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Vantablack is a substance made of carbon nanotubes and is the blackest substance known, absorbing up to 99.965% of radiation in the visible spectrum. Exclusive rights of Vantablack for artistic use have recently been given to the artist Anish Kapoor. Etymology The name comes from the term "Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays". Properties Vantablack is composed of a forest of vertical tubes which are "grown". When light strikes vantablack, instead of bouncing off, it becomes trapped and is continually deflected among the tubes, eventually becoming absorbed and dissipating into heat. Vantablack was an improvement over previous similar substances developed at the time. Vantablack absorbs 99.965% of visible light. Also, this new material can be created at 400 °C (752 °F); NASA had developed a similar substance that could be grown at 750 °C (1,380 °F). Vantablack can be grown on materials that cannot withstand higher temperatures. The outgassing and particle fallout levels of Vantablack are low. The high levels in similar substances in the past had prevented their commercial usefulness. Vantablack also has greater resistance to mechanical vibration, and has greater thermal stability. Development Early development was carried out at the National Physical Laboratory (UK), although the term "Vanta" wasn't coined until sometime later. The substance is now being developed by Surrey NanoSystems. Applications This substance has many potential applications, including preventing stray light from entering telescopes, and improving the performance of infrared cameras both on Earth and in space, Ben Jensen, Chief Technology Officer, Surrey NanoSystems, has explained: "For example, it reduces stray-light, improving the ability of sensitive telescopes to see the faintest stars... Its ultra-low reflectance improves the sensitivity of terrestrial, space and air-borne instrumentation." Vantablack may also increase the absorption of heat in materials used in concentrated solar power technology, as well as military applications such as thermal camouflage. The emissivity of Vantablack and scalability support a wide range of applications. The material is being used creatively by artist Anish Kapoor who said, "It's effectively like a paint... Imagine a space that's so dark that as you walk in you lose all sense of where you are, what you are, and especially all sense of time." The color was exclusively licensed to Kapoor's studio for artistic use, outraging some other artists who would be unable to use it.However, the manufacturer has explained that Vantablack is also subject to export controls by the UK, and due to its temperature and physical requirements is not practical for use in many types of art. Commercial production In 2015, production was scaled up to satisfy the needs of buyers in the aerospace and defense sectors. The first orders were delivered in July 2014. References ^ Jump up to: a b c "Vantablack, the world’s darkest material, is unveiled by UK firm". South China Morning Post - World. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014. Jump up ^ "Vantablack: U.K. Firm Shows Off 'World's Darkest Material'". NBCNews.com. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014. Jump up ^ "Artists at war after top sculptor is given exclusive rights to the purest black paint ever which is used on stealth jets". Daily Mail Online. 15 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016. ^ Jump up to: a b Kuittinen, Tero (14 July 2014). "Scientists have developed a black so deep it makes 3D objects look flat". Yahoo! News Canada. Retrieved 19 July 2014. Jump up ^ Theocharous, E.; Deshpande, R.; Dillon, A. C.; Lehman, J. "Evaluation of a pyroelectric detector with a carbon multiwalled nanotube black coating in the infrared". Applied Optics 45 (6): 1093. Bibcode:2006ApOpt..45.1093T. doi:10.1364/AO.45.001093. Jump up ^ Theocharous, S.P.; Theocharous, E.; Lehman, J.H. "The evaluation of the performance of two pyroelectric detectors with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube coatings". Infrared Physics & Technology 55 (4): 299–305. Bibcode:2012InPhT..55..299T. doi:10.1016/j.infrared.2012.03.006. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Howard, Jacqueline (14 July 2014). "This May Be The World's Darkest Material Yet". Huffington Post. Retrieved 19 July 2014. Jump up ^ "Vantablack absorbing so much light that it can fool the eye into seeing a smooth surface on a crumpled sheet of aluminum foil". Jump up ^ "How black can black be?". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014. Jump up ^ Anish Kapoor Angers Artists By Seizing Exclusive Rights To 'Blackest Black' Pigment Jump up ^ Some Artists Are Seeing Red Over A New 'Black' : The Two-Way : NPR Jump up ^ FAQs | Surrey NanoSystems