the end of 6,000 years of human history since Adam’s creation. The nearness of such an important date indeed fires the imagination and presents unlimited possibilities for discussion.

2 But wait! How do we know their calculations are correct? What basis is there for saying Adam was created nearly 5,993 years ago? Does the one Book that can be implicitly trusted for its truthful historical accuracy, namely, the Inspired Word of Jehovah, the Holy Bible, give support and credence to such a conclusion?

3. Is the date for Adam’s creation as found in many copies of the Bible part of the inspired Scriptures, and do all agree on the date?

3 In the marginal references of the Protestant Authorized or King James Version, and in the footnotes of certain editions of the Catholic Douay version, the date of man’s creation is said to be 4004 B.C.E. This marginal date, however, is no part of the inspired text of the Holy Scriptures, since it was first suggested more than fifteen centuries after the last Bible writer died, and was not added to any edition of the Bible until 1701 C.E. It is an insertion based upon the conclusions of an Irish prelate, the Anglican Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656). Ussher’s chronology was only one of the many sincere efforts made during the past centuries to determine the time of Adam’s creation. A hundred years ago when a count was taken, no less than 140 different timetables had been published by serious scholars. In such chronologies the calculations as to when Adam was created vary all the way from 3616 B.C.E. to 6174 B.C.E., with one wild guess set at 20,000 B.C.E. Such conflicting answers contained in the voluminous libraries around the world certainly tend to compound the confusion when seeking an answer to the above questions.

4. What have we learned in our previous study, and, hence, what are we now prepared to do?

4 In the previous article we learned from the Inspired Writings themselves, independent of the uninspired marginal notes of some Bibles, that the seventy years of desolation of the land of Judah began to count about October 1, 607 B.C.E. The beginning of this seventy-year period was obviously tied to its ending, that is, with the fall of Babylon in 539 B.C.E. So with 607 B.C.E. as dependably fixed on our Gregorian calendar as the absolute date of 539 B.C.E. we are prepared to move farther back in the count of time, to the dating of other important events in Bible history. For instance, the years when Saul, David and Solomon reigned successively over God’s chosen people can now be dated in terms of the present-day calendar.

5. What history-making events took place in 997 B.C.E.?

5 At the death of Solomon his kingdom was split into two parts. The southern two-tribe part, composed of Judah and Benjamin, continued to be ruled by Solomon’s descendants, and was known as the kingdom of Judah. The northern ten tribes made up the kingdom of Israel, sometimes called “Samaria” after the name of its later capital city, and were ruled over by Jeroboam and his successors. By our applying the prophetic time period of 390 years found in Ezekiel 4:1-9 with regard to Jerusalem’s destruction the death of Solomon is found to be in the year 997 B.C.E. This was 390 years before the destruction of Jerusalem in 607 B.C.E.

ISRAEL’S ERRORS CARRIED 390 YEARS

6, 7. What time periods are referred to in Ezekiel 4:1-9?

6 Notice what is said on this matter by the prophet Ezekiel:

7 “And you, O son of man, take for yourself a brick, and you must put it before you, and engrave upon it a city, even Jerusalem. And you must lay siege against it . . . It is a sign to the house of Israel. And as for you, lie upon your left side, and you must lay the error of the house of Israel upon it. For the number of the days that you will lie upon it you will carry their error. And I myself must give to you the years of their error to the number of three hundred and ninety days, and you must carry the error of the house of Israel. And you must complete them. And you must lie upon your right side in the second case, and you must carry the error of the house of Judah forty days. A day for a year, a day for a year, is what I have given you. . . . And as for you, take for yourself wheat and barley and broad beans and lentils and millet and spelt, and you must put them in one utensil and make them into bread for you, for the number of the days that you are lying upon your side; three hundred and ninety days you will eat it.”—Ezek. 4:1-9.

8. When did the carrying of the “error” of the southern kingdom end?

8 This chapter 4 of Ezekiel, was not recounting past historical events but was prophecy of future events. It was telling of the time in the future when the glorious city of Jerusalem would be besieged and its inhabitants taken captive, all of which occurred in 607 B.C.E. So the forty years spoken of in the case of Judah ended in that year. The “error” of the northern kingdom, said to be carried for 390 years, was nearly tenfold greater when compared with the error of Judah carried for 40 years. When, then, did these 390 years end?

9. What indicates the “error” of the northern kingdom also ended in 607 B.C.E.?

9 They were not terminated in 740 B.C.E., when Samaria was destroyed, for the simple fact that Ezekiel enacted this prophetic drama sometime after “the fifth year of the exile of King Jehoiachin,” which would make the termination not earlier than 613 B.C.E., that is, 127 years after the destruction of Samaria by Assyria. (Ezek. 1:2) Since this whole prophetic drama plainly pointed forward to the destruction of Jerusalem, and since both the house of Israel and the house of Judah were in reality one inseparable covenant-bound people, the remnant of whom would not be a divided people upon their return from exile, there is only one reasonable conclusion, namely, the errors of both houses ran concurrently and terminated at the same time in 607 B.C.E. In this way the 70 years of desolation of the land of Judah ended 70 years after the termination of carrying the error of both houses, so that thus a remnant of both houses could return to the site of Jerusalem.

10. So when did the “error” of Israel begin?

10 If the “error of the house of Israel” ended in 607, its beginning, 390 years prior thereto, was in 997 B.C.E. It began the year that King Solomon died and Jeroboam committed error, yes, great error, in that Jeroboam, whose domain was ripped off from the house of David, “proceeded to part Israel from following Jehovah,” causing them “to sin with a great sin.”—2 Ki. 17:21.

DATE OF EXODUS, 1513 B.C.E.

11, 12. What other event in man’s history are we now prepared to date, and with the aid of what key text?

11 Looking back into the distant past we see another milestone in man’s history, the never-to-be-forgotten exodus of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery, under the leadership of Moses. Were it not for Jehovah’s faithful Word the Bible, it would be impossible to locate this great event accurately on the calendar, for Egyptian hieroglyphics are conspicuously silent concerning the humiliating defeat handed that first world power by Jehovah. But with the Bible’s chronology, how relatively simple it is to date that memorable event!

12 At 1 Kings 6:1 we read: “And it came about in the four hundred and eightieth year after the sons of Israel came out from the land of Egypt, in the fourth year, in the month of Ziv, that is, the second month, after Solomon became king over Israel, that he proceeded to build the house to Jehovah.”

13, 14. (a) On the Gregorian calendar, in what year did Solomon begin to reign? (b) In what year did he begin the building of the temple?

13 With this information one has only to determine what calendar year Solomon began building the temple, and it is then an easy matter to figure when Pharaoh’s army was destroyed in the Red Sea.

14 “And the days that Solomon had reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel were forty years.” (1 Ki. 11:42) This means that his last full regnal year ended in the spring of 997 B.C.E.* Adding 40 to 997 gives 1037 B.C.E., the year that Solomon began his peaceful reign. He did not begin the temple building, as the account says, until the second month of the fourth year of his reign, which means he had ruled a full three years and one month. Thus subtracting 3 years from 1037 one gets 1034 B.C.E., the year that the building work began. The time of the year was the second month Ziv, that is, April-May. This, the Bible says, was “in the four hundred and eightieth year” after the Israelites left Egypt.

15. (a) Explain the difference between a cardinal and an ordinal number. (b) So when did the Israelites leave Egypt?

15 Anytime we put a “th” on the end of a number, for instance on the number 10, saying 10th, the number is changed from a cardinal to an ordinal number. When one speaks about playing baseball in the tenth inning of the game, it means that nine full innings have already been played, but only part of the tenth; ten innings are not yet completed. Likewise, when the Bible uses an ordinal number, saying that the building of the temple began in the 480th year after the Israelites left Egypt, and when that particular year on the calendar is known to be 1034 B.C.E., then we add 479 full years (not 480) to 1034 and arrive at the date 1513 B.C.E., the year of the Exodus. It too was springtime, Passover time, the 14th day of the month Nisan.

HOW LONG SINCE THE FLOOD?

16. How far back in history have we now penetrated, and what are the prospects of probing even deeper?

16 Already with the help supplied by the Bible we have accurately measured back from the spring of this year 1968 C.E. to the spring of 1513 B.C.E., a total of 3,480 years. With the continued faithful memory and accurate historical record of Jehovah’s Holy Word we can penetrate even deeper into the past, back to the flood of Noah’s day.

17. In recounting Israel’s experiences, to what events and to what time period does Stephen refer?

17 Stephen, the first martyred footstep follower of Jesus Christ, referred to what Jehovah said would befall Abraham’s offspring. “Moreover, God spoke to this effect, that his seed would be alien residents in a foreign land and the people would enslave them and afflict them for four hundred years.” (Acts 7:6; Gen. 15:13) Stephen here mentions three of Israel’s past experiences: As alien residents in a foreign land, as people in slavery, and as people afflicted for four hundred years.

18. What argues against the conclusion that these events were separate experiences following one another in consecutive order?

18 It would be a mistake to assume that all three of these experiences were of equal duration, or that they were separate individual experiences that followed one another in consecutive order. It was long after their entrance into Egypt as aliens that they were enslaved, more than 70 years later, and sometime after the death of Joseph. Rather, Stephen was saying that within the same 400-year period in which they were afflicted, they were also enslaved and were also alien residents.

19. How do we know the Israelites were “aliens” before entering Egypt?

19 Please note that, when Stephen said they were “alien residents in a foreign land . . . for four hundred years,” he did not say and he did not mean to imply that they were not alien residents before entering Egypt. So it is a mistake to insist that this text proves the Israelites were in Egypt for four hundred years. It is true that, upon entering Egypt and being presented before Pharaoh for the first time, Joseph’s brothers said: “We have come to reside as aliens in the land.” But they did not say nor did they mean that up until then they had not been alien residents, for on the same occasion their father Jacob, when asked by Pharaoh how old he was, declared: “The days of the years of my alien residences are a hundred and thirty years.” And not only had Jacob spent his whole lifetime as an alien resident before coming to Egypt, but he told Pharaoh that his forefathers before him also had been alien residents.—Gen. 47:4-9.

20. When did these 400 years end, and when did they begin?

20 Since the affliction of Israel ended in 1513 B.C.E., it must have begun in 1913, 400 years earlier. That year would correspond to the time that Isaac was afflicted by Ishmael “poking fun” at him on the day that Isaac was weaned. At the time, Isaac was five years old, and this was long before the Israelites entered Egypt.—Gen. 21:8, 9.

21, 22. Were the Israelites 430 years in Egypt exclusively, and how do certain ancient manuscripts shed light on this point?

21 Well, then, how long were the Israelites down in Egypt as alien residents? Exodus 12:40, 41 says: “And the dwelling of the sons of Israel, who had dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came about at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, it even came about on this very day that all the armies of Jehovah went out of the land of Egypt.”

