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  1. l cáncer de mama es el tumor femenino más frecuente (iStock) Los fabricantes de medicamentos se están enfocando en qué pacientes de cáncer se beneficiarán de las nuevas terapias inmunológicas y cómo encontrar muchas más de las que los escépticos habían pensado. Por primera vez, un ensayo clínico mostró que un tratamiento con una nueva generación de medicamentos diseñados para desencadenar el sistema inmunológico del cuerpo contra los tumores puede ayudar a algunas mujeres con el tipo de cáncer más agresivo a vivir más tiempo. El estudio fue presentado por Roche Holding en la conferencia de cáncer más grande de Europa. Estas medicinas, lideradas por la exitosa Keytruda de Merck & Co., se venden para más de una docena de diferentes tipos de cáncer, y las compañías farmacéuticas están trabajando obsesivamente para expandir sus aplicaciones con versiones más nuevas y mezcla de tratamientos. Según el Instituto de Investigación del Cáncer, financiado en gran parte por los fabricantes de medicamentos que buscan una buena parte de una previsión del mercado,para 2024 hay unos 1.300 tratamientos basados en el sistema inmunitario. "Esto es solo la punta del iceberg", subrayó Axel Hoos, jefe de investigación y desarrollo en oncología del gigante farmacéutico del Reino Unido GlaxoSmithKline, que está tratando de volver a la oncología después de vender sus productos existentes a Novartis AG en 2015. "Hay un poco de exageración, pero hay mucha sustancia". En la reunión de la Sociedad Europea de Oncología Médica, Roche reveló los resultados de un estudio que mostró que un grupo de pacientes cuyos tumores de mama dieron positivo a una proteína llamada PD-L1 vivió un promedio de 25 meses cuando recibieron una terapia inmunológica llamada Tecentriq: aproximadamente 10 meses más que otras que solo recibieron quimioterapia. Las terapias inmunitarias irrumpieron en escena hace unos ocho años, cuando Yervoy de Bristol-Myers Squibb se convirtió en el primer medicamento de este tipo en extender la vida de las personas con melanoma, un cáncer de piel letal. Los éxitos en los cánceres de riñón y pulmón siguieron poco después. Cuando las terapias inmunitarias funcionan, el efecto puede durar años, una de las razones por las que se las considera revolucionarias. Pero en la mayoría de los pacientes no ocurre nada útil, incluso en los tumores de la piel y los pulmones, donde se han observado algunos de los efectos más dramáticos. "Hay algunos cánceres en los que el sistema inmunológico simplemente no puede reconocerlo", comentó Mace Rothenberg, directora de desarrollo para oncología del gigante farmacéutico Pfizer Inc. Al volar bajo el radar protector del cuerpo, los científicos se refieren a ellos como "tumores fríos". Las compañías están empezando a repensar su estrategia para los casos más difíciles, según dijo Dan O'Day, jefe farmacéutico de Roche. La prueba de los tumores de los pacientes para detectar proteínas y genes específicos ayudará a identificar a los que tienen más probabilidades de beneficiarse. "Queremos alejarnos del concepto de administrar inmunoterapia contra el cáncer al 80 por ciento de los pacientes y que solo la mitad responde", indicó en una entrevista. "Busquemos las otras opciones de tratamiento para los otros tipos de pacientes". El estudio de cáncer de mama de Roche ayudó a respaldar la idea de que hay formas en que los médicos pueden identificar más cánceres y someterlos a la terapia inmunológica. El medicamento utilizado en el estudio, Tecentriq, bloquea la proteína llamada PD-L1 que dificulta el ataque del sistema inmunitario contra los cánceres, y solo sirvió en las mujeres cuyos tumores tenían niveles altos de proteína. O'Day sugirió que otro indicador en la búsqueda de respondedores podría ser la gran cantidad de mutaciones en un tumor. Es una estrategia que puede extender aún más el alcance de las terapias inmunológicas, como lo indican los estudios presentados en la conferencia. Los estudios de cánceres de colon y recto, que han sido menos sensibles a la terapia inmunológica, demostraron que los tumores con daño genético grave pueden ofrecer mejores objetivos para medicamentos como el Opdivo de Bristol y Yervoy. "Están realizando pruebas en cada tumor diferente que puedna imaginar", indicó Richard Gaynor, jefe de investigación y desarrollo de Neon Therapeutics, una empresa de inmunología oncológica. "Habrá subconjuntos de pacientes dentro de cada grupo que puedan beneficiarse". Y en muchos casos, la terapia inmunológica puede necesitar ayuda. La pregunta es cómo empujar el sistema de protección del cuerpo para que actúe contra ciertos tumores, de acuerdo al director ejecutivo de Incyte Corp., Herve Hoppenot. Su compañía probó la estrategia a principios de este año, combinando su fórmula experimental con Keytruda de Merck, y fracasó. Aún así, Incyte y otros fabricantes de medicamentos continúan en su búsqueda de formas de detectar tumores que hayan eludido la inmunoterapia. "Estamos arañando la superficie", comentó Luciano Rossetti, jefe de investigación y desarrollo global para biofarma de Merck Egaa con sede en Alemania. "Tenemos una primera ola de emoción real".
