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Malum Intellectus

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  1. Yes, the beginning of reinterpretation of scripture was an interesting event. I guess there are some that need to use outside sources in order to accept their own publications. But a good researcher becomes agreeable. I have no problems with the Watchtower interpretation since they seem to make adjustments as new evidence is found, including linguistics. The majority of Christianity is satisfied with what has been written with their own old interpretation. I also don’t place any faith in “Wikipedia” Web Encyclopedia, since anyone can edit any page. When they started the program, there were a lot of false entries that have taken decades to clean. That in itself doesn’t mean, everything has been corrected. However, they still encourage people to edit without fear. Yet any information is probative. It just depends on the value you place on it. The Watchtower has done a wonderful job with its publications, and Bible, knowledge. They, should open an accredited Bible School of Bible Knowledge? Meanwhile, this might interest you, since Jesus is known by many names. Emmanuel, Master, logos (the word), Son of God, Son of Man, Son of David, Lamb of God, Last Adam, King of the Jews, Rabbani, Teacher, Good Shepard, etc. Literary Origins of the Archangel’s Legendary Roles Hear Michael speaking! I am he who stands in the sight of God every hour. As the Lord lives, in whose sight I stand, I do not stop one day or one night praying incessantly for the human race, and I indeed pray for those who are on the earth; but they do not cease committing iniquity and fornications, and they do not do any good while they are placed on earth; and you have consumed in vanity the time in which you ought to have repented.1 The Apocalypse of Paul (Visio Pauli) St. Michael the archangel appears by name in scripture only five times: three times in the Old Testament (Daniel 10:13, 21 and 12:1) and twice in the New Testament (Revelation 12:7–9 and the Epistle of Jude 9). Despite this relative paucity of references to the archangel in canonical literature, there exists a vast store of legendary material from the Middle Ages concerning the archangel’s roles in the unfolding of human history. In this chapter, I explore the literary origins of St. Michael’s medieval legendary roles by examining the representations of the archangel in biblical and extra-biblical literature. The development of the archangel’s roles in this literature as healer and guardian, intercessor, psychopomp, and warrior-angel accounts for his popular appeal in early medieval England. Indeed, the representations of the archangel in the literature reviewed in this chapter can be seen as having served as the principal quarry for early medieval English writers in their representations of St. Michael the archangel. Many of the texts of the biblical era, though by no means all, which refer to St. Michael fall under the genre of “apocalypse” in their form, character, and/or content.2 Often conveying a message of the imminent end of the world, apocalyptic literature is collectively, in history and the future promise of the heavenly realm. The implicit conflict of the apocalyptic impulse is played out in what Bernard McGinn has called “the triple eschatological pattern of [present] crisis – [imminent] judgment – [future] vindication.”3 In this tripartite paradigm, it is the hope for the vindication of salvation, the transcendence of death, that provides the believer with the strength to endure the present crisis. In the context of this eschatological drama St. Michael commands a significant presence in the literature of the Old and New Testament eras. Although St. Michael’s character and roles appear nearly fully developed in early Hebrew literature (especially 1 Enoch and Daniel), there is a significant shift of emphasis between the literatures of the Old Testament and those of the New Testament. In the biblical and extra-biblical literature of the Old Testament, St. Michael strides across the world stage in the past, present, and future. His intercessory powers span the three periods of human time, and his efficacy extends into the eternity of God’s time. In the canonical books of the New Testament, however, St. Michael virtually withdraws from the stage of the present. Instead, Christ is proclaimed the sole mediator, “whose saving accomplishments . . . embrace past, present, and future,” on behalf of Christians in the New Testament.5 St. Michael’s appearance in Revelation 12:7–9 underscores his withdrawal from the present, while emphasizing his dual roles in the past and future: expelling the fallen angels at the beginning of time and defeating the forces of evil at the end of time. The thing to note, not confusing the meaning of each definition within the names. A good example would be? Yahweh, being Baal. While there were certain Hebrews that ultimately worshipped Baal? That in no way diminishes who the real God of Israel was and is, and what his modern pronunciation should sound like.
