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Micah Ong

What gives them the right to insert YHWH so that the the scriptures are manipulated to suit the their doctrine?

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JW Insider    858
19 minutes ago, bruceq said:

And this is the very reason now dozens of Biblse now contain "YHWH" in various forms in the New Testament whereas in 1950 when the NWT was made only a couple did.

The Foreward to the 1950 NWT indicates that there were then about 60 Bible versions with a vernacular form of YHWH in the NT.  This included NT-only Bibles, especially "missionary" Bibles. Did you mean only a couple of full Bibles as opposed to partial?

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bruceq    460
3 minutes ago, JW Insider said:

The Foreward to the 1950 NWT indicates that there were then about 60 Bible versions with a vernacular form of YHWH in the NT.  This included NT-only Bibles, especially "missionary" Bibles. Did you mean only a couple of full Bibles as opposed to partial?

Yes I did not mean the ones in other languages full copies. The ones I offer are only in English. Sorry for any confusion.

The couple were like "Emphatic Diaglott" and a few others.

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Eoin Joyce    597
3 hours ago, Micah Ong said:

Well at least show us one!

The wording of your original question wasn't clear to me and it reads as if you are referring to any manuscripts prior to extant NT manuscripts. I deduce (hopefully) from your reply that you must mean any NT manuscripts, to which the alternative answer applies:

8 hours ago, Eoin Joyce said:

If you mean manuscripts of the New Testament earlier than what is extant, then I do not know how this could be possible, and the only answer is: as soon as they are found.

 

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JW Insider    858
4 minutes ago, bruceq said:

Yes I did not mean the ones in other languages. The ones I offer are only in English. Sorry for any confusion.

Yes, I understand. I just saw your link and now I recognize that I have already purchased from you several times. In case that link disappears, I wanted to quote from it. I hope you don't mind. I wanted to have access to comment on what you said:
 

Quote

 

. . . Psalms Dead Sea Scrolls 11Q5.  {See New World Translation Study Edition for more info }.

   Why should the name "JEHOVAH" {YHWH} appear in the New Testament ? 

   One reason is that Copies of the Hebrew Scriptures used in the days of Jesus and his apostles contained the Tetragrammaton throughout the text. In the past, few people disputed that conclusion. Now that copies of the Hebrew Scriptures dating back to the first century have been discovered near Qumran, the point has been proved beyond any doubt. So Jesus and his Apostles would have quoted from these scrolls that contained the Tetragrammaton - JEHOVAH !!! {See 2013 New World Translation Appendix A and B}.

  This Psalms in a Dead Sea Scroll dated to the first half of the first century C.E. the very time of Jesus and his Apostles of the First Century Christian Congregation! The text is in the style of the Hebrew letters commonly used after the Babylonian exile, but the Tetragrammaton appears repeatedly in distinctive ancient Hebrew letters

   Psalms Scroll 11Q5 Reproduction mounted in a clear two-sided frame 6 by 18 inches with hardware for table or wall mounting included. This Psalms scroll contains 11 of the 15 Songs of Ascent (Psalms 120-134). Pilgrims would sing these Psalms while they ascended up to Jerusalem. It was in 1956 that a Bedouin discovered cave 11 with these psalms. These Psalms date to the first half of the 1st century C.E.

 

I was just doing some reading last night and this morning to try to get a better sense of what the DSS actually show us about the use of the Divine Name during the time period(s) represented. So I'll want to get back to this soon.

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bruceq    460

Yes you may quote from my ebay site, also there is now alot more updated info from 2017 that many may not realize since it is not in print but only online in the NWT Study edition on JW.ORG:

Appendix C

 
  1. C1

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  2. C2

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  3. C3

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  4. C4

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AllenSmith    147

Apparently, there is more to be understood here, none of which has been explained by assumptions. Research! Research!

YAHWEH: THE DIVINE NAME IN THE BIBLE 1975

The emphasis on the active existence of YHWH is made strongly by Walther Eichrodt and is representative of modern scholarship.12 Smith comments as follows, "at the moment we are not entitled to say more than that the consensus among Old Testament scholars provides a strong basis for an understanding of the God of biblical faith in historical and dynamic terms, and not in conceptions of timeless and static entities, whether eternity or God's aseity." 1 3 The "theologians of hope" have incorporated similar insights in their interpretation of the divine name. For example, Jürgen Moltmann maintains, "YHWH, as the name of the God who first of all promises his presence and his kingdom and makes them prospects for the future, is a god 'with future as his essential nature,' a God of promise and of leaving the present to face the future, a God whose freedom is the source of new things that are to come." 1 4 Here the imperfect 'ehyeh is understood primarily as a future tense. So also, the Roman Catholic theologian, J. B. Metz, abandons the traditional Thomist metaphysic of being and makes this comment on the meaning of Exod.3:14, "According to this version God revealed himself to Moses more as the power of the future than as a being dwelling beyond all history and experience. . . . His transcendence reveals itself as our 'absolute future.' 1 5

The Old Testament witness to YHWH brings with it a change in the meaning of other terms for deity which are used in place of the Tetragrammaton. Charles West observes, "The other concepts for deity in the Old Testament, Elohim and Adonai, the former of which was rooted in pagan polytheism and the latter in everyday social experience of power and authority, were used and redesigned, emptied of their previous significance, and made to demonstrate the absolute subordination of human and divine powers to this one lord." 1 6 The eventual substitution of dônây for YHWH within Judaism as a mark of veneration for the divine name which could no longer be uttered with propriety, had far reaching consequences. Among Jews of the Diaspora, kyrios was the Greek equivalent for the Tetragrammaton in the LXX version of the Hebrew scriptures, reflecting the fact that ' adönäy was understood as a substitute for the Tetragrammaton. Inevitably the emphasis had shifted to the concept of sovereignty, lordship.

The use of mdonây in the Hebrew Bible and kyrios in the LXX has very wide ramifications for New Testament scholarship, especially in relation to Christological formulation. The content of the term kyrios in the declaration of I Cor.12:3, "Jesus is Lord [kyrios]," requires to be determined, in order to arrive at an adequate understanding of a most important aspect of the person of Christ. Gustaf Daim an summarized the historical situation in this way: "The significant transition from the divine name *Jahve' to the divine name 'Lord' did not take place in the region of Hebraic Judaism. It is rather a peculiarity of Jewish Hellenism, and from that source found its way into the language of the Church, even of the Semitic-speaking part of it." 1 7 This, indeed, is the thesis of William Bousset in his monumental study, Kyrios Christos.18 He claims that "the title kyrios spans an area in the history of religions which can still be fairly precisely delimited. It penetrated Hellenistic-Roman religion from the East; Syria and
Egypt are its actual home territories."19 Although
kyrios was used in the ordinary secular sense of "master" or "owner," the use of the specific religious sense can be fully documented from the Hermetic literature and the writings of the Gnostic sects.20 "It was in this atmosphere," Bousset writes, "that Antiochene Christianity and that of the other primitive Christian Hellenistic communities came into being and had their growth."