  2. Thirty U.S. states have enacted medical cannabis laws, and all but one of them include cancer in the list of conditions allowed. Such laws give cancer patients across the country access to a substance that remains illegal under federal law. Anecdotal reports suggest marijuana is helpful in managing symptoms of chemotherapy, like pain and nausea. But it's unlikely curious patients are getting clear guidance from their doctors on whether they should try marijuana, which form might work best and how much to take. A new survey of 237 oncologists from around the country finds that while roughly 80 percent talk with their patients about marijuana, fewer than 30 percent feel they have sufficient knowledge to advise them about its medicinal use. Despite their shaky knowledge of the drug, nearly half of all oncologists do recommend medical cannabis to their patients, according to the study, which was published Thursday in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. But more than half of those suggesting it, don't consider themselves knowledgeable to do so, says Dr. Ilana Braun, a cancer psychiatrist at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, Mass. and the study's lead author.
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  3. Married people are more likely than the unmarried to get timely diagnosis and treatment for malignant skin cancer. Early detection of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is essential to effective treatment. The five-year survival rate for stage 1 disease is more than 98 percent, but by stage 3, the rate declines to 62 percent. A study published in JAMA Dermatologyused a large cancer registry to catalog tumor stage and marital status in 52,063 patients diagnosed with melanoma. The population, average age 64, was 58.8 percent male. Almost 70 percent were married. After controlling for age, sex, education level and other factors, the researchers found that 46 percent of married people went to a doctor at the earliest stage of the disease, compared with 43 percent of the never married, 39 percent of the divorced, and 32 percent of the widowed. Patients who were never married were 12 percent more likely to present with a later stage cancer, the divorced 34 percent more likely and the widowed more than twice as likely. Results were the same for men and women. Read more:
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  4. Hairdressers spend more time looking at the tops of heads than anyone else, so are well positioned to spot suspicious skin changes. Of all types of skin cancer, melanoma causes the majority of deaths. When on the scalp it can be especially difficult to catch in a self-examination — when was the last time you examined the top of your head? One person who might be able to help: your hairdresser. While cutting your hair, they've got a great view for a scalp inspection. And they can learn how to spot scary changes, researchers say. In a report published Wednesday in JAMA Dermatology, researchers from the University of Southern California and University of Colorado Denver detailed their efforts to educate hairdressers with a training video. Hairdressers had told some of the same researchers that they wanted to learn more about melanoma detection in an earlier survey, so they seemed like willing participants. Read more:
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  5. Date: November 28, 2017 Source: The Lancet Summary: Diabetes and high BMI (a BMI over 25 kg/m2) were the cause of 5.6% of new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 - equivalent to 792600 cases, according to the first study to quantify the proportion of cancers attributable to diabetes and high BMI. When considered individually, 544300 cases of cases were attributable to high BMI (equivalent to 3.9% of all cancers), and 280100 were attributable to diabetes (2%). Diabetes and high BMI (a BMI over 25 kg/m2) were the cause of 5.6% of new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 -- equivalent to 792600 cases, according to the first study to quantify the proportion of cancers attributable to diabetes and high BMI published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal.