22 Here Ex 12 verse 40 in the Septuagint reads: “But the dwelling of the sons of Israel which they [and their fathers, Alexandrine MS] dwelt in the land of Egypt AND IN THE LAND OF CANAAN [was] four hundred and thirty years long.” The Samaritan Pentateuch reads: “IN THE LAND OF CANAAN and in the land of Egypt.” Thus both of these versions, which are based on Hebrew texts older than the Masoretic, include the words “in the land of Canaan” together with the word “Egypt.”

23. (a) So how long were the Israelites actually in Egypt, and how does Paul confirm this? (b) Explain the difference between the 400 and the 430 years mentioned in the Scriptures.

23 From the time that Abraham entered Canaan until Isaac’s birth was 25 years;* from that time until Jacob’s birth, 60 more years; and after that it was another 130 years before Jacob entered Egypt. All together this makes a total of 215 years, exactly half of the 430 years, spent in Canaan before moving in to Egypt. (Gen. 12:4; 21:5; 25:26; 47:9) The apostle Paul, under inspiration, also confirms that from the making of the Abrahamic covenant at the time the patriarch moved into Canaan, it was 430 years down to the institution of the Law covenant.—Gal. 3:17.

24, 25. The Flood began in what calendar year, and how long was this before Abraham entered Canaan?

24 By adding this 430 years to the 1513 it puts us back to 1943 B.C.E., the time when Abraham first entered Canaan following the death of his father Terah in Haran, Mesopotamia. It is now only a matter of adding up the years of a few generations to date the Flood correctly. The figures are given in Genesis, chapters 11 and 12, and may be summarized as follows:

From start of Flood

To Arpachshad’s birth (Gen. 11:10) 2 years

To birth of Shelah (11:12) 35 “

To birth of Eber (11:14) 30 “

To birth of Peleg (11:26) 34 “

To birth of Reu (11:18) 30 “

To birth of Serug (11:20) 32 “

To birth of Nahor (11:22) 30 “

To birth of Terah (11:24) 29 “

To death of Terah in Haran, and

Abram’s departure to Canaan

at age of 75 (11:32; 12:4) 205 “

Total 427 years

25 Adding these 427 years to the year 1943 B.C.E. dates the beginning of the Deluge at 2370 B.C.E., 4,337 years ago.

6,000 YEARS FROM ADAM’S CREATION

26, 27. (a) How long before the Flood was Adam created? In what year? (b) What indicates that Adam was created in the fall of the year?

26 In a similar manner it is only necessary to add up the following years involving ten pre-Flood generations to get the date of Adam’s creation, namely:

From Adam’s creation

To birth of Seth (Gen. 5:3) 130 years

To birth of Enosh (5:6) 105 “

To birth of Kenan (5:9) 90 “

To birth of Mahalalel (5:12) 70 “

To birth of Jared (5:15) 65 “

To birth of Enoch (5:18) 162 “

To birth of Methuselah (5:21) 65 “

To birth of Lamech (5:25) 187 “

To birth of Noah (5:28, 29) 182 “

To beginning of Flood (7:6) 600 “

Total 1,656 years

27 Adding this figure 1,656 to 2,370 gives 4026 B.C.E., the Gregorian calendar year in which Adam was created. Since man naturally began to count time with his own beginning, and since man’s most ancient calendars started each year in the autumn, it is reasonable to assume that the first man Adam was created in the fall of the year.

28. How does this chronology differ from Ussher’s in regard to Adam’s creation?

28 Thus, through a careful independent study by dedicated Bible scholars who have pursued the subject for a number of years, and who have not blindly followed some traditional chronological calculations of Christendom, we have arrived at a date for Adam’s creation that is 22 years more distant in the past than Ussher’s figure. This means time is running out two decades sooner than traditional chronology anticipates.

29. Why be concerned with the date of Adam’s creation?

29 After much of the mathematics and genealogies, really, of what benefit is this information to us today? Is it not all dead history, as uninteresting and profitless as walking through a cemetery copying old dates off tombstones? After all, why should we be any more interested in the date of Adam’s creation than in the birth of King Tut? Well, for one thing, if 4,026 is added to 1,968 (allowing for the lack of a zero year between C.E. and B.C.E.) one gets a total of 5,993 years, come this autumn, since Adam’s creation. That means, in the fall of the year 1975, a little over seven years from now (and not in 1997 as would be the case if Ussher’s figures were correct), it will be 6,000 years since the creation of Adam, the father of all mankind!

ADAM CREATED AT CLOSE OF “SIXTH DAY”

30. What may occur before 1975, but what attitude should we take?

30 Are we to assume from this study that the battle of Armageddon will be all over by the autumn of 1975, and the long-looked-for thousand-year reign of Christ will begin by then? Possibly, but we wait to see how closely the seventh thousand-year period of man’s existence coincides with the sabbathlike thousand-year reign of Christ. If these two periods run parallel with each other as to the calendar year, it will not be by mere chance or accident but will be according to Jehovah’s loving and timely purposes. Our chronology, however, which is reasonably accurate (but admittedly not infallible), at the best only points to the autumn of 1975 as the end of 6,000 years of man’s existence on earth. It does not necessarily mean that 1975 marks the end of the first 6,000 years of Jehovah’s seventh creative “day.” Why not? Because after his creation Adam lived some time during the “sixth day,” which unknown amount of time would need to be subtracted from Adam’s 930 years, to determine when the sixth seven-thousand-year period or “day” ended, and how long Adam lived into the “seventh day.” And yet the end of that sixth creative “day” could end within the same Gregorian calendar year of Adam’s creation. It may involve only a difference of weeks or months, not years.

31. What do the first two chapters of Genesis disclose?

31 In regard to Adam’s creation it is good to read carefully what the Bible says. Moses in compiling the book of Genesis referred to written records or “histories” that predated the Flood. The first of these begins with Genesis 1:1 and ends at Genesis 2:4 with the words, “This is the history of the heavens and the earth . . . ” The second historical document begins with Genesis 2:5 and ends with Ge verse two of chapter five. Hence we have two separate accounts of creation from slightly different points of view. In the second of these accounts, in Genesis 2:19, the original Hebrew verb translated “was forming” is in the progressive imperfect form. This does not mean that the animals and birds were created after Adam was created. Genesis 1:20-28 shows it does not mean that. So, in order to avoid contradiction between Ge chapter one and chapter two, Genesis 2:19, 20 must be only a parenthetical remark thrown in to explain the need for creating a “helper” for man. So the progressive Hebrew verb form could also be rendered as “had been forming.”—See Rotherham’s translation (Ro), also Leeser’s (Le).

32. What indicates the sixth creative day did not end immediately with Adam’s creation?

32 These two creation accounts in the book of Genesis, though differing slightly in the treatment of the material, are in perfect agreement with each other on all points, including the fact that Eve was created after Adam. So not until after this event did the sixth creative day come to an end. Exactly how soon after Adam’s creation is not disclosed. “After that [Adam and Eve’s creation] God saw everything he had made and, look! it was very good. And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a sixth day.” (Gen. 1:31) After the sixth creative day ends, the seventh one begins.

33. (a) How do we know the end of the sixth creative day came very soon after Adam’s creation? (b) How does Genesis 1:31 prove the sixth day ended before Adam and Eve sinned?

33 This time between Adam’s creation and the beginning of the seventh day, the day of rest, let it be noted, need not have been a long time. It could have been a rather short one. The naming of the animals by Adam, and his discovery that there was no complement for himself, required no great length of time. The animals were in subjection to Adam; they were peaceful; they came under God’s leading; they were not needing to be chased down and caught. It took Noah only seven days to get the same kinds of animals, male and female, into the Ark. (Gen. 7:1-4) Eve’s creation was quickly accomplished, ‘while Adam was sleeping.’ (Gen. 2:21) So the lapse of time between Adam’s creation and the end of the sixth creative day, though unknown, was a comparatively short period of time. The pronouncement at the end of the sixth day, “God saw everything he had made and, look! it was very good,” proves that the beginning of the great seventh day of the creative week did not wait until after Adam and Eve sinned and were expelled from the Garden of Eden.

1975! . . . AND FAR BEYOND!

34. What has brought about a better understanding of Bible chronology?

34 Bible chronology is an interesting study by which historic events are placed in their order of occurrence along the stream of time. The Watch Tower Society over the years has endeavored to keep its associates abreast with the latest scholarship that proves consistent with historic and prophetic events recorded in the Scriptures. Major problems in sacred chronology have been straightened out either due to fulfillment of Bible prophecies or by reason of archaeological discoveries or because better Bible translations convey more clearly the records of the original languages. However, several knotty problems of chronology of a minor nature are not yet resolved. For example, at the time of the exodus from Egypt when Jehovah changed the beginning of the year from autumn time on the secular calendar to spring time on the sacred calendar, was there, in the Jewish calendar, a loss or a gain of six months?—Ex. 12:1, 2.

35. Why is this no time for indifference and complacency?

35 One thing is absolutely certain, Bible chronology reinforced with fulfilled Bible prophecy shows that six thousand years of man’s existence will soon be up, yes, within this generation! (Matt. 24:34) This is, therefore, no time to be indifferent and complacent. This is not the time to be toying with the words of Jesus that “concerning that day and hour nobody knows, neither the angels of the heavens nor the Son, but only the Father.” (Matt. 24:36) To the contrary, it is a time when one should be keenly aware that the end of this system of things is rapidly coming to its violent end. Make no mistake, it is sufficient that the Father himself knows both the “day and hour”!

36. What helpful example did the apostles leave us in this regard?

36 Even if one cannot see beyond 1975, is this any reason to be less active? The apostles could not see even this far; they knew nothing about 1975. All they could see was a short time ahead in which to finish the work assigned to them. (1 Pet. 4:7) Hence, there was a ring of alarm and a cry of urgency in all their writings. (Acts 20:20; 2 Tim. 4:2) And rightly so. If they had delayed or dillydallied and had been complacent with the idea the end was some thousands of years off they would never have finished running the race set before them. No, they ran hard and they ran fast, and they won! It was a life or death matter with them.—1 Cor. 9:24; 2 Tim. 4:7; Heb. 12:1.

37. So what will you be doing between now and 1975? And beyond that, what?

37 So too with Jehovah’s faithful witnesses in this latter half of the twentieth century. They have the true Christian point of view. Their strenuous evangelistic activity is not something peculiar to this present decade. They have not dedicated their lives to serve Jehovah only until 1975. Christians have been running this way ever since Christ Jesus blazed the trail and commanded his disciples, “Follow me!” So keep this same mental attitude in you that was in Christ Jesus. Let nothing slow you down or cause you to tire and give out. Those who will flee Babylon the Great and this Satanic system of things are now running for their lives, headed for God’s kingdom, and they will not stop at 1975. O no! They will keep on in this glorious way that leads to everlasting life, praising and serving Jehovah for ever and ever!