 

In Bousset's view, the Gentile Christian Church at Antioch, recognizing Jesus as a cult-hero, and coming under Hellenistic influences, began to apply the title Kyrios to him. This was the situation within the church to which Paul was introduced. The Pauline epistles give abundant evidence that the designation kyrios was the title which now became normative for Jesus, since Christos had now become virtually a proper name. The affirmation of faith, "Jesus is kyrios" (I Cor. 12:3), perhaps originally an ecstatic cry of prophetic rapture, became a baptismal confession (1 Cor. 6:11; Acts 19:5) [pp.99-101]

 

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JW Insider    858
1 hour ago, bruceq said:

Yes you may quote from my ebay site, also there is now alot more updated info from 2017 that many may not realize since it is not in print but only online in the NWT Study edition on JW.ORG:

Thanks for pointing this out and making the links easy to get to. It's also up to date on the 2016 Watchtower Library, [v.18 with regular online updates through 2017].

The resources provided by the Watch Tower Society are excellent, of course, but they are not always clear about which statements are assumptions (and therefore subject to change) and which statements are 'statements of fact.' Sometimes even the word 'proven' is used, when it's only a strongly held assumption or belief.

I'm working through it now to see which are which:

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
When Jesus and his apostles were on earth, the divine name, or Tetragrammaton, appeared in the Hebrew manuscripts of the “Old Testament.” (See

    Hello guest!
and
    Hello guest!
.)

Undoubtedly, the divine name or Tetragrammaton appeared in the Hebrew mss of the OT. Perhaps not in all of them, but apparently in the vast majority. I'm trying to do a quick, last-minute study to get a sense of what the evidence shows about Hebrew mss of the OT in this time period that did NOT contain the Divine Name. [POINT A, for further research] To get a sense of the evidence for this, I'm also trying to look into the overall time period when the Divine Name began to fall out of general use among Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek-speaking Jews. [POINT B, for further research]

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
The divine name also appeared in the
Septuagint, the Greek translation of the “Old Testament” that was widely used in the first century C.E. At that time, the divine name was represented in the Septuagint by either the Hebrew characters (YHWH) or the Greek transliteration of those characters (IAO).

This first sentence is also undoubtedly true. Almost every quote of the OT in the NT follows the Septuagint [LXX] instead of the Hebrew text that the NWT (and almost everyone else) uses for the OT, wherever the LXX and Hebrew are known to differ.

The second sentence is true, too, but I don't think we are really saying definitively that, in the first century, the divine name was always represented either by YHWH or IAO in the LXX. We know of various other divine name abbreviations, and it might still be true that some LXX texts, even in the first century C.E., may have already contained replacements for the divine name. [POINT C, for further research]

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
Some portions of manuscripts of the
Septuagint from the first century C.E. and earlier still exist today, and they prove this fact. So when the inspired writers of the “New Testament” quoted from the “Old Testament,” they must have seen the Tetragrammaton, whether they were quoting directly from the Hebrew text of the “Old Testament” or the Greek translation of that text, the Septuagint.

The first sentence is correct again, and what they "prove" is that at least some of the LXX copies (which we currently date to the first century C.E. and earlier) have YHWH (or a form of this) or IAO, which we consider to be a transliteration of IAO.

The second sentence states that the inspired writers of the NT when quoting from the OT, must have seen the Tetragrammaton in one of these two forms, at least. This may very well be true, although I'm not sure it was always necessarily true based on "POINT C," which I still need to research further.

Also, of course, it may very well be true that they saw the Tetragrammaton and purposely, even through inspiration, chose NOT to copy it. This doesn't necessarily mean that Jesus didn't utter the divine name. It's even possible that they knew that Jesus had uttered the divine name when quoting from Isaiah or Psalms for example, and yet the inspired Bible writers produced their initial manuscripts with "kyrios" or "theos" for example. This latter point is not something I expect to research further, or draw a conclusion from, it's only that I don't wish to jump to any conclusions not actually evident from the facts.

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
Today, however, no manuscripts of the “New Testament” from the first century C.E. are available for us to examine. So no one can check the original Greek manuscripts of the “New Testament” to see whether the Bible writers used the Tetragrammaton. The Greek manuscripts of the “New Testament” that would have a bearing on this issue are copies that were made from about 200 C.E. onward. The more complete manuscripts are from the fourth century C.E., long after the originals were composed.

Nothing to research further here. These are all statements of proven fact. (Until and unless further evidence or manuscript discoveries are disclosed.) Further disclosed discoveries or evidence would not necessarily help the side of the argument that we are expecting it to help, however.

*** nwtsty C1 The Restoration of the Divine Name in the “New Testament” ***
However, sometime during the second or early third century C.E., a practice had developed where those copying the manuscripts either replaced the Tetragrammaton with a title such as Lord or God or copied from manuscripts where this had already been done.
 

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We might already have enough evidence to test this particular claim. [POINT D, for further research]

I believe it already shows that the NWT translators have backed off the stronger claim made earlier in 1984 (and quoted by Micah Ong, above):

*** Rbi8 p. 1564 1D The Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures [1984] ***
Sometime during the second or third century C.E. the scribes removed the Tetragrammaton from both the Septuagint and the Christian Greek Scriptures and replaced it with Kyʹri·os, “Lord” or The·osʹ, “God.”

Also the footnote  

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in the new C1 Appendix, opens up the possibilities much more widely, and removes the need to have mentioned the second or third century scribes in the first place. After all, these scribes, it is admitted, might just be copying from manuscripts where the Tetragrammaton had already been replaced with "Lord" or "God." In the worst case, this comes very close to admitting that it might have already been done up to and (technically) even including the initial manuscript, where an inspired NT writer might have already removed the Tetragrammaton reference from an LXX quotation, for example. That's obviously not the intent of the NWT Appendix writer to state this, but especially with the footnote material in view, it shows just how little is left of the original claim.

The last point for further research, therefore, might not include the claim from the 1984 NWT about second and third century scribes removing the Tetragrammaton from the LXX. The real important question is just the NT manuscripts here. It was always an odd claim anyway that both Jewish and Christian scribes would have agreed at some point as late as the third century to remove the name from both the NT mss and the LXX mss, as if all the dozens of manuscript copies were under some central control. Recensions of various types would still exist, because there is no way they could have got them all. And if we find evidence of this being done before the second and third centuries, the entire argument loses its meaning.

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bruceq    460

Insider have you ever read the research of 

 
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    Hello guest!
, 
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, Department ...
 
He has very interesting research that is not in print but is on the Tetragrammaton including in the New Testament?