  2. I see. Perhaps the difficulty lies with the complete phrase "Jesus being Michael did not start with the Jehovah's Witnesses." To better clarify my statement, I will draw attention to the latter portion of the phrase “did not start with JW’s” that interested me, as factual. Jesus Being Michael would have to be left up to interpretation. Generally, those that debate the Watchtower? Usually, resort to the Watchtower’s reasoning book. In that book? The Watchtower “asks” a question. However, in the 19 century, the Bible students were framing this question with specific notations as, how to understand the symbolism of Michael as an authority figure. The intent of the ancients then lies with this symbolism that the Watchtower accepts. This result is graphically described by the Prophet— [B147] "The noise of a multitude in the mountains [kingdoms] like as of a great people; a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: the Lord of hosts mustereth the host of battle." Isa. 13:4 "THE VOICE OF THE ARCHANGEL" is another striking symbol of similar import. The name "archangel" signifies chief messenger; and our anointed Lord himself is Jehovah's Chief Messenger—the "Messenger of the Covenant." (Mal. 3:1) Daniel refers to the same personage, calling him Michael, which name signifies who as God—an appropriate name for him who is "the express image of the Father's person," and the representative of his authority and power. The voice of the Archangel represents Christ's authority and command. This symbol, then, represents Christ as taking control, or beginning his reign and issuing his commands, his official orders, announcing the change of dispensation by the enforcement of the laws of his kingdom. The same thought is differently expressed by Daniel, when he says, Then shall Michael, the great Prince, "stand up." To stand up signifies to assume authority, to give commands. See "ariseth," Isa. 2:19,21. Another illustration of this symbol is from David, who says of Christ prophetically, "He uttered his voice; the earth melted." The great time of trouble will be precipitated, and the earth (organized society) will melt, or disintegrate, under the change of administration going into effect when the new King utters his voice of command. At his command, systems of error, civil, social and religious, must go down, however old or firmly entrenched and fortified they may be. The sword out of his mouth shall cause the havoc: The truth on every subject, and in all its varied aspects, shall judge men, and, under his power and overruling, shall cause the overturning of evil and error in all their thousand forms. "THE TRUMP OF GOD." Many seem thoughtlessly to entertain the idea that this trumpet will be a literal sound on [B148] the air. But this will be seen to be an unreasonable expectation, when it is noticed that Paul here refers to what the Revelator designates "The Seventh Trumpet," the "Last Trump" in a series of symbolic trumpets. (Rev. 11:15; 1 Cor. 15:52) The proof that these references are to the same trumpet is found in the record of the events connected with each. Paul mentions the resurrection, and the establishment of the Lord's Kingdom, as connected with "the trump of God," and the Revelator mentions the same with even greater minuteness. The propriety of calling the "seventh," or "last trump," the "trump of God," is evident, too, when we remember that the events mentioned under the preceding six trumpets of Revelation refer to humanity's doings, while the seventh refers specially to the Lord's work, and covers the "Day of the Lord." Since the six preceding trumpets were symbols—and this is generally admitted by commentators and students who make any claim as expositors of Revelation—it would be a violation of reason and common sense to expect the seventh, the last of the series, to be a literal, audible sound on the air. And not only so, but it would be out of harmony with the Lord's general methods, as well as with those statements of Scripture indicating the secrecy of his coming; for a thief never sounds a trumpet to announce his arrival. *** w10 4/1 p. 19 Is Jesus the Archangel Michael? *** In view of the foregoing, what can we conclude? Jesus Christ is Michael the archangel. Both names—Michael (meaning “Who Is Like God?”) and Jesus (meaning “Jehovah Is Salvation”)—focus attention on his role as the leading advocate of God’s sovereignty. Philippians 2:9 states: “God exalted him [the glorified Jesus] to a superior position and kindly gave him the name that is above every other name.” It is important to note that the human birth of Jesus was not the beginning of his life. Before Jesus was born, Mary was visited by an angel who told her that she would conceive a child by means of holy spirit and that she should name the child Jesus. (Luke 1:31) During his ministry, Jesus often spoke of his prehuman existence.—John 3:13; 8:23, 58. So Michael the archangel is Jesus in his prehuman existence. After his resurrection and return to heaven, Jesus resumed his service as Michael, the chief angel, “to the glory of God the Father.”—Philippians 2:11 You may consider, further research with the book known in the western world as the “book of Enoch”. There you can find the reference to the archangel Michael. This reference, as previously stated was around 300 B.C. which was carried down by the Chaldean/Babylonian culture.
  3. TRUST JESUS On, Daniel 3:25. Only because it is King Nebuchadnezzar making that statement, not the Watchtower. Babylonians believed in many “gods” so it wouldn’t be surprising to read that from a person in ancient times. The Earliest Text of the Hebrew Bible: The Relationship between the Masoretic Text and the Hebrew Base of the Septuagint Reconsidered (Septuagint and Cognate Studies Series) Author(s): Switzerland) International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies. Congress (2001: Basel Publisher: Society of Biblical Literature, Year: 2003 The old interpretation (Breton) has since then been updated to a more factual rendering. Werner Bible Commentary In the Septuagint (but not in the Greek version of Theodotion), Nebuchadnezzar is identified as governing “cities and territories and all those dwelling on the earth from India to Ethiopia.” The Aramaic text of Daniel does not include these words nor does it mention the year when Nebuchadnezzar “made,” or directed the making of, an image of gold. Although the Dead Sea Daniel scroll (4QDana) from about 60 BCE contains only a fragmentary portion of verse 1, the missing part could not have included the year. A Dead Sea Daniel scroll (4QDand) identifies those to whom Nebuchadnezzar then spoke as “his officials.” To them, he mentioned seeing four unbound men “walking in the midst of the fire.” They were unharmed by the flames, and the “fourth one” resembled a “son of the gods” (an “angel of a god” [3:92, LXX]; a “son of a god” [3:92, Theodotion) (3:25)
  4. I believe you have asked space merchant to prevail as a good researcher. However, may I ask what your disagreement is with the quote “it did not start with JW’s” that would require a more in-depth discussion? Are you not a JW? I am simply referring to the concept of JW’s not being the first to research this ancient manifestation. The mindset would require only one interpretation, of many. Can that be possible?