 

 

On 12/14/2019 at 1:43 PM, JW Insider said:

Satan is already seen falling from heaven in Luke 10, referring to the defeat of his power over Jesus and his disciples.

You are referring to Luke 10:17,18 "Then the 70 returned with joy, saying: “Lord, even the demons are made subject to us by the use of your name.” At that he said to them: “I see Satan already fallen like lightning from heaven". 

But one of the cross references to Satan falling is Revelation 12:7-9   "And war broke out in heaven: Miʹcha·el and his angels battled with the dragon, and the dragon and its angels battled  but they did not prevail, nor was a place found for them any longer in heaven.  So down the great dragon was hurled, the original serpent, the one called Devil and Satan, who is misleading the entire inhabited earth; he was hurled down to the earth, and his angels were hurled down with him".

I wonder why, since as you say we are to understand that it referred to the power Satan had over Jesus and his disciples.

On 12/14/2019 at 1:43 PM, JW Insider said:

But can we think of any evil shenanigans that Satan tried after 1914 that he had not tried prior to 1914?

In a way no, but I think we are meant to see that the world in general was brought into more of a turmoil than it had been before, with the world warring on a worldwide scale, with lethal weapons capable of total world destruction

On 12/14/2019 at 1:43 PM, JW Insider said:

After Jesus defeats him in 1914, does he defeat him again at Armageddon, perhaps in an even greater way?

I am thinking rather than using the word "defeat" (because Satan won't be defeated until after the 1000 years) the purpose of the battle in heaven in 1914 was to cleanse the heavens of his evil presence. Then during Armageddon it will be to bind him and put him in "jail" for a period of time. So no, I don't think there are several stages of defeat.

 

On 12/14/2019 at 1:43 PM, JW Insider said:

The "short period of time" phrase is odd, but then even 100 years is an odd short period of time. How long did that battle with Satan last? What changed after that battle? The Bible tells us what changed after he was thrown down in the first century.

We are to believe that what changed after the battle in 1914 was the world in general.

 

On 12/14/2019 at 1:43 PM, JW Insider said:

What if one of Satan's most clever tactics was to get us to think of 1914 as the beginning of the parousia, so that we would begin to ignore Jesus words about no one knowing the day or the hour? After all the parousia was to arrive at a time when no one expected.

Yes indeed. But how fatal would it really be if we ignored Jesus words about not knowing the day or hour?

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49 minutes ago, Anna said:

35. Why is this no time for indifference and complacency?

35 One thing is absolutely certain, Bible chronology reinforced with fulfilled Bible prophecy shows that six thousand years of man’s existence will soon be up, yes, within this generation! (Matt. 24:34) This is, therefore, no time to be indifferent and complacent. This is not the time to be toying with the words of Jesus that “concerning that day and hour nobody knows, neither the angels of the heavens nor the Son, but only the Father.” (Matt. 24:36) To the contrary, it is a time when one should be keenly aware that the end of this system of things is rapidly coming to its violent end. Make no mistake, it is sufficient that the Father himself knows both the “day and hour”!

One thing is absolutely certain, Bible chronology reinforced with fulfilled Bible prophecy shows that six thousand years of man’s existence will soon be up, yes, within this generation!

Here authors said how some "fulfilled Bible prophecy" showed something. This would mean how WT Society knew at that time what was already fulfilled or it will be. Is this claim really correct? Because they made interpretations about human events and projected their expectations, explained them as Bible prophecies. This was common practice.

Another thing, let me remind please what was explanation of "generation" in 1968?

49 minutes ago, Anna said:

The apostles could not see even this far; they knew nothing about 1975.

 But they knew "something" about 70., what was more important for them :)) .... and it seems how "instructions" (gave from Jesus, and not Jeruzalem GB)  showed themselves as reasonable even from human standpoint. :))

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5 hours ago, Anna said:

Yes indeed. But how fatal would it really be if we ignored Jesus words about not knowing the day or hour?

Anna: ....

I tried to read all that stuff from the 1968 Watchtower you posted.  I REALLY did.

But I concluded that the whole thing could probably be condensed to two short paragraphs, and to read it in it's entirety would probably be fatal to me, from the handful of caffeine tablets I would need to finish it.

...continuing with TTH's comments about John F. Kennedy being the impetus to get mankind to the Moon ..... the thought just occurred to me that with all his foibles, weaknesses, and missteps, ( Bay of Pigs .. what's THAT?), and setting the stage for the Vietnam War, etc., he was sorta like the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses, with all their foibles and general cluelessness.

What he did RIGHT ... makes up for everything else, with change left over.

Same thing.

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1 hour ago, James Thomas Rook Jr. said:

I tried to read all that stuff from the 1968 Watchtower you posted.  I REALLY did.

But I concluded that the whole thing could probably be condensed to two short paragraphs, and to read it in it's entirety would probably be fatal to me, from the handful of caffeine tablets I would need to finish it.

Lol. Same thoughts here. That is why I posted it, genuinely wondering if anyone really read it when it was first published. But then people did read a lot more 50 years ago...... but then they also might have been clueless and just, like I said, zeroed in on the number 1975, which was a mere 7 years away at the time.....

If it's any consolation, I only read to about paragraph 10 😃

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On 12/14/2019 at 5:17 PM, Anna said:

when we studied the Daniel book, I did not pay enough attention. My son was quite small and I had my hands full, and I can't even remember if we studied

All you really must remember is that if you got ot wrong back then you would be dismembered and your house turned into a public privy. (Daniel 2:5, 3:29)

16 hours ago, 4Jah2me said:

Obviously no Holy Spirit involved there.

It is Holy Spirit by the truckload. Anyone else takes a wrong understanding to his grave, either through natural death or walking off a precipice with it and leading others with him.  Holy Spirit makes people honest, humble, and hungry enough to continually look at Scriptures anew in light of ongoing developments. Go read @b4ucuhear‘s comment again, not just the single sentence you quoted. Read all of them. Notice how they tie together and modify each other. That is what sentences do.

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Too true, TTH.

Saturday night I had a full color vision in a dream while I was sleeping, and woke up and told it to my wife, Susan.

In this dream I was in a race with three large bright yellow school buses, racing up a hill to a Tee intersection, in single file, along a wooded country road, and I was the third school bus in line, and being old it was a big struggle to keep up, as the other two were newer school buses with newer engines.

I was the actual bus ... not a driver IN the bus, and the other buses were the same.

As I tried to pass I was hitting logs, and potholes, and I could feel it in my frame and in my axles, and realized the probability of me getting to the Tee intersection first was slim.

... and  then, the lead school bus said to the second school bus, which I overheard above the roar of the engines and the clashing of gears "You know, when we get back, they are going to check the mileage, and they will know we have been racing ...."

I have been trying to put that into some context, but am at a loss.

 

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20 minutes ago, James Thomas Rook Jr. said:

"You know, when we get back, they are going to check the mileage, and they will know we have been racing ...."

I was thinking that this was part of the normal run of the buses, and knowing you can't tell if a bus was speeding by checking the mileage.

So it reminded me of the joke about the two fishermen, who normally had bad luck, but rented a boat so that they finally found a place way out on the water where the fish were biting exceptionally well. When fishing was done for the day, the first fisherman says to the second, 'Make sure you keep track of where this place is so we can get here again tomorrow.' The second fisherman say, 'I already did. I put a big X on the side of the boat right here.' The first fisherman says: 'But how do you know we'll get the same boat tomorrow?'