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JW Insider    858
9 minutes ago, bruceq said:

Insider have you ever read the research of 

 
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Not before you mentioned him. I just downloaded his 34-page pdf:

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From what I can see, he quotes from a lot of sources that I have, including a couple resources I just read through last night, so it should be an interesting read.

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bruceq    460

Yes that one is good and also his research into "IAO" as the Greek version of "Jehovah"  and what he says about how it may have appeared in original NT authographs.

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It is similar to George Howards ideas of the Tetragram in the NT  except this guy goes into much more research into the subject

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AllenSmith    147

Teetering with OLD NEWS. Why ignorance is just catching up to what the Watchtower and secular scholars have already fully researched. Yet there is an ex-bethelite here, still dismissing the Watchtower Research as unreliable. Hypocrisy at its best!

 

YAHWEH: THE DIVINE NAME IN THE BIBLE 1975

THE TETRAGRAMMATON WITHIN JUDAISM

The precise pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton is by no means easily recovered, although the view most widely accepted today is that the divine name was pronounced Yahweh. The literature on the subject is very extensive.1 In the sixteenth century. Genebrardus suggested the pronunciation, Jahvey2 largely on the strength of Theodoret's assertion that the Samaritans used the pronunciation 'labe, subsequent to the time when pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton was forbidden to the Jews.3 The question as to the date when pronunciation of the divine name was no longer permitted finds no certain answer. In only comparatively recent times has the pronunciation Yahweh been widely acknowledged. Even though Gesenius gave the pronunciation as Yahweh in his lexicon of 1815, scholars continued to employ the customary Jehovah, out of deference to tradition, until Ewald began to use Jahveh (= Yahweh) regularly in his writings. Of the various alternative forms that have been proposed, the most probable is Yahoox Yâhiï. A. Lukyn Williams4 has argued for such a pronunciation on the basis of theophorous names in the Old Testament ending in YHW, the Elephantine evidence, the attestation of Diodorus Siculus to a form ,lao,5 various passages drawn from patristic sources, and charms and amulets which use the form 7ao. Sachau, Grimme, and Leander had earlier made similar claims. W. F. Albright acknowledges the arguments for such a pronunciation, when he refers to "Yahû, which appears beside Yahwéh, especially in the Elephantine Papyri, the jar-stamps from the same period found in Jcricho, and as the final clement in proper names/' 6 However, Albright offers the explanation that. Yahu is a jussive form derived from the verbal form Yahweh, and that the forms could be interchanged.


Although Yahweh seems to be a probable pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, since Yahi1 does not really account for the final he, there cannot be complete certainty about it. Once pronunciation of the name was proscribed, the correct way of pronouncing it eventually was lost. We can only surmise that Yahweh is the correct pronunciation. Murtonen states, "The pronunciation of the tetragram was forgotten because of 1) the threat that Yhwh 'will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain,' and 2) the unnaturalness of the circumstance that a god who was regarded as the only god in the whole universe had a proper name.

B. D. Eerdmans claims that "the full Tetragrammaton is an onomatopoeia,"9 imitating the sound of thunder. From Isa.30:27, "Behold, the name of the Lord comes from far, burning with his anger, and in rising smoke," he deduces that the divine name is an onomatopoeia of the thunder. He finds confirmation in such passages as Ps.29:3 and Exod.33:19. However, this view seems to be based on a very literal understanding of the texts cited. That the sound of thunder should evoke awe on the part of those who recognized in it the majesty of YHWH seems reasonable, but that the name YHWH itself should be an onomatopoeia of the thunder is questionable. In the case of Psalm 29^ the word qôl, "voice," if drawn out, sounds much more like thunder reverberating. Before we examine the traditions regarding the Tetragrammaton which are found in the Mishnah, some attention should be given to the forms of the divine name in the papyri from Elephantine and in the Dead Sea Scrolls A Jewish settlement at Elephantine existed prior to the Persian conquest, but took on the special task of acting as a military colony safeguarding the
interests of the Persians at the southern border of Egypt.10 The original reason for the settlement is not known, although it may well be that in the seventh century Manassch sent mercenary troops to Egypt in exchange for horses (cf. Deut.17:16).11 The Aramaic archives from the colony on the island of Elephantine date from 495 B.C., down to the end of the fifth century.12 From these archives, especially from the letters to Bagoas, governor of Judaea in the late fifth century, we learn that a Jewish Temple was erected earlier than the Persian conquest of 525 B.C., and that it was destroyed in 410 B.C. The Temple was dedicated to the god
YHW. Oriented towards Jerusalem, its dimensions resembled those of the Jerusalem Temple. BezaleL Porten states, "Details about the Temple derive from the papyrus recording its destruction and asking assistance for its reconstruction (C30/31). It was built prior to the Persian conquest of 525 B.C.E. and contained stone pillars, five gateways of carved stone with bronze hinges, a 4cedarwood' roof and woodwork (? 'srnc) (C30:9ff./31 :Sff.).

 

A problem of interpretation is raised by the mention in the papyri of other deities. A. E. Cowley remarks, "It would seem that besides Ya'u they recognized cAnath, Bethel, Ishum and Herem. There may have been others, but it is at least a coincidence that we have the names of five gods and that there were five gates to the temple (30:9)." 2 9 If these are separate deities, what is their relationship to one another? Were syncretizing tendencies at work? Cowley concludes, "It was not a case of falling away from a monotheistic ideal, but a continuation of the pre-exilic popular beliefs."30 According to W. F. Albright, "the three divine names Eshem-bêth'elt Herem-bêth'el, cAnath-bêth ,el (= c Anath-Yahu), meaning respectively 'Name of the House of God' (= God), 4Sacredness of the House of God,' and 4Sign(?) of the House of God' would reflect pure hypostatizations of deity, probably influenced by contemporary Canaanite-Aramaean the־ ological speculation, in which Beth'el frequently appears as the name of a god (from the seventh to the fourth century B.C.)."31 Porten, on the other hand, finds the evidence for hypostatization "not sufficiently decisive"32 and looks rather to pagan influences resulting from intermarriage as the occasion for the introduction of these names of foreign deities.33 The process of syncretism can be seen in the compound name of the deity, Anathyahu. Porten makes the observation, "YHW was still God, but Anath was added assurance, Anathyahu was that aspect of YHW which assured man's well-being. Although the Arameans had a shrine to the Queen of Heaven, the name Anath appears only twice among the many personal names from Elephantine and Syrenc (C22:108; BK 4:3). If the goddess' cultic importance may be judged from her onomastic absence, it would seem that she did not play a major role in the communal religious life of the Jews.