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  6. Men can get breast cancer Everyone recognizes the pink ribbons that signify breast cancer awareness, but few think the cause relates to men. After all, women are 100 times more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than men. More than 2,400 new cases of male breast cancer will be diagnosed this year, reports the American Cancer Society, but there’s still a lot to be discovered about the disease. “Research needs to better understand the biology of male breast cancer,” says Ayca Gucalp, MD, an oncologist who specializes in male breast cancer at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Read more:
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  7. Although many of us routinely indulge in a glass (or two or three) of wine at the end of the day, a new study suggests that our glass-a-day habit might not be healthy: Having a glass of wine (or another alcoholic drink) each day has been found to increase a person’s breast cancer risk. But luckily, it appears vigorous exercise may help counteract that risk. As the Washington Post reports, a new review from the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund analyzed 119 studies that used data from 12 million women worldwide. While a standard drink has 14 grams of alcohol, the study found that just 10 grams of alcohol per day – which is the equivalent of one small glass of wine, beer or other alcohol – is linked to a heightened breast cancer risk of 5 percent for pre-menopausal women and 9 percent for post-menopausal women. Read more:
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  8. There's a straightforward way to live longer after being diagnosed with advanced cancer and it doesn't involve chemotherapy or surgery. It's just eating right and exercising more, doctors reported Wednesday. Cancer survivors who followed standard American Cancer Society guidelines for healthy living were 42 percent less likely to die than similar survivors who didn't, researchers found. "We found that patients who maintain a healthy body weight, engage in regular physical activity, and eat a diet rich in vegetables and whole grains and low in red meats and processed meats did better and survived longer than those who didn't," said Dr. Erin Van Blarigan of the University of California, San Francisco, who led the study. "I think the magnitude of the benefit was surprising," Van Blarigan told NBC News. Read more:
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  9. It’s pretty obvious that carrying around extra weight can make you feel sluggish, affect your self-esteem and put you at increased risk for heart disease and diabetes. But increasingly, researchers are also making connections between obesity and cancer—several different types of cancer, in fact. Cancer is caused by mutations within cells, which cause those cells to grow and multiply at unnatural rates. Many cases of cancer occur because of genetic traits, or purely because of chance. But for others, obesity can be a big contributing factor. “We know that a good third of cancers are associated with our lifestyle behaviors, such as what we eat, how much we exercise, and collectively, our weight,” says Melinda Irwin, director of Cancer Prevention and Control at Yale University. “And obesity is now the leading modifiable risk factor, even ahead of tobacco use, that’s associated with cancer risk and mortality.” How does obesity encourage cancer growth? High-levels of long-term inflammation—the immune system’s response to injury, illness, or other disturbances in the body—has been shown to fuel the growth of cancer cells. “And we know that obesity is basically a chronic inflammatory state,” says Irwin. Not only can obesity itself trigger inflammation; so can some of the the eating behaviors that lead to weight gain in the first place—like high-sugar and high-fat diets. Having too much fat around the belly, regardless of body mass index, increases inflammation in the body, as well. Some cancers are also linked to sex hormones like estrogen. Women’s bodies produces estrogen in their fat cells, especially after menopause. “The higher levels of body fat you have, the higher levels of estrogen,” says Irwin. Then there’s the way that obesity contributes to insulin resistance—a condition in which the body loses its sensitivity to the hormone and can’t respond normally. This can lead to excess levels of insulin and insulin-related growth hormones in the body, which has been linked to cell proliferation and several types of cancer. Read more
