By The Librarian
Abraham (/?e?br?hÃ¦m,Â -h?m/;Â Hebrew:Â ??????????,Â ModernÂ ?Avraham,Â TiberianÂ ?A?r?h?m;Â Arabic: ???????Â Ibrahim), originallyÂ AbramÂ (Hebrew:Â ????????,Â ModernÂ ?Avram,Â TiberianÂ ?A?r?m), is the common patriarch of the threeÂ Abrahamic religions.Â In Judaism, he is the founding father of theÂ Covenant, the special relationship between the Jewish people andÂ God; in Christianity, he is the prototype of all believers, Jewish or Gentile; and in Islam he is seen as a link in the chain of prophets that begins with Adam and culminates inÂ Muhammad.
The narrative in Genesis revolves around the themes of posterity and land. Abraham is called byÂ GodÂ to leave the house of his fatherÂ TerahÂ and settle in the land originally given toÂ CanaanÂ but which God now promises to Abraham and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward who might inherit the land after Abraham; and, while promises are made toÂ IshmaelÂ about founding a great nation,Â Isaac, Abraham's son by his half-sisterÂ Sarah, inherits God's promises to Abraham. Abraham purchases a tomb (theÂ Cave of the Patriarchs) atÂ HebronÂ to be Sarah's grave, thus establishing his right to the land; and, in the second generation, his heir Isaac is married to a woman from his own kin, thus ruling the Canaanites out of any inheritance. Abraham later marriesÂ KeturahÂ and has six more sons; but, on his death, when he is buried beside Sarah, it is Isaac who receives "all Abraham's goods", while the other sons receive only "gifts" (Genesis 25:5Â–8).
The Abraham story cannot be definitively related to any specific time, and it is widely agreed that theÂ patriarchal age, along with theÂ exodusÂ and the period of the judges, is a late literary construct that does not relate to any period in actual history.Â A common hypothesis among scholars is that it was composed in the early Persian period (late 6th century BCE) as a result of tensions between Jewish landowners who had stayed inÂ JudahÂ during theÂ Babylonian captivityÂ and traced their right to the land through their "father Abraham", and the returning exiles who based their counter-claim onÂ MosesÂ andÂ the ExodusÂ tradition.
Origins and calling
Terah, the ninth in descent fromÂ Noah, was the father of three sons: Abram,Â Nahor, andÂ Haran. Haran was the father ofÂ LotÂ (who was thus Abram's nephew), and died in his native city,Â Ur of the Chaldees. Abram marriedÂ Sarah (Sarai), who was barren. Terah, with Abram, Sarai, and Lot, then departed for Canaan, but settled in a place namedÂ Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205.[Genesis 11:27Â–32]Â God had told Abram to leave his country and kindred and go to a land that he would show him, and promised to make of him a great nation, bless him, make his name great, bless them that bless him, and curse them who may curse him.[Genesis 12:1Â–3]Â Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, and the substance and souls that they had acquired, and traveled toÂ ShechemÂ inÂ Canaan.[Genesis 12:4Â–6]
There was a severe famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households, traveled toÂ Egypt. On the way Abram told Sarai to say that she was his sister, so that the Egyptians would not kill him.[Genesis 12:10Â–13]Â When they entered Egypt, the Pharaoh's officials praised Sarai's beauty toÂ Pharaoh, and they took her into the palace and gave Abram goods in exchange. God afflicted Pharaoh and his household with plagues, which led Pharaoh to try to find out what was wrong.[Genesis 12:14Â–17]Â Upon discovering that Sarai was a married woman, Pharaoh demanded that Abram and Sarai leave.[Genesis 12:18Â–20]
Abram and Lot separate
When they came back to the Bethel and Hai area, Abram's and Lot's sizable herds occupied the same pastures. This became a problem for the herdsmen who were assigned to each family's cattle. The conflicts between herdsmen had become so troublesome that Abram suggested that Lot choose a separate area, either on the left hand or on the right hand, that there be no conflict amongst brethren. Lot chose to go eastward to the plain ofÂ JordanÂ where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, and he dwelled in the cities of the plain towardÂ Sodom. Abram went south toÂ HebronÂ and settled in the plain ofÂ Mamre, where he built another altar to worshipÂ God.