The Qumran scrolls contain some items of interest in relation to the use of the divine name. In describing the biblical manuscripts found in Cave 4, Patrick Skehan draws attention to a number of unusual features.35 For example,4QIsc "contains such names as Yhwh, Yhwh sb'wt, ,iwhynw, and the like in paleoheb rew script. This is almost unique among square-letter manuscripts in Qumran 4." 3 6 Nevertheless, the Fouad papyrus No. 266 of Deuteronomy in Greek, consisting of Deut. 31:28-32:7, appears to be the oldest witness to a differentiation in script for the Tetragrammaton, which is written in Aramaic characters.37 A Greek papyrus MS of Leviticus (4QLXX Lev.b), in a hand similar to that of the Fouad papyrus of Deuteronomy (first century B.C.), employs 7AO instead of Kyrios, which nowhere occurs in the document. 3 8 David Diringer mentions the fact that both the Tetragrammaton and the name ‘el (= God) are written in early Hebrew characters in certain of the Qumran MSS which are otherwise written in square-letter Hebrew script.39 Some Greek codices of the Christian era contained the Tetragrammaton in early Hebrew script; e.g., P. Oxy. vii 1007, a third century papyrus fragment of Genesis, abbreviates as probably to represent a doubled yodh \ in Origen's Ilexapla (third century), Ihe Greek versi on s of Aquila and Symmachus represented the divine name by pi, iota, pi, iota, capitalized,40 obviously intended to approximate to the Hebrew charactcrsfor the Tetragrammaton in the LXX, almost always abbreviated to ks as in the case of the Chester Beatty papyrus of Numbers and Deuteronomy. This evidence suggests that *doriäy may have been read as a substitute for the divine name as early as the time that the Hebrew Bible was being translated into Greek, i.e., from the third century B.C. onward.

Among the Qumran manuscripts, The Manual of Discipline is unique in attesting a five-letter name for God, hw'h* (1QS VIII.13). In an allusion to Isa.40:3, the phrase V drk hw'h יcorresponds to drk YHWH of the MT, which is represented by drk followed by four dots where the Tetragrammaton occurs. The passage in context reads, "And when these become members of the Community in Israel according to all these rules, they shall separate from the habitation of ungodly men and shall go into the wilderness to prepare the way of Him (ihw'h *)׳f as it is written 'Prepare in the wilderness the way of . . . ,' יmake straight in the desert a path for our God' (Isa. xl.3)." 4 2 In S. Mowinckel's opinion, "As the scribe does not write drkw his hw'h ' certainly means something more than an ordinary suff. 3rd. pers. masc.; it is meant to be a real compensation for the divine name." 4 3 This he takes as evidence that the pronoun "He" (hü) was used as a name or surrogate for God, a view shared by such scholars as del Medico, S. Zeitlin and G. Lambert. The final aleph is an obstacle to this interpretation, however, although the fact that the pronoun hwft appears in 1QS III: 17, 25; 4:25, strengthens the supposition. W. H. Brownlee surmises that hw'h ' is a periphrasis for God which originated as an abbreviation of the combined form hû7h ׳Ihyrn .[pp.79-83]

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Micah Ong    28

So still no one has shown any evidence of YHWH in the earliest copies of the "New Testament."

11 hours ago, bruceq said:

Appendix C

 
  1. C1

      Hello guest!

I only see manuscripts from Exodus, Deuteronomy, Job, Isaiah and other Hebrew Scriptures.

Justin Martyr converted to Christianity around 150 A.D., a mere 50 years after the Bible was completed. He had access to early copies of the New Testament yet in The Second Apology, Chapter VI he wrote;

"But to the Father of all, who is unbegotten, there is no name given. For by whatever name He be called, He has as His elder the person who gives Him the name. But these words, Father, and God, and Creator, and Lord, and Master, are not names, but appellations derived from His good deeds and functions."

Justin Martyr shows that Christians referred to the Father by appellations, but not a name such as Jehovah.

That the Holy Name was not being uttered in Jesus day is attested to by first century historian Josephus:

"Whereupon God declared to him [Moses] his holy Name, which had never been discovered to men before; concerning which it is not lawful for me to say anymore. " (Josephus; Antiquities 2:12:4)

As we do not have the actual original copies that the Bible writers penned it is always possible to say that YHWH may have appeared in the original copy. However the weight of evidence shows that YHWH was not in the original copies. If the Watchtower claims God allowed men to edit out his name "YHWH" and that no proof has been found to its existence to this day, how can a person have confidence in any of the New Testament?

 

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Micah Ong    28
12 hours ago, bruceq said:

And this is the very reason now dozens of complete Bibles now contain "YHWH" in various forms in the New Testament whereas in 1950 when the NWT was made only a couple did. It is because of the evidence over the years from the original LXX that so many has as can be seen from the over 100 Translations I offer on ebay that contain the Divine Name in the New Testament.

The New Testament is one of the most attested ancient documents. The reason a person places trust in it is their conviction that God ensured the Bible has come down to us accurately. If use of the name Jehovah is so important one must wonder why the word never appears in any existing New Testament documents. If God inspired and protected the Bible, keeping the Bible accurate throughout all history why does his name not appear in the oldest Greek manuscripts or in the very first Bible, the 5th century Latin Vulgate?

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Micah Ong    28
12 hours ago, Eoin Joyce said:

If you mean manuscripts of the New Testament earlier than what is extant, then I do not know how this could be possible, and the only answer is: as soon as they are found.

So until then you are only assuming YHWH is in the NT.

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Micah Ong    28

All in all I don't think it matters because Jesus is not concerned with theology only love.  After all it was the theologians who killed Jesus(let's not be pedantic, we know he gave up his life but it was an act of execution on their part), who new God's name(YHWH). 

On one occasion an expert in the law stood up to test Jesus. 

"'Teacher," he asked, 'What must I do to inherit eternal life?' 

"'What is written in the law?' he replied. 'How do you read it?' 

"He answered: 'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and, love your neighbor as yourself." 

"You have answered correctly," Jesus replied, "Do this and you will live." (Luke 10:25-28)

I'm not saying Theology or Theologians are bad as long as it's helping you are grow in love the way Jesus taught.  Being dogmatic seems to go against love from what I have experienced.  But there is nothing wrong with learning and being open minded as long as you don't miss the point of what Jesus said.

 

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Micah Ong    28
1 hour ago, Eoin Joyce said:

Not quite. I am assuming religionists took it out.

That is still assuming though isn't it?  Anyway I have finished ping ponging around because no evidence is shown and this is pointless debating rather than focusing on what Jesus said was important.  As I said, the Pharisees knew God's name but he wasn't concerned with that, he was concerned with the condition of the heart and providing hope. 

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bruceq    460
8 hours ago, Micah Ong said:

All in all I don't think it matters because Jesus is not concerned with theology only love.  After all it was the theologians who killed Jesus(let's not be pedantic, we know he gave up his life but it was an act of execution on their part), who new God's name(YHWH). 

On one occasion an expert in the law stood up to test Jesus. 

"'Teacher," he asked, 'What must I do to inherit eternal life?' 

"'What is written in the law?' he replied. 'How do you read it?' 

"He answered: 'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and, love your neighbor as yourself." 