  10. More than half of smoking-related deaths took place in China, India, Russia and the U.S Smoking kills more than one in 10 people worldwide. A major new study in the medical journal Lancet found that, in 2015, 11.5% of global deaths (approximately 6.4 million people) were attributable to smoking worldwide, of which 52.2% took place in four countries: China, India, Russia and the U.S. The study used over 2,818 pieces of research identified through several sources, including the Global Health Data Exchange, World Health Organization, and International Smoking Statistics Database. Smoking has claimed more than 5 million lives every year since 1990, and its contribution to illness such as cancer, lung and heart disease is growing, especially in lower income countries as the tobacco industry moves to target previously untapped markets, the study found. “The negative effects of smoking extend well beyond individual and population health as billions of dollars in lost productivity and health-care expenditure are related to smoking every year,” it said. Despite more than half a century of “unequivocal evidence” of the harmful effects of tobacco on health in 2015, one in every four men in the world was a daily smoker. “Prevalence has been, and remains, significantly lower in women — roughly one in every 20 women smoked daily in 2015,” the report found. “Nonetheless, much progress has been accomplished in the past 25 years. The report was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Bloomberg Philanthropies. “Smoking remains a leading risk for early death and disability worldwide,” the study found, “and therefore continues to require sustained political commitment.” Smoking was ranked among the five leading mortality risk factors in 109 countries in 2015, rising from 88 countries in 1990, it said. However, only four countries had significant annualized increases in smoking prevalence between 2005 and 2015: Congo and Azerbaijan (for men) and Kuwait and Timor-Leste (for women). The tobacco industry in the U.S. is heavily regulated. Adding pictures on cigarette packs to illustrate the dangers of smoking increases attempts by smokers to quit, according to a month-long clinical survey released last year and conducted among 1,900 adult smokers, professors at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The findings were published on the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) Internal Medicine website. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (2009) requires pictorial warnings on cigarette packaging, but the rule hasn’t been enforced. In 2012, the implementation was stalled after the tobacco industry sued the Food and Drug Administration. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that same year that the FDA had “not provided a shred of evidence” that the pictorial warnings reduce smoking. Unlike many European countries, the U.S. tobacco industry, which is worth around $38 billion in revenue and shrinking by 2% annually, does not require cigarettes to be sold in packs without logos. “Over the past five years, the cigarette and tobacco manufacturing industry persevered despite increasingly challenging operating conditions and intense scrutiny from both the government and the public,” according to industry research group IBISWorld. Reynolds American RAI, +0.35% and Philip Morris PM, +0.90% said they were committed to helping smokers use healthier tobacco products; British American Tobacco BTI, +0.36% and the National Association of Tobacco Outlets, which supports retailers that sell tobacco products, did not respond to request for comment. A spokesman for Imperial Brand IMB, +0.76% said it supports reasonable tobacco regulation and referenced a fuller statement here.