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      1559 C.E. Pope Paul IV rules that no Bible could be printed in the vernacular without church approval, and this the church refused to grant. [In 1564 C.E. Pope Pius IV stated: "Experience has shown that if reading the Bible in the vulgar tongue is permitted indiscriminately, ...more harm than good arises therefrom."] a. 1544 C.E. Francisco de Enzinas is imprisoned by the Catholic Inquisition for translating and publishing the Christian Greek Scriptures in Spanish. See w97 10/1 pg. 13. 1538 C.E. King Henry VIII of England, for his own reasons ordered that Bibles be placed in every church in England. Though Tyndale is not credited, the translation that was chosen was essentially his. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1535 C.E. Miles Coverdale completes William Tyndale's work of translation, the entire English Bible appeared in 1535 C.E. See sh pg. 325. 1534 C.E. John Calvin leaves Paris, France because of religious persecution settles in Basel, Switzerland, in defense of protestants he publishes "Institutes of Christian Religion" [French Calvinist Protestants were called Huguenots, from Calvinism sprang the Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Churches.] See sh pgs. 321-5. 1534 C.E. English Parliment passes acts declaring Henry VIII to be the supreme head of the Church of England, (Episcopal Church), with authority to redress errors, heresies, and abuses in the church. (The Puritans demanded more thourough reform to purify the church of Roman Catholic practices, many dissidents fled to the Netherlands or to North America, where they further developed their Congregational and Baptist Churches.) There also sprang up in England the Society of Friends (Quakers), under the leadership of George Fox (1624-91), and under John Wesley (1703-91), the Methodist Church was founded in 1738. See sh pgs. 313, 325-7. 1531 C.E. King Henry VIII of England imposes royal supremacy on the English clergy. 1529 C.E. Protestant movement is established by Luther's supporters, and the following year the Protestant League of Schmalkald is entered into. 1526 C.E. William Tyndale produces 3,000 copies of his English New Testament, in Worms, Germany, these are sent to England and began to be distributed there. Some of these were the Bibles that Bishop Tunstall bought and burned, unknowingly he finantially aided Tynsdale to continue his work. In 1536 C.E. Tyndale was betrayed in Antwerp, Belgium, and strangled at the stake, then his body was burned. See sh pg. 325, also see w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 16th Century Reformation: Anglican Episcopal from which sprang the Methodist Church, [from which sprang the Salvation Army], the Baptist Church [from which sprang the Pentecostal Church, and the Congregational Church]. See sh pgs. 320-1, & 326-7. c. 1519 C.E. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), in Switzerland, began to preach against indulgences, Mariolatry, clerical celibacy, and other doctrines of the Catholic Church. Zwingli advocated the removal of all vestiges of the Roman Church, including images, crucifexes, clerical garb [sacerdotal vestments], even liturgical music. See sh pgs. 319-20. 1517 C.E. Reformations beginning, on October 31, Martin Luther (1483-1546) nails his 95-theses to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany adding more branches to the false religious tree of Christendom. From which sprang the Lutheran Church i.e. the German, Swedish, American, and others. Though Luther spoke of reform, today's modern church is not much different from its predecessor. See sh pgs. 21, 314-9. 1516 C.E. Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus produced the first complete printed edition of the Greek text. Erasmus wished that the Scripture "were translated into all languages of all people." However, he hesitated to risk his great popularity by translating it himself. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1497 C.E. Girolamo Savonarola (1452-98), a Dominican monk spoke out against corruption of both the Church and State, in 1497 C.E. the pope excommunicated him and the following year, he was arrested, tortured, and hanged. See sh pgs. 312-3. 1453 C.E. Constantinople is captured by Mohamet (Mohammed II), Greek Patriarch of Constantinople is allowed to continue in office. 1450 C.E. Johannes Gutenberg began printing with movable type in Germany. His first great work was an edition of the Latin Vulgate Bible, completed a. 1455 C.E. By 1495 C.E. all or part of the Bible had been printed in German, Italian, French, Czech, Dutch, Hebrew, Catalan, Greek, Spanish, Slavonic, Portuguese, and Serbian--in that order. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1403 C.E. Jan Hus (1369?-1415), a Bohemian Catholic priest preaches against corruption of the Roman Catholic Church and stressed the importance of reading the Bible. In 1403 church authorities ordered him to stop preaching the anti-papal ideas of Wycliffe, whose books they also publicly burned. Hus wrote some of the most stinging indictments against the practices of the church, including the sale of indulgences. Hus was condemned and excommunicated in 1410 C.E., and in 1415 C.E. he was tried for heresy and burned at the stake. See sh pgs. 311-2, also w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1382 C.E. Anne of Bohemia, possessed Wycliffe's translation, she married Richard II of England in 1382 C.E., she studied the Scripture constantly. When she became Queen, her favorable attitude helped to advance the cause of the Bible, not only in England, she encouraged students from Prague University in Bohemia to come to Oxford. There they studied the works of Wycliffe enthusiastically and some took them back to Prague. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. SEEDS OF RELIGIOUS REFORM. John Wycliffe (1330?-84) a Catholic priest, translated the Latin Vulgate Bible into English. Wycliffe's writings and portions of the Bible were distribued throughout England by a body of preachers. See sh pgs. 310-2, also w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1270-2 C.E. Eighth Crusade, led by Louis IX of France, but collapsed following his death in North Africa. This was the final crusade. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1252 C.E. Infamous Catholic Inquisition begins, Pope Innocent IV issued the Papal bull "Ad extirpanda" which allowed torture of suspected "heretics" (being burned at the stake, the usual method employed to put heretics to death by the 13th century, ...had its symbolism, implying that by administering this kind of punishment, the church was not guilty of shedding blood.) The Catholic Inquisition went on for more than 600 years, in the pope's name [the inquisitors] were responsible for for the most savage and sustained onslaught on human decency in the history of mankind. Of Dominican inquisitor Tomas de Torquemada in Spain, Peter De Rosa, in his book, "Vicars of Christ--The Dark Side of the Papacy" states: "Appointed in 1483, he ruled tyrannically for fifteen years. His victims numbered over 114,000 of whom 10,220 were burned at the stake." See sh pgs. 282-3, w90 2/1 pgs. 18-9, g89 8/8 pgs. 24-5, g86 4/22 pgs. 20-4. 1248-54 C.E. Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France. See w 90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1229 C.E. During the 12th century Pierre Valdes (Peter Waldo), of Lyons, France engaged some scholars to translate the Bible into a regional language of the south of France, he studied the translation zealously, and concluded that Christians should live like the apostles without individual property. He started a preaching movement that became known as the Waldenses, these rejected the Catholic priesthood, indulgences, purgatory, transubstantiation, and other traditional Catholic practices & beliefs. In 1229 C.E. the Council of Toulouse tried to check them by banning the possession of Scriptural books. See sh pgs. 280-2, w87 7/15 28-9, g89 8/22 pg. 17.  1228-9 C.E. Sixth Crusade, was led by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, whom Pope Gregory IX had previously excommunicated. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1217-21 C.E. Fifth Crusade, the last under papal control, failed because of flawed leadership & clergy interference. See w90 2/1 pgs.17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
      1215 C.E. King John of England signs the Magna Carta setting forth a new world of freedoms from Monarchy. 1212 C.E. Children's Crusade, brought death to thousands of German & French children before they even reached their destination. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1202-4 C.E. Fourth Crusade, was diverted for lack of funds from Egypt to Constantinople; material assisstance was promised in return for helping enthrone Alexius, an exiled Byzantine pretender to the crown. "The [resulting] pillage of Constantinople by the crusaders is something that the Orthodox East has never forgotten or forgiven," says the Encylopedia of Religion, adding: "If any single date is to be cited for the firm establishment of the schism, the most appropriate at least from a psychological standpoint is the year 1204 C.E." See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1189-92 C.E. Third Crusade, was undertaken after the Muslims retook Jerusalem, (had as one of its leaders Richard I, "the Lionhearted," of England), this crusade soon "disintegrated," says the Enclyclopedia of Religion, "through attrition, quarreling and lack of cooperation." See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1147-9 C.E. Second Crusade, was initiated because of the loss of the County of Edessa to Syrian Muslims in 1144 C.E.; it ended when the Muslims successfully turned back Christendom's "infidels." See w90 2/1 pgs.17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1096-9 C.E. First Crusade, resulted in the recapture of Jerusalem and the establisment of four Latin states in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli. An authority quoted by H.G. Wells says of the capture of Jerusalem: "The slaughter was terrible; the blood of the conquered ran down the streets, until men splashed in the blood as they rode. At nightfall, 'sobbing for excess of joy,' the crusaders came to the Sepulchre from their treading of the winepress, and put their blood-stained hands together in prayer." For more information about the crusades see sh pgs. 281-2, w987 7/15 pg. 28, w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1079 C.E. Pope Gregory VII issued the first of many medieval church edicts banning the production and sometimes even the possession of vernacular versions of the Bible. He revoked permission for mass to be celebrated in the Slavonic language on the grounds that it would require portions of the Holy Scripture to be translated, he wrote: "It [has] pleased Almighty God that holy scripture should be secret in certain places." With this as the official position of the church, promoters of Bible reading were increasingly considered dangerous. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. 1054 C.E. Eastern Orthodox church breaks in a major schism. Final break between the Greek & Latin churches, when the pope's legates excommunicate Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople. When this break occurred, this formed the Eastern Orthodox Church from which sprang the Russian Orthodox Church, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Romanian Orthodox Church & others. See sh pg. 280. 962 C.E. February 2, Pope John XII crowns Otto the Great, (Otho I), emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire," it came to be known as the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" the capital was in Germany, the emperors and the majority of the subjects were Germans. So under Otho I Germany and Italy were brought into a close relationship, but with Germany on top, for Italy was treated finally as a conquered province, at this point the KING OF THE NORTH in Daniel's prophecy effectively changes from Rome to Germany. See yw pgs. 220-63. 863 C.E. Two Greek-speaking brothers, Cyril and Methodius, went to Moravia, (now part of the Czeck Republic), they began to translate the Bible into Old Slavonic. To do so, they devised the Glugolitic alphabet, which was later superseded by the Cyrillic alphabet, (named after Cyril). This was the source of present-day Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and Bulgarian scripts. The Slavic Bible served people of that area for generations. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. 800 C.E. Pope Leo III crowns Frankish king Charlemagne as emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire." For a thousand years, this empire represented the union between Church & State, during this time the clergy enjoyed varying degrees of power over secular authorities. See bf pg. 484. 622 C.E. Mohammed flees from his enemies to Medina. (Islam Era begins) See sh pgs. 284-303 a. 550 C.E. A group of Jews known as the Masoretes developed a systematic copying method for preserving the Hebrew Scripture text. This involved counting the lines and even the individual letters, noting variations among manuscripts, all in an effort to preserve the authentic text. A comparison of modern Masoretic text with the Dead Sea Scrolls, written between 250 B.C.E. & 50 B.C.E., shows no doctrinal changes in over 1,000 years. This Masoretic Text preparation continued to a. 950 C.E. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see si pgs. 310-14. 395 C.E. January 17th at the death of Roman emperor Theodosius, the Roman Empire was divided between his sons, Honorius receiving the western section and Arcadius the eastern, with its capital at Constantinople.Egypt fell to the lot of Constantinople and became a province of the eastern division of the Roman Empire. See yw pg. 260. 