"You have answered correctly," Jesus replied, "Do this and you will live." (Luke 10:25-28)

I'm not saying Theology or Theologians are bad as long as it's helping you are grow in love the way Jesus taught.  Being dogmatic seems to go against love from what I have experienced.  But there is nothing wrong with learning and being open minded as long as you don't miss the point of what Jesus said.

 

   You seem to understand the truth that YHWH was in the Hebrew Scriptures. But you have not provided any original autographs of the NT to prove your point that YHWH was not in the NT. Of course we also cannot prove our point "by those means" since no one has the original mss. So this discussion is pointless as you say.

   However it occurs to me that we should believe what Jesus taught as you say. And what did he use to teach God's Word? Did he use the NEW TESTAMENT? No. It was not even written yet. Jesus read from and taught from the HEBREW SCRIPTURES which I am under the impression that you agree and as everyone knows that YHWH was in the Hebrew Scriptures which is the ONLY Bible Jesus had. JESUS used such as the Isaiah scroll he first picked up which contained the Divine Name. 

  As for the Bibles message being changed I agree that the message has not but "WORDS" have been such as at 1 John 5:7 which was in the Latin Vulgates Catholic Douay version of 1610 but later versions of Catholic Bibles removed the spurious addition found there. So even the Bible says that this would happen as John said even when he wrote in 98 C.E. {long before 150 C.E.}  that already there were some who were once true Christians who left and started teaching false religious things and of course John also said at Revelation 22:18 some of the very last words in the Bible :"" If anyone makes an addition to these things,  God will add to him the plagues that are written in this scroll;  

    Hello guest!
 and if anyone takes anything away from the words of the scroll of this prophecy, God will take his portion away from the trees of life  and out of the holy city,  things that are written about in this scroll".

   Notice it did not say no one would ever attempt to remove or add to the Bible but that they would have accountability if they did. And notice it said "WORDS of the scroll" not message of the Bible which God has kept intact.

   As for your other point on Love I agree that Love would identify God's People not debates about words in the Bible which by the way YOU started B|. John 13:35.

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      The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) is a translation of the Bible published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society in 1961; it is used and distributed by Jehovah's Witnesses.[4] Though it is not the first Bible to be published by the group, it is their first original translation of ancient Classical Hebrew, Koine Greek, and Old Aramaic biblical texts. As of November 2015, the Watch Tower Society has published 208 million copies of the New World Translation in whole or in part in more than 130 languages.

      History 
      Until the release of the NWT,  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  in English-speaking countries primarily used the King James Version.[8][9] According to the publishers, one of the main reasons for producing a new translation was that most Bible versions in common use, including the Authorized Version (King James), employed archaic language. The stated intention was to produce a fresh translation, free of archaisms.[10] Additionally, over the centuries since the King James Version was produced, more copies of earlier manuscripts of the original texts in the Hebrew and Greek languages have become available. The publishers claimed better manuscript evidence had made it possible to determine with greater accuracy what the original writers intended, particularly in more obscure passages. They said linguists better understood certain aspects of the original Hebrew and Greek languages than previously.[11]
       
      In October 1946, the president of the Watch Tower Society, Nathan H. Knorr, proposed a fresh translation of the New Testament, which  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  usually refer to as the Christian Greek Scriptures.[12] Work began on December 2, 1947 when the "New World Bible Translation Committee" was formed, composed of Jehovah's Witnesses who claimed to be of the anointed.[13][14] The Watch Tower Society is said to have "become aware" of the committee's existence a year later. The committee agreed to turn over its translation to the Society for publication[15] and on September 3, 1949, Knorr convened a joint meeting of the board of directors of both the Watch Tower Society's New York and Pennsylvania corporations where he again announced to the directors the existence of the committee[16] and that it was now able to print its new modern English translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures. Several chapters of the translation were read to the directors, who then voted to accept it as a gift.[15] 
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      In 1961 the Watch Tower Society began to translate the New World Translation into Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish; the New Testament in these languages were released simultaneously on July 1963 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. By 1989 the New World Translation was translated into eleven languages, with more than 56,000,000 copies printed.[19]
      Translators 
      The New World Translation was produced by the New World Bible Translation Committee, formed in 1947. This committee is said to have comprised unnamed members of multinational background.[20] The committee requested that the Watch Tower Society not publish the names of its members,[21][22] stating that they did not want to "advertise themselves but let all the glory go to the Author of the Scriptures, God,"[23] adding that the translation, "should direct the reader... to... Jehovah God".[24] The publishers believe that "the particulars of [the New World Bible Translation Committee's members] university or other educational training are not the important thing" and that "the translation testifies to their qualification".[25] Former high ranking Watch Tower staff have claimed knowledge of the translators' identities.[26] Walter Martin identified Nathan H. Knorr, Fredrick W. Franz, Albert D. Schroeder, George Gangas, and Milton Henschel as members of the translation team, writing of them, "The New World Bible translation committee had no known translators with recognized degrees in Greek or Hebrew exegesis or translation... None of these men had any university education except Franz, who left school after two years, never completing an undergraduate degree." Franz had stated that he was familiar with not only Hebrew, but with Greek, Latin, Spanish, Portuguese, German, and French for the purpose of biblical translation.[27] 

      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
      "Interestingly enough these critics focus their attack on the translators instead of the finished work. For example, one might talk about Michelangelo's lack of a recognized degree in the arts instead of focusing on his masterful work." - The Librarian (Let me also add another point that it was mostly done by Frederick W. Franz who knew Biblical Greek. Brother Schroeder make some punctual additions as well as brother Gangas who knew modern Greek from his boyhood. 99% of the translation was done by F.W. Franz however.) 
      Translation Services Department
      In 1989 a Translation Services Department was established at the world headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses, overseen by the Writing Committee of the Governing Body. The goal of the Translation Services Department was to accelerate Bible translation with the aid of computer technology. Previously, some Bible translation projects lasted twenty years or more. Under the direction of the Translation Services Department, translation of the Old Testament in a particular language may be completed in as little as two years. During the period from 1963 to 1989, the New World Translation became available in ten additional languages. Since the formation of the Translation Services Department in 1989, there has been a significant increase in the number of languages in which the New World Translation has been made available.[28][29]

      - From the 2014 God's Kingdom Rules! book by WTBTS

      New World translation of the Holy Scriptures (2013 edition).
      2013 revision 
      See also: The Printing of the Silver Sword
      At the Watch Tower Society's Annual Meeting on October 5, 2013, a significantly revised translation was released. Many outdated terms were replaced with modern English. Passages from the New Testament not found in the earliest available manuscripts and considered to be of doubtful authenticity—part of chapter 8 of the Gospel of John and the alternative conclusions to the Gospel of Mark—were removed. An app for the new revision was also released.[30]

      According to the Watch Tower Society, the New World Translation attempts to convey the intended sense of original-language words according to the context. The New World Translation employs nearly 16,000 English expressions to translate about 5,500 biblical Greek terms, and over 27,000 English expressions to translate about 8,500 Hebrew terms. The translators state that, where possible in the target language, the New World Translation prefers literal renderings and does not paraphrase the original text.[31]
       
      Textual basis 
      The master text used for translating the Old Testament into English was Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. The Hebrew texts, Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and Biblia Hebraica Quinta, were used for preparing the latest version of this translation. Other works consulted in preparing the translation include Aramaic Targums, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Samaritan Torah, the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, the Masoretic Text, the Cairo Codex, the Aleppo Codex, Christian David Ginsburg's Hebrew Text, and the Leningrad Codex.[32][33]

      Diagrammatic representation of textual basis -  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  -  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.