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  11. Se trata del docetaxel, una de las drogas utilizadas en los tratamientos contra la enfermedad. Investigaciones revelaron dos tipos de efectos secundarios que terminaron con la muerte de los pacientes e marzo de 2017 Docetaxel, el medicamento en la mira de las autoridades francesas Cuarenta y ocho enfermos de cáncer tratados con docetaxel fallecieron en los 20 años de comercialización de este producto en Francia, anunció este miércoles la Agencia Nacional de Medicamentos (ANSM), que mantendrá la recomendación de evitar temporalmente su empleo para ciertos cánceres de pecho. Esta decisión muestra que los riesgos asociados al medicamento "no son despreciables", si bien el docetaxel sigue siendo "un medicamento de importancia en el tratamiento contra el cáncer", lo que ha permitido reducir la mortalidad ligada a esta enfermedad, subrayó Dominique Martin, director general de la ANSM, interrogado por la AFP. El organismo lanzó una investigación de farmacovigilancia en septiembre tras un "pico de advertencias" por la muerte de mujeres tratadas por cáncer de pecho. Las autoridades sanitarias determinaron dos tipos de efectos secundarios (colitis y choques sépticos) en pacientes que tomaban ese medicamento en cualquiera de sus formas (Taxotere de Sanofi y genéricos). Tras revisar las incidencias por su uso en tratamientos de cáncer de pecho, pulmón, próstata, cáncer gástrico y de vías aerodigestivas superiores desde su comercialización en 1996 hasta el 7 de febrero de este año, "se reportaron 187 casos de colitis o de choques sépticos, de los que 48 condujeron a la muerte" del paciente, concluyó la ANSM. Pese a ello, "los decesos son inhabituales (del orden de 1 por cada 10.000 pacientes) para un medicamento que ha permitido reducir la mortalidad en numerosos cánceres", subraya la agencia. (iStock) El director general de la ANSM añadió que se están llevando a cabo investigaciones complementarias, relativas concretamente a la calidad de los productos empleados. A la espera de los resultados de nuevos análisis, por precaución "se mantiene la recomendación de no utilización del docetaxel en cánceres de seno localizados, operables". El 10 de marzo, la Agencia Europea del medicamento (EMA) anunció una serie de "análisis preliminares" a nivel continental que mostraron que "no existía un aumento de la frecuencia de aparición de enterocolitis neutropénicas" (una complicación digestiva que puede conducir a perforación intestinales) en pacientes tratados con docetaxel entre enero de 2015 y enero de 2017.
  12. Sugar is one of the most dangerous ingredients on the market. It’s addictive, added to almost every processed food, and will make you overweight, depressed and sick if you eat too much. In fact, Americans eat close to 130 pounds of the stuff per person per year (4 times more than the recommended daily allowance), likely because it is so addictive. That’s why it’s exciting to know there are alternative sweeteners made in nature, like “stevia,” that don’t wreak havoc on your health – or do they? Is Stevia safe? That’s what I went on a quest to find out. Here’s what happened… What Is Stevia? For those of you that are hearing about stevia for the first time, it is a plant that is typically grown in South America, and while its extract is 200 times sweeter than sugar, it does not raise blood insulin levels. That’s what makes it so popular. However in 1991 the FDA refused to approve this substance for use due to pressure from makers of artificial sweeteners like Sweet n’ Low and Equal (a one billion dollar industry). But in 2008, the FDA approved the use of rebaudioside compounds that were derived from the stevia plant by Coca-Cola (Cargill) and PepsiCo – hmmm doesn’t that sound suspicious? Not until a major food company got involved did stevia become legal, and only after it had been highly processed using a patentable chemical-laden process…so processed that Truvia (Coca-Cola’s branded product) goes through about 40 steps to process the extract from the leaf, relying on chemicals like acetone, methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, and isopropanol. Some of these chemicals are known carcinogens (substances that cause cancer), and none of those ingredients sound like real food, do they? The whole leaf stevia that you can grow in your backyard (and has been used for centuries in countries like Brazil and Paraguay) remains a non-approved food additive by the FDA. However, rebaudioside A (the stevia extract) that was approved by the FDA has not been used for centuries and long term human health impacts have not been studied and are still unknown. The sweetener/sugar industry wields powerful influence over what is ultimately approved at the FDA, and this is just another example where they are influencing decisions that don’t make sense. How can a chemically derived extract be deemed safe in processed food and a plant from mother nature not? What Kind Of Stevia To Avoid The 40-step patented process used to make Truvia should make you want to steer clear of this stevia product alone, but there are two other concerning ingredients added (not only to Truvia but other stevia products as well). First, erythritol is a naturally occurring sugar that is sometimes found in fruit, but food manufacturers don’t actually use the natural stuff. Instead they start with genetically engineered corn and then go