382-405 C.E. Pope Damasus commisions his secretary, Jerome, to prepare an authoritative Latin Bible. Jerome completed his work a. 405 C.E., Jerome's work became known as the Vulgate, or common version, rather than using the Greek Septuagint version which proved to have many errors, (despite many criticisms from the church, because of fears that not using the Greek Septuagint as the basis for translation would further divide the western church from the Greek eastern church), however, Jerome translated from the inspired Hebrew manuscripts available to him at that time, and it benefited people for centuries. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see w99 1/1 pgs. 26-29. 378 C.E. Emperor Gratian conferred upon [Damasus], the right to pass judgment upon those clergymen of the other party who had been expelled from Rome, and at the request of a Roman synod held the same year, instructed the secular authorities to give him the necessary support. ... The Pope, as he is now, was at the close of the fourth century, the only representative of Belshazzar, or Nimrod, on the earth, for the Pagans manifestly accepted him as such. See "Damasus I, pope," pg. 252b of Vol. 2 M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. Also see the book "The Two Babylons by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255. Also see bf pg. 340. 366 C.E. Pope Damasus I succeeded Liberius as bishop of Rome, he was opposed by Ursicinus, who claimed the election, and in their disgraceful stifes many people were murdered ... The man [Pope Damasus I] that came into the bishopric of Rome, as a thief and a robber, over dead bodies of above a hundred of his opponents, could not hesitate as to the election he should make. The results shows that he acted in character, that, in assuming the Pagan title of Pontifex, he had set himself at whatever sacrifice of truth to justify his claims to that title in the eyes of the Pagans, as the legitimate representative of their long line of pontiffs.. See "Damasus I, pope," pg. 252b of Vol. 2 M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. Also see the book "The Two Babylons" by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255. Also see bf pg. 340. 330 C.E. May 11th Emperor Constantine moved his imperial residence from Rome to Byzantium, he founded the new imperial capital and dedicated it as New Rome or Constantinople. But there was still one Roman Empire. See yw pg. 260. 325 C.E. Christendom's early beginnings, Emperor Constantine, (324-337), Pontifex Maximus, calls for a council of "his bishops" at Nicaea, Asia Minor out of which the pagan trinity doctrine was adopted as "Christian Theology" this was the early beginnings of the Catholic Church. See sh pgs. 262, 271, 268-72 & 309-13. 303 C.E. Emperor Diocletian decrees that Christian meeting places be razed and their "Scriptures be consumed with fire." See w97 10/1 pg. 11. 272-4 C.E. Palmyrenes surrender their city. Aurelian, though he dealt magnanimously with the inhabitants, collected an immense quantity of plunder, including the idol from the Temple of the Sun, and departed for Rome. The Roman emperor spared Zenobia, making her the prize feature of his triumphal procession through Rome in 274 C.E. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31. 271 C.E. Roman Emperor Aurelian, (270-275) now representing the "KING OF THE NORTH" of Daniel's prophecy, Aurelian "aroused his power and his heart against the king of the south," represented by Zenobia. (Daniel 11:25a) Aurelian dispached some of his forces directly to Egypt and led his main army eastward through Asia Minor. The "KING OF THE SOUTH" or the ruling entity headed by Zenobia--"excited himself" for warfare against Aurilian "with an exceedingly great and mighty military force" under two generals, Zabdas and Zabbai. (Daniel 11:25b) Aurelian conquered Egypt, then launched an expedition into Asia Minor and Syria. Zenobia was defeated at Emesa (now Homs), she retreated to Palmyra. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31. 269 C.E. Zenobia of Palmyra, (Syria) seizes opportunity to expand her power and throne when a pretender disputing Roman rulership appeared in Egypt, Zenobia's army marched into Egypt, crushed the rebel and took possession of the country. Proclaiming herself queen of Egypt. Her kingdom now stretched from the river Nile to the river Euphrates. At this point she came to occupy the position of the "KING OF THE SOUTH" spoken about in the book of Daniel, (Daniel 11:25, 26). She also conquered most of Asia Minor. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31. a. 170 C.E. The earliest known catalog of the "New Testament" books, called the "Muratorian Fragment," was produced, it list most of the Christian Greek Scriptures. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. 150-170 C.E. Tatian, a student of the early Christian, Justin Martyr, produces the "Diatessaron," a composite account of Jesus' life, compiled from the same four Gospels found in our present-day Bibles. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. c. 125 C.E. Rylands Papyrus 457 (P52), are fragments of the Gospel John. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see si pgs. 305-14. c. 100 C.E. APOSTASY firmly established at the death of the last apostle (John). "Man of Lawlessness" is revealed in fulfillment of 2-Thess. 2:3 & 2:7 . Christian Greek Scriptures completed c. 98 C.E. with the writing of the Gospel John. See sh pgs. 260, 263-5 & 278, also see jv pgs. 33-41, also see bf pgs. 472, 474, 479 & 480. 98-117 C.E. Emperor Trajan, ambitious to build a great oriental empire, entered upon a war of aggression in which he defeated the Parthians in Persia and added Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria to the empire as provinces. This represents the expansion of Rome to its greatest extent, but these conquest by Trajan in the east were abandoned by his successor. See "On the Road to Civilization," by Heckel and Sigman (1937), pg.198, par. 1. also see yw pg. 256. 70 C.E. Roman General Titus returns to Jerusalem and lays seige with pointed stakes, 1,100,000 Jews perish, 97,000 are taken captive, this is in fulfillment of the prophecy given by Jesus Christ at Luke 19:44. 66 C.E. Roman General Cestius Gallus surrounds Jerusalem with soldiers and even undermines the temple wall, then for some reason suddenly departs. This allows faithful Christians to flee to the mountains, fulfillment of prophecy by Jesus Christ at Luke 21:20. 41 C.E. Caligula, or Gaius is succeeded by his uncle, Claudius in the year 41 C.E. Claudius saw to the further development of the empire along the lines that Augustus had in mind. Says one authority: "Client-states were absorbed, southern Britian was conquered, the Romanization of the West received powerful impulse, public works were executed in Rome and Italy, and the organization of the imperial bureaucracy made rapid strides." (See The Encyclopedia Britanica, Volume 23, pg. 651b.) Says a history: "An important extension of the state was made under Claudius, who sent a sucessful expedition into Britian in 43 C.E. and added to the southern portion of the island as the province of Britania. Later the British frontier was pushed farther northward and secured by a line of defenses. See "On the Road to Civilization," by Heckel and Sigman (1937), pg. 198, par. 1., also see yw pg. 256. 37 C.E. Tiberius Caesar dies in the latter half of March, 37 C.E. The historian Tacitus refers to him as "one of studied dissimulation and hypocrisy from the beginning." He is remembered as a "contemptible person." Tiberius is succeeded by Gaius Caesar also known as Caligula. See yw pg. 256. 36 C.E. Roman centurion Cornilus, and members of his household are baptized. End of the 70-weeks of years as prophesied at Daniel 9:1-27. See IT-1 pgs. 439-442 & 496-500 & pg. 513. 33 C.E. Nisan 14, Jesus impaled on torture stake. Holy spirit is poured out upon 120-Christian disciples on the day of Pentecost 33 C.E., in fulfillment of the prophecy at Joel 2:28, 29. 29-33 C.E. Jesus Christ earthly ministry. The end of 69-weeks of years, when Jesus presents himself to John to be baptised at the Jordan River, and is annointed with holy spirit as the "Christ" or "Messiah," in 29 C.E. in fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 9:1-27. For Jesus' life story and the Bible prophesies that he fulfilled, see the book "The Greatest Man Who Ever Lived," published by the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society of Jehovah's Witnesses (1991). Also see IT-2 pgs. 54-72. 14 C.E. (August 19th) Caesar Augustus, (Octavius) dies leaving as successor his stepson Tiberius. Caesar Augustus did not want Tiberius to be his successor, he hated his stepson because of his bad qualities. Augustus was forced to accept Tiberius as his successor only after every other hope had failed. Emperor Augustus had no sons, his sister had a son Marcellus, but he died. His daughter had two sons, Gaius and Lucius, and these Augustus appointed as his successors. These also died, he loved his dear stepson Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius but again Drusus died on September 14, 9 C.E. This left only Tiberius, who was a capable general of the top-ranking soldier of the Roman Empire. In the year 12 C.E. Agrippa the great general of the Emperor Augustus died at the age of fifty-one years, then Livia, the mother of Tiberius, induced the emperor wih great difficulty, to replace Agrippa with her son Tiberius. To replace Agrippa, though required Tiberius to become the son-in-law of the emperor. So to his great grief, Tiberius was compelled to exchange Agripina, the daughter of Agrippa, for the emperor's daughter Julia. In 4 C.E. Emperor Augustus adopted Tiberius and Agrippa Postumus. Nine years later, by special law, Tiberius was raised to the coregency with emperor Augustus. When Augustus died the following year, Tiberius was made emperor. No wonder that Jesus referred to Tiberius as "that fox." See yw pgs. 250-2. 13 C.E.** Caesar Augustus sets up the emperor's bodyguard known as the Praetorian Guards which are later enlarged by his successor. These Guards had been seen only near Rome in small detachments, later Tiberius changed this, he had the Guards encamp permanently in full force close to the city walls of Rome. By this arrangement he held in check any unruliness of the people. This attached great importance to the commander of the Guards. The Guards came to to enjoy special privileges and in time became so powerful that they were able to put emperors in office or to dethrone them, according to their will. See yw pg. 250 & 254. 2 B.C.E. John the Baptizer born [about April], Jesus born [about October 1st.] 27 B.C.E. In the battle for power Octavius finally came forth as the sole ruler of Rome and became the first Roman emperor. He turned down the titles of rex ("king") and dictator. Finally, in 27 B.C.E. by decree of the Roman Senate, he was styled Augustus. The Greeks translated this title as Sebastos, which means "Reverend One." See yw pg. 248. 30 B.C.E. Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt the KING OF THE SOUTH commits suicide, Egypt becomes a Roman province, subject to the KING OF THE NORTH. See yw pg. 248. 37 B.C.E. Herod the Great captures Jerusalem and establishes himself as king, to end Maccabean rule. See yw pg. 246. 39 B.C.E. Herod the Great succeeds his father Antipater II to the throne, appointed king by Rome the SIXTH WORLD POWER. See bf pg. 335. 45 B.C.E. Julius Gaius Caesar is elected Pontifex Maximus, as such he is not only the head of the Roman state, he is the head of the Roman religion, all of the powers and funtions of the true Babylonian Pontiff were supremely vested in him, and he found himself in a position to exert these powers. ...Then, on certain occasions, in the exercise of his high pontifical office, he appeared of course in all the pomp of the Babylonian costume, as Belshazzar himself might have done, in robes of scarlet, with the crozier of Nimrod in his hand, wearing the mitre of Dagon [the fish god] and bearing the keys of Janus [the two-faced god] and Cybele [the "mother" goddess]. Notice the similarities in false religion today. See the book "The Two Babylons" by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255 Also see bf pg. 339. 63 B.C.E. Roman General Gnaeus Pompey lays a three month seige to Jerusalem and captures it, the Egyptian KING OF THE SOUTH was powerless to prevent it. Rome annexes Judea to the Roman Empire. ROME becomes the SIXTH WORLD POWER. Herod the Great is appointed king of the Jews in 40 or 39 B.C.E., and in 37 B.C.E. Herod effectively crushes the Hasmonean [Sadducees] rule. See IT-2 pgs. 822-5, also see yw pgs. 104-27 & pgs. 220-63. 64 B.C.E. Roman General Gnaeus Pompey annexes Syria as a Roman province, therefore Rome becomes the KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 11:20-22. See yw pg. 229. 65 B.C.E. Antiochus XIII the last king of the Seleucid dynasty of kings is dethroned by Roman General Gnaeus Pompey the Great. See yw pg. 248. 104 B.C.E. The Maccabees establish a kingdom, when Aristobulus I assumed the title of king. See yw pg. 246. 139 B.C.E. Jews expelled from Rome for proselytizing. The government of Rome according to tradition was founded in the year 753 B.C.E., in 710 B.C.E., King Numa Pompillius set himself up in the office of Pontifex Maximus at Rome, the very office occupied by the head of the Catholic Church, he was a pagan Etruscan magic-practicing priest. See sh pgs. 262, 271 & 268-72. a. 150 B.C.E. Greek Septuagint version of the Hebrew Bible is completed. See w97 pgs. 8-11. 161 B.C.E. The Maccabees made a treaty with Rome, the first of theirs on record. See yw pg. 246. 