      The Greek master text by the Cambridge University scholars B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort (1881) was used as the basis for translating the New Testament into English. The committee also referred to the Novum Testamentum Graece (18th edition, 1948) and to works by Catholic Jesuit scholars José M. Bover (1943) and Augustinus Merk (1948). The United Bible Societies' text (1975) and the Nestle-Aland text (1979) were used to update the footnotes in the 1984 version. Additional works consulted in preparing the New World Translation include the Armenian Version, Coptic Versions, the Latin Vulgate, Sixtine and Clementine Revised Latin Texts, Textus Receptus, the Johann Jakob Griesbach's Greek text, the Emphatic Diaglott, and various papyri.[32] 
       
      Other languages 
      Translation into other languages is based on the English text, supplemented by comparison with the Hebrew and Greek.[34] As of late 2013, the complete New World Translation has been published in 63 languages or scripts, with the New Testament available in an additional 58 languages.[5][6]
      Translators are given a list of words and expressions commonly used in the English New World Translation with related English words grouped together (e.g. atone, atonement or propitiation); these are intended to alert the translators to various shades of meaning. A list of vernacular equivalents is then composed. If a translator has difficulty rendering a verse, the computer research system can provide information on Greek and Hebrew terms and provides access to supplemental publications. Using a search-and-replace tool, vernacular terms in the target language are then automatically inserted into the Bible text. Further editing and translation is then performed to produce a final version.[28]
      The complete New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures is available in 63 languages as of late 2013: Afrikaans, Albanian,Arabic, Armenian, Bulgarian, Cebuano, Chichewa, Chinese (Simplified, Traditional or Pinyin), Cibemba, Croatian, Czech, Danish,Dutch, Efik, English (also Braille), Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hungarian, Igbo, Iloko, Indonesian, Italian,Japanese, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz, Kirundi, Korean, Lingala, Macedonian, Malagasy, Maltese, Norwegian, Ossetian, Polish, Portuguese (also Braille), Romanian,Russian, Samoan, Sepedi, Serbian (Cyrillic and Latin scripts), Sesotho, Shona, Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish (also Braille), Sranantongo, Swahili, Swedish,Tagalog, Tsonga, Tswana, Turkish, Twi (Akuapem and Asante), Xhosa, Yoruba, and Zulu.
      The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures is available in an additional 52 languages as of February 2014: Amharic, Azerbaijani (Cyrillic and Latin scripts), Cambodian, Chitonga, Chitumbuka, Estonian, Ewe, Fijian, Gun, Guarani, Haitian Creole, Hebrew, Hiligaynon, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Italian Braille, Kannada,Kazakh, Kikaonde, Kiluba, Kiribati (Gilbertese), Kongo, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luganda, Luvale, Malayalam, Maya, Myanmar, Nepali, Otetela, Pangasinan, Papiamento (Curaçao), Punjabi, Sango, Silozi, Solomon Islands Pidgin, Swati, Tamil, Tatar, Tetum, Thai, Tigrinya, Tok Pisin, Tongan, Tshiluba, Tuvaluan, Ukrainian, Uzbek,Venda, Vietnamese, Waray-Waray.
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      When the Writing Committee approves the translation of the Bible into a new language, it appoints a group of baptized Jehovah's Witnesses to serve as a translation team. Team members generally have experience in translating the Watch Tower Society's publications, and receive additional training in the principles of Bible translation and in the use of computer programs developed specifically for the task. These systems do not perform actual translation, but assist the translators by keeping track of their translation decisions.
       
      Features
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      Use of Jehovah
      Main article: Jehovah

      The name Jehovah is a translation of the Tetragrammaton (Hebrew: יהוה‎, transliterated as YHWH), although the original pronunciation is unknown. The New World Translation uses the name Jehovah 6,979 times in the Old Testament.[36] The Watch Tower Society notes that the Tetragrammaton appears in "the oldest fragments of the Greek Septuagint".[37] In reference to the Septuagint, biblical scholar Paul E. Kahle stated, "We now know that the Greek Bible text as far as it was written by Jews for Jews did not translate the Divine name by Kyrios, but the Tetragrammaton written with Hebrew or Greek letters was retained in such MSS (manuscripts). It was the Christians who replaced the Tetragrammaton by Kyrios, when the divine name written in Hebrew letters was not understood any more."[38]
      The New World Translation also uses the name Jehovah 237 times in the New Testament where the extant texts use only the Greek words kurios (Lord) and theos(God).[39] Walter Martin, an evangelical scholar, wrote, "It can be shown from literally thousands of copies of the Greek New Testament that not once does the tetragrammaton appear."[40] However, the translators of the New World Translation believed that the name Jehovah was present in the original manuscripts of the New Testament when quoting from the Old Testament, but replaced with the other terms by later copyists. Based on this reasoning, the translators "restored the divine name", though it is not present in any extant manuscripts.[41][42]
      The use of Jehovah in the New Testament is not unique to the NWT; translations with similar renderings include A Literal Translation of the New Testament ... From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript (Heinfetter, 1863);  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  (Wilson, 1864); The Epistles of Paul in Modern English (Stevens, 1898); St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans (Rutherford, 1900); The Christian’s Bible — New Testament (LeFevre, 1928) and The New Testament Letters (Wand, Bishop of London, 1946). 
       
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      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
      The New World Bible Translation Committee included the English text from the NWT in its 1969 and 1985 editions of the  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. . It also incorporates the Greek text published by Westcott and Hort in The New Testament in the Original Greek and a literal word-for-word translation.[46][47]
      Non-print editions
      In 1978, the Watch Tower Society began producing recordings of the NWT on audio cassette,[48] with the New Testament released by 1981[49] and the Old Testament in three albums released by 1990.[50] In 2004, the NWT was released on compact disc in MP3 format in major languages.[51] Since 2008, audio downloads of the NWT have been made available in 18 languages in MP3 and AAC formats, including support for Podcasts. 