through a complex fermentation process to come up with chemically pure erythritol. Check out the manufacturing process below: “Natural flavors” is another ingredient added to powdered and liquid stevia products, likely due to the fact that once the stevia leaf is processed it can develop a metallic taste. Manufactured natural flavor is contributing to what David Kessler (former head of the FDA) calls a “food carnival” in your mouth. This makes it difficult to stop eating or drinking because the flavors they have synthesized will trick your mind into wanting more and more. When companies use manufactured flavor, they are literally “hijacking” your taste buds one-by-one; that’s why I recommend putting products that contain “natural flavors” back on the shelf. “Stevia in the Raw” sounds pure and natural, but when you look at the ingredients the first thing on the label is “dextrose” – so it’s certainly not just stevia in the raw. And Pepsi Co’s “Pure Via,” also pictured above, isn’t exactly pure either with this ingredient being first on the label, too. Dextrose is a sweetener that’s also derived from genetically engineered corn and has a long complicated manufacturing process, just like erythritol. Even certified organic stevia can have sneaky ingredients added, like this one above which has more organic agave inulin than the stevia extract itself. Agave inulin is a highly processed fiber derivative from the blue agave plant. Also on the ingredient list is an item you are probably familiar with from those little packets sometimes found in boxed goods – silica (pictured). It is added to improve the flow of powdery substances and is the same ingredient that helps strengthen concrete and creates glass bottles and windowpanes. It may cause irritation of the digestive tract (if eaten) and irritation of the respiratory tract (if accidentally inhaled). While it is non-toxic and probably won’t kill you in small quantities, it’s definitely not a real food ingredient I would cook with or that I want to be putting in my body. How To Choose The Right Kind Of Stevia Luckily there are ways to enjoy this sweet leaf closer to it’s natural state… because let’s be honest, the no-calorie artificial sweeteners out there are really dreadful, and no one should consume them (check this post for the low down on those). So here’s what you can do: Buy a stevia plant for your garden (luckily it’s totally legal!) or purchase the pure dried leaves online – you can grind up them up using a spice grinder (or use a mortar and pestle) for your own powdered stevia. When choosing products already sweetened with stevia, look for “whole leaf stevia” on the ingredient label. For example one of my favorite protein powders is made with “whole stevia leaf” instead of rebaudioside a or stevia extract. Add fresh or dried leaves directly to tea or drinks for natural sweetness (note the straight stevia leaves are only 30-40 times sweeter than sugar, vs. 200 times using the extract). Make your own liquid stevia extract (see graphic below for recipe). If you are not up for getting a stevia plant of your own or making your own extract, remember to look for a stevia extract that is 100% pure without added ingredients (Sweet Leaf & Trader Joe’s have versions). And when all else fails, choose a suitable alternative and forget stevia altogether. Use honey, pure maple syrup, or I personally prefer coconut palm sugar, since it is low glycemic (making it more diabetic friendly) and one of the most natural unprocessed forms of sugar available. It is naturally high in amino acids – has 10,000 times more potassium, 20 times more magnesium and 20 times more iron than conventional sugar. I use it all the time in my baking, from pound cake to muffins to a recent delicious cookie that is low in sugar – check out all those recipes here! If you know someone who uses artificial sweeteners or stevia, please share this post with them. Wishing you the best health life has to offer, Food Babe
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  13. A large study has found that body mass index, waist circumference and diabetes are all associated with an increased risk for liver cancer. Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer, and its incidence has tripled since the mid-1970s in the United States. For the study, in Cancer Research, researchers pooled data from 14 prospective studies with more than 1.5 million participants. After controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, smoking and race, they found that being overweight increased the relative risk for liver cancer by between 21 percent and 142 percent as B.M.I. increased. For each 2-inch increase in waist circumference, the risk of liver cancer increased by 8 percent, even after controlling for B.M.I. And those with Type 2 diabetes had more than double the risk of liver cancer, even among the non-obese. There was no association of B.M.I. with cancer if the patient had hepatitis, a cause of liver cancer so strong that it overwhelms any other cause. But among those without hepatitis, the increased risk was significant. “This study underscores that the parallel increase in obesity is part of the increase in liver cancer rates,” said the lead author, Peter T. Campbell, an epidemiologist with the American Cancer Society. “Now we have to accept the fact that obesity and Type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with liver cancer.”