163 B.C.E. Antiochus IV won his war with Egypt. He had himself crowned as king of Egypt. Then the Roman fleet brought its ambassador Caius Popilius Laenas with orders from the Roman Senate that Antiochus IV renounce his kingship of Egypt and quit the country. The Syrian king did so, but kept his hold on Coele-Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia. In 163 B.C.E. he died as a temple looter in Persia. After him there were many more independent kings of the Seleucid dynasty in Syria. See yw pgs. 247-8. 165 B.C.E. Temple rededicated to Jehovah. Jewish celebration of Hanukkah begins in commemoration of this event. Beginning a period of rule of Maccabean kings, in the order in which they ruled as follows: Simon Maccabeus, John Hyrcanus I, Aristobulus I, Alexander Jannaeus and his widow Salome Alexandra, Aristobulus II, John Hyrcanus II, and the last Hasmonean king, Antigonus, who was deposed and executed by the Romans under Mark Antony. Jewish political parties were formed such as the pro-Hasmonean Sadducees and the anti-Hasmonean Pharisees, these ruled until 63 B.C.E., when Rome sent General Pompey to interfere with political party scwabbling. Rome begins to come into the role of the KING OF THE NORTH, but not until 64 B.C.E. when Rome annexes Syria does this transition completely take place. See Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 11:20-22. See yw pgs. 247, 249, & 251. 166 B.C.E. Judas Maccabeus recaptures Jerusalem from Syrian rule. 167 B.C.E. Judas Maccabeus, a Levite priest, became leader of a resistance movement against the Syrian rule of Antiochus IV. 168 B.C.E. Antiochus IV, (KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel chapter 11), erects an altar to the Greek god Zeus on top of Jehovah's altar in the temple courtyard. Judas Maccabeus attacks Ashdod, later in 148 B.C.E. Ashdod came under attack by Judas Maccabeus' brother Johnathan, during this second attack the temple of Dagon was burned down. Macedonia becomes dependent upon Rome in 168 B.C.E. and in 146 B.C.E. becomes a Roman province further reducing the Hellenistic empires to two, that of the KING OF THE NORTH and the KING OF THE SOUTH . See yw pgs. 220-263. 175 B.C.E. Antiochus IV of Syria, (KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel chapter 11), rules over the Jews, Antiochus is not tolerant of the worship given to Jehovah. Hoping to unify all peoples under his domain created one religion for all, with himself as "god manifest." See yw pgs. 220-263. 187 B.C.E. After being driven from Greece and losing Asia Minor and practically all of his fleet, Antiochus III turned his face back towards the strongholds of his own land. The Romans had turned back his reproach against themselves upon his own self. He was pressed to pay the large fine to Rome. In 187 B.C.E., while trying to rob the temple at Belus at Elymais in Persia, he was killed. He staggered and fell in death. He left two sons, Seleucus and Antiochus, to succeed him. See yw pg. 243. 189 B.C.E. Final peace arrangements were made, Antiochus III was required to disown everything in Asia Minor, everything west of the Taurus Mountains, as well as everything in Greece. He must pay 15,000 talents to Rome and 500 talents to her ally, Eumenes, king of Pergamum, who had helped defeat Antiochus III at Magnesia. As a further reward King Eumenes received European territory and all the possessions of Antiochus III in Asia Minor as far as the Taurus Mountains. Rome thus established a dominion over the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH. One of his sons, who became Antiochus IV, lived as a boy at Rome, as a hostage. See yw pgs. 242-3. 190 B.C.E. A decisive battle took place at Magnesia, near Ephesus, and Antiochus III with 80,000 men lost to the Roman "commander," Lucius Scipio Asiaticus. The KING OF THE NORTH was now willing to make peace with Rome. See yw pg. 242. 191 B.C.E. Rome declares war on Antiochus III, who was then at Acarnania. He returned to Chalcis. At Thermopylae he met the Romans and suffered defeat. He sailed back to Asia Minor to his capital at Ephesus, The Romans purposed to oust the KING OF THE NORTH from Asia, battles at sea were fought. Antiochus III was defeated, he abandoned Lysimachia on the Chersonese peninsula. By giving up Lysimachia he left the way for the Romans to cross the Hellespont into Asia Minor. See yw pg. 242. 192 B.C.E. Antiochus III met with reversals, it happened that war broke out in Greece in 192 B.C.E. and King Antiochus III was induced to come to Greece, he landed there that year. He captured Chalcis, gained a foothold in Boeotia and tried to take over Thessaly but retreated before the Macedonian army. See yw pg. 242. 193 B.C.E. Ptolemy V is declared of legal age and is crowned KING OF THE SOUTH at the age of eight. His marriage to Cleopatra is performed. Antiochus III did not actually let the dowry of conquered territories pass over to his southern son-in-law by way of his daughter Cleopatra, she became Queen Cleopatra I of Egypt, (seven successive queens of Egypt also carried the name Cleopatra), the intent of this political marriage was to "destroy it," or to bring Egypt to ruin, making it subject to Syria. But this scheme did not stand, and the advantage did not remain with Syrian King Antiochus III. In the difficulties that followed, Cleopatra took the side of her young husband rather than that of her Syrian father. In this way she frustrated the selfish designs of her father Antochus III. When at last war broke out between her father and Rome, Egypt took the side of her protector, Rome. See yw pg. 241. 196 B.C.E. Antiochus III aimed to have Syria dominate Egypt. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, king of Egypt, was only five years old, when Antiochus III and Philip V of Macedonia leagued against the boy king to take over his territories and split them between themselves, the guardians of Ptolemy V made a tragic mistake. They turned to Rome and placed him under the protection of that aggressive power. Under compulsion of Rome, Antiochus III brought terms of peace to the KING OF THE SOUTH. For a selfish reason he decided to make the boy king his son-in-law. Instead of making an outright surrender of his conqquered territories in obedience to Rome, he would make a nominal transfer of territory to King Ptolemy V by means of the "daughter of women," (Daniel 11:17), Cleopatra, the "daughter of his wife." In consideration of this political marriage she was to receive as dowry from her father the conquered provinces of Coele-Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia. See yw pgs. 240-1. 198 B.C.E. Antiochus III proved victorious. He drove Egypt's General Scopas and his 100,000 picked troops or "chosen people" back into the Phoenician seaport of Sidon, a "well-fortified city." Here he "cast up a mound" or seigeworks. He took Sidon in 198 B.C.E., for the bottled-up General Scopas was forced to surrender because of famine. Antiochus III pressed forward "according to his own will," as the forces of the KING OF THE SOUTH were unable to stand before him. He captured more cities and proceeded against the capital of the "beautious land," Jerusalem, with its rebuilt santuary. (Daniel 11:15, 16) Jerusalem and Judea passed from under the domination of the KING OF THE SOUTH to the KING OF THE NORTH. See yw pg. 239. 209 B.C.E. Antiochus III defeats the Parthians. The following year 208 B.C.E. He carries his conquest even further eastward, against the Bactrians deep in Asia. See yw pg. 236. 242 B.C.E. Ptolemy III Bernice's brother now became KING OF THE SOUTH, he came into the stronghold of the KING OF THE NORTH and dealt out death to the queen mother Laodice for the death of his sister. (Daniel 11:7) Ptolemy III overran Syria, captured the fortified part of the capital city of Antioch and also its seaport, Seleucia. Internal troubles in Egypt forced Ptolemy III to return, after taking back spoils that had been robbed from Egypt by Persian King Cambyses, (Daniel 11:8). Taking advantage of this situation Seleucus II Callinicus, (the Gloriously Thriumphant) struck back in revenge only to meet with defeat. He retreated to his Syrian capital of Antioch. He died before his humiliator, Ptolemy III of Egypt. His son Seleucus III, surnamed Ceraunus ("Thunderbolt") suceeded him only to be assassinated after reigning less than three years. His brother Antiochus III succeeds him and became called "the Great." See yw pgs. 233-4. 247-6 B.C.E. Ptolemy II dies, hence Bernice his daughter does not "retain the strength of her arm" (Daniel 11:6) with her husband King Antiochus II of Syria. He rejected her, and took back his first wife, Laodice, and named her first son, Seleucus Callinicus, to be his successor to the Syrian throne. Bernice and her infant son are murdered, along with her Egyptian attendants by plans of Laodice. Laodice also poisoned her husband Antiochus II who had taken her back. See yw pgs. 231-2. 250 B.C.E. King Ptolemy II, "KING OF THE SOUTH" waged two wars with the Syrian "KING OF THE NORTH," Antiochus II (Theos). The two kings entered into a peace arrangement. As the price of this alliance or "agreement" the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH must marry Bernice the daughter of Ptolemy II. Antiochus II was already married to Laodice. So this obliged him to divorce her in order to marry the Egyptian Bernice. By Bernice, Antiochus II of Syria had a son, who became heir to the throne of the "KING OF THE NORTH" to the exclusion of the sons of his first wife Laodice. (Daniel 11:5, 6) See yw pg. 231. 277 B.C.E. Antigonus Gonastas, the grandson of one-eyed General Antigonas, gained possession of the throne of Macedonia after General Lysimachus fell in battle before General Seleucus Nicator. See yw pg. 228. a. 280 B.C.E. A group of Hebrew scholars are gathered to Alexandria, Egypt to translate the Hebrew Bible into the popular Koine [or common] Greek language which came to be known as the Greek Septuagint [Latin for "seventy," referring to the approximate number of translators believed to be involved]. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. 280 B.C.E. Seleucus Nicator is assassinated after transferring the capital from Babylon to Seleucia, a new city he had built, the Seleucid dynasty of kings that he left to succeed him continued in power until 64 B.C.E., Antiochus I, his son succeeds him to the throne. Antiochus I dies in battle fighting the Galatians in Asia Minor, he is succeeded by his son Antiochus II. (Daniel's prophecy of the KING OF THE NORTH & the KING OF THE SOUTH, Dan. chap. 11, has its first & minor fulfillment between Seleucus Nicator of Syria & Ptolemy Lagus of Egypt, for further information see yw pgs. 221-63, in the year 191 B.C.E. Rome formally declared war on Antiochus III, in 190 B.C.E., Antiochus III was decisively defeated by the Roman commander Lucius Scipio Asiaticus.) See Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, Book 12 chapters 4&5, Polybius' Book 28 chapter 17, also see yw pgs. 220-63. 281 B.C.E. General Lysimachus dies and is defeated in battle before General Seleucus Nicator and thus left Seleucus practically the master of all of the Asian territories. See yw pg. 228. 285 B.C.E. General Lysimachus took possession of the European part of the Macedonian Empire. However, in 277 B.C.E. Antigonus Gonatas, the grandson of one-eyed General Antigonus, gained possession of the throne of Macedonia after General Lysimachus fell in battle, (281 B.C.E.) before General Seleucus Nicator, reducing the Hellenistic empires to three. See yw pg. 228. 301 B.C.E. One-eyed General Antigonus, is killed and is defeated in battle after meeting the confederacy of three other generals against him, Cassander, Selecus, and Lysimachus. He fell in battle against them at the Ipsus in Phyrgia, Asia Minor, in 301 B.C.E. The four Hellenistic empires that resulted were (1.) that of General Cassander in Macedonia and Greece; (2.) that of General Lysimachus in Asia Minor and European Thrace, including Byzantium; (3.) that of General Seleucus Nicator (the Conqueror), who secured Babylon, Media, Syria, Persia and the provinces east of the Indus River; and (4.) that of Ptolemy Lagus, who secured Egypt, Libya, Arabia and Palestine and Coele-Syria. In a few years the male line of General Cassander died out, and in 285 B.C.E. General Lysimachus took possession of the European part of the Macedonian Empire. See yw pg. 228. 306 B.C.E. Ptolemy I the son of Lagus, (one of Alexander the Great's eight bodyguards), who was made the satrap of Egypt but assumed the title of king in 306 B.C.E. in imitation of one-eyed General Antigonus. Ptolemy I becomes the KING OF THE SOUTH in Daniel's prophecy, at Daniel 11:5, He was first of thirteen or fouteen Macedonian kings or Pharaohs of Egypt. According to his name, he established the Ptolemaic line of rulers over Egypt. See yw pg. 230. a. 312 B.C.E. Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem on a sabbath day. He persuades the Jews to come south to Egypt as colonist, and a colony of Jews was established in Alexandria. With his son and successor he shared in founding the famous library and museum in Alexandria. The Jewish province of Judea stayed under control of Ptolemaic Egypt or the "KING OF THE SOUTH" until 198 B.C.E., when the "KING OF THE NORTH" took over. See yw pg. 230. 332 B.C.E. Alexander the Great defeats the Persian Empire. GREECE becomes the FIFTH WORLD POWER. Alexander's kingdom divided between his generals after his death in 323 B.C.E. One-eyed General Antigonus, after attempting to set himself up as lord of all Asia, and finally took the title of king after Alexander's death, claiming to be his heir. (Seleucus Nicator taking Mesopotamia & Syria; Cassander taking Macedonia & Greece; Ptolemy Lagus taking Egypt & Palestine; Lysimachus taking Thrace & Asia Minor.) Daniel chapter 8, Daniel chapter 11, Ezekiel chapter 26 & Jeremiah chapter 51 ~ See IT-1 pgs 70-1, also see yw pgs. 104-27, also bf pgs. 187, & 392. 