  5. It’s an interesting question. In the category of fun facts. The book of watchers and the book of parables give certain insight, just as the Islamic interpretation of Michael. Yet, the more effective use of Michael was in the Chaldean/Babylonian time. Encyclopedia of Angels Michael The most prominent and greatest angel in Christian, Jewish, and Islamic lore. Michael means in Hebrew “who is like God” or “who is as God.” Michael is Chaldean in origin. In ANGELOLOGIES, his chief roles are many: he is warrior, priest, protector, healer, and guardian. He holds numerous offices in heaven: he is chief of the VIRTUES and ARCHANGELS, one of the ANGELS OF THE PRESENCE, a PRINCE OF LIGHT, ANGEL OF TRUTH, and angel of repentance, righteousness, mercy, and salvation. Some of his roles overlap with those of other great archangels, Uriel, Gabriel, and Raphael; of the four, he is the primary aspect of the ANGEL OF THE LORD. Michael also shares similarities with Metatron and Melchizedek. He also has duties as the ANGEL OF DEATH. Dictionary of Angels Sabathiel (Sabbathi)-in Jewish cabala, a spirit (intelligence) of the planet Saturn. He receives the divine light of the Holy Spirit and communicates it to the dwellers in his kingdom. In Mosaic lore, Sabathiel is one of 7 princes "who stand continually before God, and to whom are given the spirit-names of the planets." [Rf: Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy 111.1 What makes the concept similar is the meaning, “who is like god”. Of course, the interpretation of John 1:1 could be construed to be similar. Trinity would be at odds since Trinity cannot measure, “who is like God” to “is god” in a contextual way. That would make the intent different. And God doesn’t make things confusing. My observation was strictly on the comment “it did not start with JW’s” which is correct. This manifestation began with the concept of Christ coming to earth as the son of God, the Messiah, and the son of man. Time constraint make this visionary, seem troubling, but not if we consider this vision with Peter’s saying in 2 Peter3:8 and the psalmist that echoed the same in Psalms 90:4 Therefore, Jesus preparation was but only a few days ago!
  6. In ancient times, anything could be made into a symbol of worship. Cats were no different in that respect. However, symbolism becomes idolatry in the eye of the beholder, nothing more. So, cats as pets have no symbolic meaning of idolatry to those that don’t see them as an object of worship. Leviticus 26:1 I believe, God made it clear in the Old Testament, worship should only be conducted to the one and true God. The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Exodus 3:6 Yet, you do find certain modern cultures that still believe in using animals as symbols of idolatry to worship, as an embodiment of religion. Something JehovahÂ’s Witnesses donÂ’t do. Tertullian, "On Idolatry" and Mishnah "Avodah Zarah": Questioning the Parting of the Ways between Christians and Jews What concept has emerged in this age of atheism? The idolatry of God: breaking our addiction to certainty and satisfaction Sumerian  Egyptian There is a difference with the Cat symbol, Bastet as a deity for religious belief and worship, than that of a regular house cat as a simple pet.
  7. Space Merchant You are correct. What would be the difference, about Michael in the Hebrew Bible that the majority of Christendom accepts as related? Catholic Bible Dictionary 2009 MICHAEL (Hebrew, “Who is like God?”) The name of an archangel who appears in both the Old Testament and the New Testament (Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; Jude 9; Rev 12:7). He is one of the three angels the Church venerates by name (with Gabriel and Raphael). In the book of Daniel, the angel Michael appears as the patron and protector of the nation of Israel. He is given the title “prince” and contends with other angelic princes who look after Gentile nations (Dan 10:13, 21). He is also to play a leading role in Messianic times, when the Lord’s faithful will be delivered and raised up to eternal life (Dan 12:1–4). In the NT, reference is made to a dispute between Michael and the devil over the body of Moses, a story that probably relies on a Jewish apocryphal work called the Assumption of Moses (Jude 9). Finally, the book of Revelation depicts Michael as the leader of the angelic armies who expelled Satan and his minions from heaven (Rev 12:7–9). Watchtower Reasoning 1989 Was Jesus Christ a real, historical person? The Bible itself is the principal evidence that Jesus Christ is a historical person. The record in the Gospels is not a vague narrative of events at some unspecified time and in an unnamed location. It clearly states time and place in great detail. For an example, see Luke 3:1, 2, 21-23. The first-century Jewish historian Josephus referred to the stoning of “James, the brother of Jesus who was called the Christ.” (The Jewish Antiquities, Josephus, Book XX, sec. 200) A direct and very favorable reference to Jesus, found in Book XVIII, sections 63, 64, has been challenged by some who claim that it must have been either added later or embellished by Christians; but it is acknowledged that the vocabulary and the style are basically those of Josephus, and the passage is found in all available manuscripts.
  8. instead of just down voting, why don't you contribute to these conversations? Its ok if you disagree, and its ok if you choose not to participate, but it makes no difference if you just down vote. it doesn't hurt anything and no one takes those seriously anyway.

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