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  14. Here’s another reason, as if you needed it, to feel crippling anxiety about everything you eat and drink. A new study published in the journalAddiction concludes that alcohol consumption causes cancer — and you’re at risk even if you just enjoy the occasional glass or two of Pinot. Most people probably realize drinking can cause liver cancer, but that’s just thebeginning. The study’s analysis directly links alcohol consumption to the development of seven types of cancer, including that of the breast and liver, and now there’s growing evidence that it can cause skin, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. According to the study, 5.8 percent of cancer deaths around the world can be attributed to drinking. Author Jennie Connor, a professor of preventive and social medicine in New Zealand, drew on studies conducted over the last decade by the World Cancer Research Fund, the World Health Organisation’s cancer body, and other organizations. While she says heavy drinkers are most at risk, Connor insists that public-health campaigns should encourage everyone to cut down, and tells The Guardian light drinkers experience a “considerable burden.” That, of course, is the exact opposite of how drinking should make you feel. Over in England, the country’s chief medical officer caused some hoopla earlier this year when she warned women that drinking could cause breast cancer. She also helped usher in new government guidelines that suggest men limit their alcohol consumption to seven pints of beer a week. (That limit sounds particularly unrealistic now that the country’s citizens are coping with the consequences of Brexit.) One doctor with Cancer ResearchUK even went so far as to suggest alternating rounds of booze and soft drinks, or drinking low-alcohol cocktails. One thing’s certain: It’s another great reason to avoid blue wine when it hits the market.
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  15. For the very first time, U.S. officials have given the green light for scientists to experiment with the modification of human genes. It's been approved in the hope of developing new anti-cancer technology. But the tests, undertaken on humans, have been underway for some time already. Elizabeth Parrish CEO of Bioviva spoke to RT
  16. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that higher levels of vitamin D - specifically serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D - are associated with a correspondingly reduced risk of cancer. The findings are published in the April 6, online issue of PLOS ONE. "We have quantitated the ability of adequate amounts of vitamin D to prevent all types of invasive cancer combined, which had been terra incognita until publication of this paper," said Cedric Garland, DrPH, adjunct professor in the UC San Diego School of Medicine Department of Family Medicine and Public Health and member of Moores Cancer Center at UC San Diego Health. Garland and his late brother, Frank, made the first connection between vitamin D deficiency and some cancers in 1980 when they noted populations at higher latitudes (with less available sunlight) were more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, which is produced by the body through exposure to sunshine, and experience higher rates of colon cancer. Subsequent studies by the Garlands and others found vitamin D links to other cancers, such as breast, lung and bladder. The new PLOS ONE study sought to determine what blood level of vitamin D was required to effectively reduce cancer risk. The marker of vitamin D was 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the main form in the blood. The researchers employed a non-traditional approach, pooling analyses of two previous studies of different types: a randomized clinical trial of 1,169 women and a prospective cohort study of 1,135 women. A clinical trial focuses upon whether a specific test or treatment is safe and effective. A prospective study looks for outcomes during the study period, in this case incidence of cancer among participants. By combining the two studies, the researchers obtained a larger sample size and a greater range of blood serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D. The only accurate measure of vitamin D levels in a person is a blood test. In the Lappe trial cohort, the median blood serum level of 25(OH)D was 30 nanograms per milliliter. In the GrassrootsHealth prospective cohort, it was higher: 48 ng/ml. The researchers found that the age-adjusted cancer incidence was 1,020 