      A diskette edition of the NWT released in 1993
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      Critical review
      Overall review 
      In its review of Bible translations released from 1955 to 1985, The Harper Collins Bible Dictionary listed the New World Translation as one of the major modern translations.[61]
      The New Catholic Encyclopedia says of the NWT reference edition: "[Jehovah's Witnesses'] translation of the Bible [has] an impressive critical apparatus. The work is excellent except when scientific knowledge comes into conflict with the accepted doctrines of the movement." It criticizes the NWT's rendering of Kyrios as "Jehovah" in 237 instances in the New Testament.[62]
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      Samuel Haas, in his 1955 review of the 1953 first volume of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, in the Journal of Biblical Literature, stated that although "this work indicates a great deal of effort and thought as well as considerable scholarship, it is to be regretted that religious bias was allowed to colour many passages."[63]
      Professor Benjamin Kedar, a Professor of History and Director of the Institute for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, said in 1989: "In my linguistic research in connection with the Hebrew Bible and translations, I often refer to the English edition of what is known as the New World Translation. In so doing, I find my feeling repeatedly confirmed that this work [the NWT Old Testament] reflects an honest endeavor to achieve an understanding of the text that is as accurate as possible."[64]
      Regarding the NWT's use of English in the 1953 first volume of the NWT (Genesis to Ruth), Dr. Harold H. Rowley (1890–1969) was critical of what he called "wooden literalism" and "harsh construction." He characterized these as "an insult to the Word of God", citing various verses of Genesis as examples. Rowley concluded, "From beginning to end this [first] volume is a shining example of how the Bible should not be translated."[65] Rowley's published review is dated January 1953, six months before the volume was actually released;[66][67] Rowley did not update his review following the July 1953 release or the 1961 revision, and he died before the release of the 1970 and later revisions.[68]
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      Dr. William Barclay, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, concluded that "the deliberate distortion of truth by this sect is seen in the New Testament translation. ... It is abundantly clear that a sect which can translate the New Testament like that is intellectually dishonest."[72]
      Edgar J. Goodspeed, translator of the New Testament in An American Translation, wrote in a letter to the Watch Tower Society: "I am interested in the mission work of your people, and its world wide scope, and much pleased with the free, frank and vigorous translation. It exhibits a vast array of sound serious learning, as I can testify."[73]
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      Unitarian theologian Charles Francis Potter stated about the NWT: "Apart from a few semantic peculiarities like translating the Greek word stauros, as "stake" instead of "cross", and the often startling use of the colloquial and the vernacular, the anonymous translators have certainly rendered the best manuscript texts, both Greek and Hebrew, with scholarly ability and acumen."[76]
      Religion writer and editor Alexander Thomson said of the NWT: "The translation is evidently the work of skilled and clever scholars, who have sought to bring out as much of the true sense of the Greek text as the English language is capable of expressing. ... We heartily recommend the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, published in 1950 by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society."[77]
      Thomas Winter, an instructor of Greek at the University of Nebraska and former president of the Unitarian Church of Lincoln, considered the  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  to be a "highly useful aid toward the mastery of koine (and classical) Greek," adding that the translation "is thoroughly up-to-date and consistently accurate."[78]
      The Andover Newton Quarterly reported, "The translation of the New Testament is evidence of the presence in the movement of scholars qualified to deal intelligently with the many problems of Biblical translation. One could question why the translators have not stayed closer to the original meaning, as do most translators ... In not a few instances the New World Translation contains passages which must be considered as 'theological translations.' This fact is particularly evident in those passages which express or imply the deity of Jesus Christ."[79]
       