455 B.C.E. Jerusalem's walls are rebuilt. Beginning 70-weeks of years as prophesied at Daniel 9:1-27. Book of Nehemiah written a. 443 B.C.E.; Book of Malachi written a. 443 B.C.E. 475 B.C.E. Artaxerxes Longimanus, Xerxes' successor, authorizes Ezra's return to Jerusalem with a large contribution for the support of the temple in 468 B.C.E.; Books of 1st & 2nd Chronicles completed in one roll c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Ezra written c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Psalms completed c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Esther written 474 B.C.E. See Artaxerxes #2 IT-1 pg. 182. 480 B.C.E. Xerxes launched massive forces against the Greek mainland in retaliation for the defeat suffered at Marathon, following a costly victory at Thermopylae and the destruction of Athens, Xerxes' forces met defeat at Salamis and later at Plataea, causing Xerxes to return to Persia. Xerxes is assassinated by one of his courtiers. See Ahasuerrus #3 IT-1 pg. 61. 490 B.C.E. In a campaign against Greece at Marathon, Darius I is defeated. Darius I dies in 486 B.C.E., his son Xerxes (Ahasuerrus, husband to Queen Esther) succeeds his father. See Ahasuerrus #3 IT-1 pg. 61. 530 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great dies his son Cambyses succeeds him. 537 B.C.E. Jews repatriated to their homeland, return from exile in Babylon. Book of Daniel written c. 536 B.C.E. 539 B.C.E. Babylon captured by Cyrus of Persia. MEDO-PERSIA becomes the FOURTH WORLD POWER. See IT-2 pgs. 358-60, 611-17, also see yw pgs. 104-27, also bf pg. 187. 543 B.C.E. Buddhist Era begins in India. See sh pgs. 129-60. 551 B.C.E. Confucian Era begins in China, Taoism in China begins in the 5th or 6th century B.C.E. See sh pgs. 161-86. c. 700 B.C.E. During the 8th century B.C.E. the Shinto religion sprang up in Japan. See sh pgs. 187-204 740 B.C.E. Ten-tribe kingdom of Israel destroyed by the Assyrian Empire. ASSYRIA attains prominence as the SECOND WORLD POWER. See IT-1 pgs. 200-5, also bf pg. 110. 748 B.C.E. Hoshea begins his rule [9-yrs.] Hoshea assassinated Pekah and then "began to reign" in place of him, however, it seems that his control became fully established or possibly he received the backing of the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III in c. 748 B.C.E. Book of Hosea written a. 745 B.C.E. See Hoshea #4 IT-1 pgs. 1148-9. 775 B.C.E. Pekah begins his rule [20-yrs.] Pekah assassinated Pekahiah and then began to rule as king. See IT-2 pgs. 594-5. 777 B.C.E. Pekahiah begins his rule [2-yrs.] See IT-2 pg. 595. 788 B.C.E. Menahem begins his rule [10-yrs.] Menahem assassinated Shallum, then began to rule, however, it seems that his years of kingship counted from c. 790 B.C.E. See IT-2 pg. 371. 788 B.C.E. Shallum begins his rule [1-mo.] Shallum assassinated Zechariah and then ruled as king. See Shallum #5 IT-2 pg. 906. 789 B.C.E. Zechariah begins his rule [6-mos.] Zechariah, "began to reign" in some sense, but evidently the kingship was not fully confirmed as his until c.792 B.C.E. See Zechariah #14 IT-2 pgs.1223-4. 852 B.C.E. Jeroboam II begins his rule [41-yrs.] Prophets: Jonah, Hosea, Amos [Book of Jonah written c. 844 B.C.E.] See Jeroboam #2 IT-2 pg. 38. 867 B.C.E. Jehoash begins his rule[16-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha, see Jehoash #2 IT-1 pg. 1266. 881 B.C.E. Jehoahaz begins his rule [17-yrs.] Jehoash evidently became associated with his father, Jehoahaz in the kingship. See Jehoahaz #2 IT-1 pg. 1265. 909 B.C.E. Jehu begins his rule [28-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha [Jehu, a military chief, assassinated Jehoram and then began to rule as king, however it seems that his years of kingship counted from c. 904 B.C.E.] See Jehu #3 IT-2 pgs. 22-5. 921 B.C.E. Jehoram begins his rule [12-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha [Jehoram, son of Ahab began to rule as king of Israel; but in at least one text the brief reign of his brother Ahaziah who died sonless, also may have been credited to Jehoram.] See Jehoram #2 IT-1 pg. 1270. 922 B.C.E. Ahaziah begins his rule [2-yrs.] Prophet: Elijah [Ahaziah, son of Ahab "became king" evidently his father was still living, Ahaziah's years may count from c. 919 B.C.E.] See Ahaziah #1 IT-1 pgs. 62-3. 940 B.C.E. Ahab begins his rule [22-yrs.] Prophets: Elijah, Micaiah [Ahab marries wicked Baal worshipper Jezabel] See Ahab #1 IT-1 pgs. 59-60. 951 B.C.E. Omri begins his rule [12-yrs.] Omri, chief of the army, began to rule as king. Tibni became king over part of the people, further dividing the nation c. 951 B.C.E., Omri overcame Tibni's opposition and became sole ruler of Israel c. 947 B.C.E., Samaria became Omri's capitol. See Omri #3 IT-2 pg.554. 951 B.C.E. Zimri begins his rule [7-days] Zimri, a military chief, assassinated Elah and then began to rule as king. See Zimri #3 IT-2 pg. 1235. 953 B.C.E. Elah begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Elah #3 IT-1 pg. 701. 976 B.C.E. Baasha begins his rule [24-yrs.] Baasha assassinated Nadab and then began to rule as king. See IT-1 pg. 234. 977 B.C.E. Nadab begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Nadab #4 IT-2 pg. 460. 997 B.C.E. Jeroboam begins his rule [22-yrs.] Prophet: Ahijah, See Jeroboam #1 IT-2 pgs. 37-8. 607 B.C.E. Beginning of the "Gentile Times" or "The Appointed Times of the Nations" [to last 2,520 years, as prophesied in Ezekiel 21:25-27. Jerusalem destroyed by Babylon, land left desolate for 70-years] Book of Lamentations written 607B.C.E.; Book of Jeremiah written 580 B.C.E.; Books of 1st & 2nd Kings completed in one roll 580 B.C.E. ~ See IT-1 pgs.132-5, also yw pgs. 104-127 & 264-307. 617 B.C.E. Zedekiah begins his rule [11-yrs.] Prophets: Jeremiah, Ezekiel / High Priest: Seraiah [Nebuchadnezzar II invaded Judah again, seige of Jerusalem began in 609 B.C.E., walls of Jerusalem were breached on the 9th day of the 4th month of 607 B.C.E., Jerusalem and its temple were burned on the 10th day of the 5th month of 607 B.C.E., lastly Jews abandoned Judah about the middle of the 7th month of 607 B.C.E.] See Zedekiah #4 IT-2 pgs. 1226-7. 618 B.C.E. Jehoiachin begins his rule [3-mos., 10-days] Nebuchadnezzar II took Jewish captives and temple treasures to Babylon. See IT-1 pg. 1267. 628 B.C.E. Jehoikim begins his rule [tributary to Egypt for 11-yrs.] Prophets: Habakkuk (?), Jeremiah [Book of Habakkuk perhaps written c.628 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 1268-9. 628 B.C.E. Jehoahaz begins his rule [3-mos.] See Jehoahaz #3 IT-1 pg. 1265. c. 633 B.C.E. Nineveh falls to Medes and Caldeans BABYLON now in line to become THIRD WORLD POWER. [Book of Nahum written b.632 B.C.E.] See IT-2 pgs. 503-5, also IT-1 pgs. 235-9, also bf pg. 295. 659 B.C.E. Josiah begins his rule [31-yrs.] Prophets: Zephaniah, Jeremiah, the prophetess Hulda / High Priest: Hilkiah [Book of Zephaniah written b. 648 B.C.E.] See Josiah #1 IT-2 pgs. 117-8. 661 B.C.E. Amon begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Amon #2 IT-1 pg. 96. 716 B.C.E. Manasseh begins his rule [55-yrs.] Book of Proverbs completed c. 716 B.C.E.; Book of Micah written b. 716 B.C.E. See Manasseh #4 IT-2 pg. 307. 746 B.C.E. Hezekiah begins his rule [29-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah / High Priest: Azariah (II or III) [Book of Isaiah written c. 732 B.C.E.] See Hezekiah #1 IT-1 pgs. 1102-5. 762 B.C.E. Ahaz begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah / High Priest: Urijah (?) [Ahaz evidently became tributary to Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria.] See Ahaz #2 IT-1 pgs. 61-2. 777 B.C.E. Jotham begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah, see Jotham #3 IT-2 pgs. 118-9. 829 B.C.E. Uzziah begins his rule [52-yrs.] Prophets: Hosea, Joel (?), Isaiah / High Priest: Azariah (II) [Book of Joel perhaps written c. 820 B.C.E.; Book of Amos written c. 803 B.C.E.] See Uzziah #3 IT-2 pg. 1146. 858 B.C.E. Amaziah begins his rule [29-yrs.] Jehoash of Israel captured Amaziah, breached the walls of Jerusalem, and took treasure from the temple, Book of Jonah written c. 844 B.C.E. See Amaziah #2 IT-1 pg. 88. 898 B.C.E. Jehoash begins his rule [40-yrs.] High Priest: Jehoiada, see Jehoash #1, IT-1 pgs. 1265-6. 904 B.C.E. Queen Athaliah usurped the throne and ruled [6-yrs.] see IT-1 pg. 209. 906 B.C.E. Ahaziah begins his rule [1-yr.] High Priest: Jehoiada, see IT-1 pgs. 62-3. 913 B.C.E. Jehoram begins his rule [8-yrs.] Prophet: Elijah, see Jehoram #3, IT-1 pgs. 1270-1. 936 B.C.E. Jehoshaphat begins his rule [25-yrs.] Prophets: Jehu (son of Hanani), Eliezer, Jahaziel / High Priest: Amariah, see Jehoshaphat #3, IT-1 pgs. 1271-2. 977 B.CE. Asa begins his rule [41-yrs.] Prophets: Azariah, Oded, Hanani [Zerah the Ethiopian came against Judah in war 967 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 183-5. 980 B.C.E. Abijah begins his rule [3-yrs.] Prophet: Iddo, see IT-1 pgs. 22-3. TEN-TRIBE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL [exist 257-years] TWO-TRIBE KINGDOM OF JUDAH [exist 390-years] 997 B.C.E. KINGDOM DIVIDED 997 B.C.E. Rehoboam begins his rule [17-yrs.] Prophets: Shemeiah, Iddo [Shishak of Egypt invaded Judah and took treasures from the temple in Jerusalem]. See IT-2 pgs. 767-8. 1034 B.C.E. BEGINNING OF TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION See IT-2 pgs. 1076-83. 1037 B.C.E. Solomon begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophets: Nathan, Ahijah, Iddo / High Priest: Abiathar, Zadok [Construction of temple begins 1034 B.C.E., construction completed 1027 B.C.E., Song of Solomon complete c. 1020 B.C.E., Book of Ecclesiastes complete b. 1000 B.C.E.] See IT-2 pgs. 986-93. 1077 B.C.E. David begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophets: Nathan, Gad, Zadok / High Priest: Abiathar [Gad & Nathan complete writing 2-Samuel c. 1040 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 585-91. Book of Ruth c. 1090 B.C.E.; Book of 1-Samuel completed c. 1078 B.C.E.] For detail of the kings, see IT-2 pgs. 170-4. 1117 B.C.E. Saul begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophet: Samuel / High Priest: Ahijah, Ahimelech [Samuel completes Book of Judges c. 1100 B.C.E.; Samuel completes 1473 B.C.E. Conquest of Canaan [Israel is ruled by Jehovah, 13-judges i.e. Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Barak, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, and Eli. Total 356-years] Books of Numbers & Deuteronomy written by Moses 1473 B.C.E.; Book of Joshua written by Joshua c. 1450 B.C.E.; Book of Job written by Moses c. 1473 B.C.E. ~ See IT-2 pgs. 134-6. c. 1500 B.C.E. [Hinduism originates in the Indus River Valley (now part of Pakistan) had its beginnings when an Indo-European people known as the Aryans moved into this area about 1500 B.C.E.] See g89 4/8 pgs. 24-27, also See sh pgs. 95-128. 1513 B.C.E. EXODUS FROM EGYPT Book of Genesis written by Moses 1513 B.C.E.; Books of Exodus & Leviticus written by Moses 1512 B.C.E. a. 1600 B.C.E. Egypt attains prominence as FIRST WORLD POWER. See IT-1 pgs. 686-99, also bf pg. 60. b. 1613 B.C.E. Job's trial [Job tested by Satan when Chaldeans raid Job's 3,000 camels] See IT-2 pg. 81. 1750 B.C.E. Joseph sold into slavery in Egypt, See IT-2 pgs. 106-11. 1711 B.C.E. Jacob dies 1858 B.C.E. Jacob born, see Jacob #1 IT-1 pgs. 1242-7. 1738 B.C.E. Isaac dies 1918 B.C.E. Isaac born, see IT-1 pgs. 1216-8. 1843 B.C.E. Abraham dies 1943 B.C.E. ABRAHAMIC COVENANT, see IT-1 pgs. 520-5. 2018 B.C.E. Abraham born, see IT-1 pgs. 28-32. 1943 B.C.E. Terah dies 2148 B.C.E. Terah born, see Terah #1 IT-2 pg. 1087. 2029 B.C.E. Nahor dies 2177 B.C.E. Nahor born, see Nahor #1 IT-2 pg. 462. 1977 B.C.E. Serug dies 2207 B.C.E. Serug born, see IT-2 pgs. 898-9. 2000 B.C.E. Reu dies 2239 B.C.E. Reu born, see IT-2 pg. 795. 2030 B.C.E Peleg dies a. 2239 B.C.E. Tower of Babel [During the days of Peleg, Jehovah God confused the language of the people working on the Tower of Babel and the building of a mighty city in opposition to Jehovah, the people were scattered taking their god-defying, false religious practices with them. Thus was the beginning of Babylon the Great, the mother of (spiritual) harlots and of the disgusting things of the earth.] See IT-1 pgs. 234-5, also bf pgs. 11-45. 2269 B.C.E. Peleg born, see IT-2 pg. 595. 1839 B.C.E. Eber dies 2303 B.C.E. Eber born, see Eber #1 IT-1 pg 673. 1900 B.C.E. Shelah dies 2333 B.C.E. Shelah born, see Shelah #1 IT-2 pg. 918. 1930 B.C.E. Arpachshad dies 2368 B.C.E. Arpachshad born, see IT-1 pg. 179. 2370 B.C.E. GLOBAL FLOOD ~ [begins in November], see Deluge IT-1 pgs. 609- 12. 1868 B.C.E. Shem dies 2468 B.C.E. Shem born, see IT-2 pgs. 919-20. 2020 B.C.E. Noah dies 2970 B.C.E. Noah born, see Noah #1 IT-2 pgs. 506-8. 2375 B.C.E. Lamech dies 3152 B.C.E. Lamech born, see Lamech #2 IT-2 pg. 192. 2370 B.C.E. Methuselah dies ~ [global flood begins in November] 3339 B.C.E. Methuselah born, see IT-2 pg. 389. 3039 B.C.E. Enoch ~ [transferred so as not to experience the pangs of death] 3404 B.C.E. Enoch born, see Enoch #2 IT-1 pg. 729. 2604 B.C.E. Jared dies 3566 B.C.E. Jared born, see IT-1 pg. 1256. 2736 B.C.E. Mahalalel dies 3631 B.C.E. Mahalalel born, see Mahalalel #1 IT-2 pg. 295. 2791 B.C.E. Kenan dies 3701 B.C.E. Kenan born, see IT-2 pg. 145. 2886 B.C.E. Enosh dies 3791 B.C.E. Enosh born, see IT-1 pgs. 729-30. 2984 B.C.E. Seth dies 3896 B.C.E. Seth born, see IT-2 pg. 899. 3096 B.C.E. Adam dies Exact Year Hidden - Eve created from Adam's rib (It is believed that it is unknown and "hidden" so that we wouldn't understand "EXACTLY" what God's timetable would be for Armageddon to arrive)  4026 B.C.E. Adam created, see Adam #1 IT-1 pgs. 44-6.
      Exact date unknown - The Garden of Eden is formed (and protected as a sanctuary for later human life from dinosaurs that still exist) (Cherub who would later become Satan the Devil placed in charge of it) (He was 3rd ranking in the Universe after Michael the Archangel and "very beautiful")