cases per 100,000 person-years in the Lappe cohort and 722 per 100,000 person-years in the GrassrootsHealth cohort. Cancer incidence declined with increased 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D concentrations of 40 ng/ml or greater had a 67 percent lower risk of cancer than women with levels of 20 ng/ml or less. Recommended blood serum levels of vitamin D have been a source of vigorous debate in recent years. In 2010, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that levels lower than 12 ng/ml represented a vitamin D deficiency and recommended a target of 20 ng/ml, which could be met in most healthy adults (ages 19 to 70) with the equivalent of 600 International Units of vitamin D each day. Subsequently, other groups have argued for higher blood serum levels: 50 ng/ml or more. Above 125 ng/ml, there may be side effects. Many vitamin D supporters now advocate 800 to 1,000 IUs daily; more for persons older than 70 and pregnant or lactating women. Garland does not identify a singular, optimum daily intake of vitamin D or the manner of intake, which may be sunlight exposure, diet and/or supplementation. He said the current study simply clarifies that reduced cancer risk becomes measurable at 40 ng/ml, with additional benefit at higher levels. "These findings support an inverse association between 25(OH)D and risk of cancer," he said, "and highlight the importance for cancer prevention of achieving a vitamin D blood serum concentration above 20 ng/ml, the concentration recommended by the IOM for bone health." Garland said a broad effort to increase 25(OH)D concentrations to a minimum of 40 ng/ml in the general population would likely and substantially reduce cancer incidence and associated mortality. "Primary prevention of cancer, rather than expanding early detection or improving treatment, will be essential to reversing the current upward trend of cancer incidence worldwide," the researchers wrote. "This analysis suggests that improving vitamin D status is a key prevention tool." Source:
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  17. Study says drug blocks enzymes involved in growth of cancerous tumours Group of 13,000 cardiac patients focus of the research by Italian scientists Nearly 50,000 new cases of prostate cancer every year and 11,000 deaths Aspirin is already taken by millions of Britons with heart disease, but now it seems it may also protect men with heart trouble from prostate cancer. A study of more than 13,000 cardiac patients showed that men taking aspirin had substantially lower levels of prostate cancer than those who did not take it. Overall, they were 36 per cent less likely to get the disease – and among those who had been taking aspirin regularly for five or more years, the likelihood of the disease dropped by an astonishing 57 per cent. A spokesman for the Italian team that carried out the study said: ‘Our findings indicate that low-dose aspirin might be associated with a reduction of risk of prostate cancer in patients with cardio or cerebrovascular [stroke causing] diseases. ‘Raising patients’ awareness of its beneficial role in the prevention of prostate cancer might help improve adherence to the long-term therapy for the prevention of vascular problems.’ Aspirin, a painkiller and anti-inflammatory, is widely prescribed to people at risk of heart disease. In patients whose blood vessels are narrowed from atherosclerosis, or ‘furring’ of the arteries, fatty deposits on the lining can cause a blocked artery and a heart attack. Aspirin works by interfering with blood clotting by reducing the clumping together of platelets or clotting cells. Studies have also suggested it may help prevent colorectal cancers in heart patients. One theory about its anti-cancer effect is that the drug blocks cyclooxygenase or COX enzymes which are involved in the pain and inflammatory process. COX enzymes may also be involved in the growth of new blood vessels that help cancerous tumours to grow, and that by blocking their activity, aspirin reduces the likelihood of the cancer both growing and also spreading. Aspirin may trigger cancer cell death too. There are nearly 50,000 new cases of prostate cancer a year and 11,000 deaths, according to Cancer Research UK. Almost nine out of ten men diagnosed with prostate cancer survive the disease for five years or more. The prostate study was carried out by doctors from the Italian College of General Practitioners and Primary Care and reported in the International Journal Of Cancer. Source:
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