      References
      Jason D. Beduhn, Truth in Translation - Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  pg. 326 pars. 32-33 Study Number 7—The Bible in Modern Times: New World Translation A Literal Translation, 1990 New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (2013 Revision), page 4. Access date: 25 February 2014. "Are All Religions Good?", The Watchtower, August 1, 2009, page 4, "Jehovah’s Witnesses, produce a reliable Bible translation known as the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. However, if you are not one of Jehovah’s Witnesses, you may prefer to use other translations" New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Revised 2013, Total Printed of All Editions of New World Translation: 208,366,928 copies - over 120 languages (updated February, 2014), bi12-E, p.4 The Chitumbuka NT 1984 edition has latest numbers and language list of 122 languages, (updated February 26, 2014), bi7-TB, p.4 2013 Annual Meeting Report: Languages New World Translation is published has increased from 52 to 121 The Watchtower, 1 November 1959, p. 672: "Up until 1950 the teachings of Jehovah’s witnesses were based mainly upon the King James Version of the Bible" Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 99. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7. "The King James Bible was used by the Witnesses prior to the release of their own version, which began with the Greek Scriptures, in 1950." "Announcements", The Watchtower, August 1, 1954, page 480 "Bible Knowledge Made Plain Through Modern Translation", The Watchtower, October 15, 1961, page 636 "Part Three—How the Bible Came to Us", The Watchtower, October 15, 1997, page 11, "With this objective, associates of the Society set out in 1946 to produce a fresh translation of the Scriptures. A translation committee of experienced anointed Christians was organized to produce the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in English." "Stand Complete and With Firm Conviction—The New World Translation Appreciated by Millions Worldwide", The Watchtower, November 15, 2001, page 7. "How the Governing Body Differs From a Legal Corporation:, The Watchtower, January 15, 2001, page 30. "New Bible Translation Completed, Released", The Watchtower, October 1, 1960, page 599. "New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures", The Watchtower, September 15, 1950, page 315. Watchtower October 1st, 1960 p. 601 par. 13 Foreword, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, 1984. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. New York Times, August 3, 1950 p. 19. The Watchtower, September 15, 1950, p. 320 Walsh vs Honorable James Latham, Court of Session Scotland, 1954, cross examination of Frederick Franz pp. 90-92 The Watchtower, November 15, 1950, p. 454 The Watchtower, December 15, 1974, p. 768. The Watchtower, December 15, 1974, p. 768 Tony Wills, M.A., A People For His Name—A History of Jehovah's Witnesses and An Evaluation, Lulu, 2006. Originally published in 1967 by Vantage Press. "[Frederick] Franz is a language scholar of no mean ability—he supervised the translation of the Bible from the original languages into the New World Translation, completed in 1961." (p. 253) Walter Martin, Kingdom of the Cults—Expanded Anniversary Edition, October 1997, Bethany House Publishers, p. 123-124. "the New World Bible translation committee had no known translators with recognized degrees in Greek or Hebrew exegesis or translation. While the members of the [NWT] committee have never been identified officially by the Watchtower, many Witnesses who worked at the headquarters during the translation period were fully aware of who the members were. They included Nathan H. Knorr (president of the Society at the time), Frederick W. Franz (who later succeeded Knorr as president), Albert D. Schroeder, George Gangas, and Milton Henschel'." A Milestone for Lovers of God's Word (Watchtower October 15, 1999 pp. 30-31) 2012 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, pg. 26 "Jehovah's Witnesses distribute free Bibles", The Daytona Beach News-Journal, October 26, 2013 How Can You Choose a Good Bible Translation? (Watchtower May 1, 2008 pages 18-22) Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. How the Bible Came to Us, Appendix A3 of 2013 REVISION Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (1993) Chap. 27 p. 611, subheading Translation Into Other Languages. Appendix 7E in the New World Translation reference edition Revised New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. Accessed 14 October 2013. Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. II pg. 9, 1988; Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania The Cairo Geniza, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1959, pg. 222 Bowman, Robert M. Understanding Jehovah's Witnesses. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1991. P114 Walter Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults Revised, Updated, and Expanded Anniversary Edition, Bethany House Publishers, Minneapolis, Minnesota 1997, Page 125. The Watchtower, August 1, 2008. Brooklyn, New York: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2008. pp. 18–23. "Lord". Insight on the Scriptures 2. p. 267. "Announcements", Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1988, page 4 Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, page 614 "Study—Rewarding and Enjoyable", The Watchtower, October 1, 2000, page 16 Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published 1993 by Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 27: Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word", page 610 ""Between-the-Lines" Translations of the Bible", The Watchtower, November 15, 1969, page 692. Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1978, page 3 Our Kingdom Ministry, October 1981, page 7 The Watchtower, February 15, 1990, page 32 Watchtower Publications Index 1986-2007, "Compact Discs" Our Kingdom Ministry, August 1983, pages 3-4 Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published 1993 by Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 27: Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word", pages 614-615 Awake!, November, 2007 p. 30 2007 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, pages 21-22 Sign Language Connection on jw.org "The Compact Disc—What Is It All About?", Awake!, April 22, 1994, page 23 Our Kingdom Ministry, September 2007, page 3. "Online Bible-Jehovah’s Witnesses: jw.org". Watch Tower Society. Retrieved 2012-10-27. "JW Library APP-Jehovah’s Witnesses". Watch Tower Society. Retrieved 2012-10-27. Robert G. Bratcher, "English Bible, The" The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (revised and updated edition of Harper's Bible Dictionary, 1st ed. c1985), HarperCollins Publishers/The Society of Biblical Literature, 1996, p. 292. G. HÉBERT/EDS, "Jehovah's Witnesses", The New Catholic Encyclopedia, Gale, 20052, Vol. 7, p. 751. Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 74, No. 4, (Dec. 1955), p. 283. Interview quotation as cited by: "The Bible in Modern Times", "All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial", ©1990 Watch Tower, page 326 H.H. Rowley, How Not To Translate the Bible, The Expository Times, 1953; 65; 41 Life Magazine, July 1, 1953, Photo here "“Walk in the Name of Jehovah Our God for Ever”", The Watchtower, September 1, 1953, page 528, "Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society released Volume I of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures to the New World Society Assembly of Jehovah’s Witnesses at Yankee Stadium, New York city, N. Y., Wednesday afternoon, July 22, 1953." "The Bible in Modern Times", All Scripture..., ©1990 Watch Tower Jason D. BeDuhn, Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament, 2004, pages 163, 165, 169, 175, 176. BeDuhn compared the King James, the (New) Revised Standard, the New International, the New American Bible, the New American Standard Bible, the Amplified Bible, the Living Bible, Today's English and the NWT versions in Matthew 28:9, Philippians 2:6, Colossians 1:15-20, Titus 2:13, Hebrews 1:8, John 8:58, John 1:1. See Ankerberg, John and John Weldon, 2003, The New World Translation of the Jehovah's Witnesses, accessible online Dr. Mantey made this comment on videotape. See the video "Witnesses of Jehovah", distributed by Impact Resources, P.O. Box 1169, Murrieta, CA, 92564 R. Rhodes, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, The Essential Guide to Their History, Their Doctrine, and Our Response, Zondervan, 2001, p. 94 "Loyally advocating the Word of God," The Watchtower (15 March 1982), p. 23. Metzger>UBS Metzger, Bruce M, The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, The Bible Translator 15/3 (July 1964), p. 151. Bruce M. Metzger, "Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," Theology Today, (April 1953 p. 74); see also Metzger, "The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures,". The faiths men live by, Kessinger Publishing, 1954, 239. ISBN 1-4254-8652-5. Alexander Thomson, The Differentiator, 1952, 55,57 No. 2, 6 Thomas N. Winter, Review of New World Bible Translation Committee's The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures, Classics and Religious Studies Faculty Publications, Classics and Religious Studies Department, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, April–May 1974: 376 "Jehovah's Witnesses and their New Testament." Andover Newton Quarterly. 3.3 (1963): 31.

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      Stafford, Greg: Jehovah's Witnesses Defended. [ISBN 0-9659814-7-9] Furuli, Rolf: The Role of Theology and Bias in Bible Translation: With a special look at the New World Translation of Jehovah's Witnesses, 1999. [ISBN 0-9659814-9-5] Byatt, Anthony and Flemings, Hal (editors): 'Your Word is Truth', Essays in Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (1950, 1953), 2004. [ISBN 0-9506212-6-9] Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  at the  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  (archived December 18, 2007) Neutral
      BeDuhn, Jason: Truth in Translation - Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament [ISBN 0-7618-2556-8] Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Critical
      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Kenneth J. Baumgarten,  Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. , South African Theological Seminary 2007. Robert Countess: Jehovah's Witnesses' New Testament: A Critical Analysis, [ISBN 0-87552-210-6] Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.  Article critical of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation  
    • By Jay Witness

      Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Google translate:
      The Christian Assembly of Jehovah's Witnesses
      April 1, 2017
      TO ALL MEETINGS
      Theme: Using the Synodal Translation of the Bible in New Conditions
      Dear brothers!
      From the bottom of our hearts, we want to thank you for your active participation in the campaign to write letters. Your participation in this campaign was a clear testimony of brotherly love in action (1 Peter 2:17). At the same time, we realize that the most important thing that we can do to support our brothers facing persecutions is to offer our prayers to Jehovah for them.(Read 1 Timothy 2: 1--4.)
      As already reported, the Ministry of Justice wants to impose a ban on the activities of the Christian congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia. If the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation decides to ban, this will negatively affect more than 175,000 of our brothers and sisters, on their honorable duty to carry God's words from door to door.
      Perhaps opponents think in this way to hinder the preaching work, but our main tool is the Bible, and we can participate even more diligently in the preaching work (1 Corinthians 15:58, Ephesians 6:17). Although the translation of the New World has helped us for many years to better understand the truth and carry the message of the Kingdom of God to other people, but in the new conditions that have arisen in Russia, we must start using the synodal translation of the Bible again.
      This is necessary to avoid accusations of distortion of God's word from the world of Satan and discourage our opponents until the verdict of the Supreme Court.
      Your brothers,
      A copy of the district overseers
      Note for coordinators of councils of elders.
      Please ensure that this letter is read at the next meeting on weekdays, and also at a weekend meeting. Do not post this
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