      Dinosaurs created and walk the Earth (the largest ones being God's Giant "Lawnmowers" for early pre-cambrian years lush vegetation.)

      Creation account of Genesis

      ...Billions of years pass.....

      Birth of the Moon (video) / Thea crashes into the Earth... both cool. Orbits are stabilized.

      Michael the Archangel .. creates the Earth (great video)

      Planets begin to form. Interplanetary gas and asteroids are cleaned up out of the Solar System by the sun igniting.
      Our Sun ignites (video)

      ...Billions of years pass....

      Our Milky Way Galaxy begins to form out of hydrogen gas (Video)

      Hydrogen gas exists all over the known expanding Universe ....

      (See also the following video regarding The Big Bang) 

      The "Big Bang".......Expanding Universe / Entropy is started..... (see also: Cosmological Constant)

      ....How much Time?..... Billions of our years?....

      Michael the Archangel creates the Heavens alongside His Father Jehovah. Jehovah being the Architect and Michael the Archangel (Jesus) the Master Builder (See Proverbs 8)

      Michael the Archangel creates all the other angels one of whom would later become Satan the Devil


      Michael the Archangel creates "time" as we understand it. (The expanding universe is what gives us "Time" therefore the "Big Bang" might have happened here before the angels were created or after. They live outside of our "realm" (using the Cosmological Constant)

      Billions of years ago before the Universe was created Jesus, then known as Michael the Archangel was created by Jehovah using His Holy Spirit (See Colossians 1 - "The Firstborn of ALL creation")
      Jehovah God has / had no beginning....He exists for time infinitum   (see also this post regarding the Lambda above
       
       
    • By The Librarian
      Eruption of Sakurajima volcano, the most powerful in twentieth-century Japan, with Kagoshima, Japan in foreground, 1914

      Via
    • By PeterR
      So if this is the basis for your belief, then probably what you'll want to do is first of all find out which bible book your foundational scripture is in. (It's Exodus by the way.)
       
      Ex 1:6 - Eventually Joseph died, and also all his brothers and all that generation.
       
      It's not a complicated scripture.
      Let me ask you this. If you die in 2017 and all your brothers and all your generation also die at some point, what does "generation" mean if you don't impose any weirdness on the text? Do your precise birth and death times change the fundamental meaning of the word generation?
      Of course there are overlaps in a "generation". The only possible way for there not to be overlaps would be for each generation to have a batch of children be born at the same minute of a certain year, and die at a simultanous minute of a later year.
      But does your grandfather suddenly become part of your generation just because your life overlapped with him? Does that overlap of a few years between you and your brothers give latitude to distort the language to allow for President Kennedy to be of your generation even if your life overlapped with him?
       
       
       
       
    • By The Librarian
      Part of the series on:

      See attached images
      Anyone by chance have a PDF of these images combined? 
       
       
       
      See also:

       








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