During the rebellion of theÂ Jordan River citiesÂ againstÂ Elam,[Genesis 14:1Â–9]Â Abram's nephew, Lot, was taken prisoner along with his entire household by the invadingÂ ElamiteÂ forces. The Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodom's armies.[Genesis 14:8Â–12]Â Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of theÂ Kingdom of SodomÂ which made them a visible target.[Genesis 13:12]
One person who escaped capture came and told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he immediately assembled 318 trained servants. Abram's force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were already worn down from theÂ Battle of Siddim. When they caught up with them atÂ Dan, Abram devised a battle plan by splitting his group into more than one unit, and launched a night raid. Not only were they able to free the captives, Abram's unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite KingÂ ChedorlaomerÂ at Hobah, just north ofÂ Damascus. They freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, and recovered all of the goods from Sodom that had been taken.[Genesis 14:13Â–16]
Upon Abram's return, Sodom's king came out to meet with him in theÂ Valley of Shaveh, the "king's dale". Also,Â MelchizedekÂ king of Salem (Jerusalem), a priest ofÂ God Most High, brought out bread and wine and blessed Abram and God. Abram then gave Melchizedek aÂ tenthÂ of everything. The king of Sodom then offered to let Abram keep all the possessions if he would merely return his people. Abram refused any deal from the king of Sodom, other than the share to which his allies were entitled.[Genesis 14:17Â–24]
Covenant of the pieces
The voice of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and repeated the promise of the land and descendants as numerous as the stars. Abram and God made a covenant ceremony, and God told of the future bondage of Israel in Egypt. God described to Abram the land that his offspring would claim: the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and Jebusites.[Genesis 15:1Â–21]
Abram and Sarai tried to make sense of how he would become a progenitor of nations, because after 10 years of living in Canaan, no child had been born. Sarai then offered her Egyptian handmaiden,Â Hagar, to Abram with the intention that she would bear him a son. After Hagar found she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress, Sarai. Therefore, Sarai mistreated Hagar, and Hagar fled away. En route an angel spoke with Hagar at the fountain in the way toÂ Shur. He instructed her to return and that her son would be "a wild ass of a man; his hand shall be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the face of all his brethren." She was told to call her sonÂ Ishmael. Hagar then called God who spoke to her "El-roi", ("Thou God seest me:" KJV). From that day, the well was called Beer-lahai-roi, ("The well of him that liveth and seeth me." KJV margin). She then did as she was instructed by returning to her mistress in order to have her child. Abram was eighty-six years of age when Ishmael was born.[Genesis 16:4Â–16]
Thirteen years later, when Abram was ninety-nine years of age, God declared Abram's new name: "Abraham"Â Â– "a father of many nations".[Genesis 17:5]Â Abraham then received the instructions for the covenant, of whichÂ circumcisionÂ was to be the sign.[Genesis 17:10Â–14]Â Then God declared Sarai's new name: "Sarah" and blessed her and told Abraham, "I will give thee a son also of her".[Genesis 17:15Â–16]Â But Abraham laughed, and "said in his heart, 'Shall aÂ childÂ be born unto him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?'"[Genesis 17:17]Â Immediately after Abraham's encounter with God, he had his entire household of men, including himself (age 99) and Ishmael (age 13), circumcised.[Genesis 17:22Â–27]
Not long afterward, during the heat of the day, Abraham had been sitting at the entrance of his tent by theÂ terebinthsÂ ofÂ Mamre. He looked up and saw three men in the presence of God. Then he ran andÂ bowedÂ to the ground to welcome them. Abraham then offered to wash their feet and fetch them a morsel of bread, to which they assented. Abraham rushed toÂ Sarah's tent to order cakes made from choice flour, then he ordered a servant-boy to prepare a choice calf. When all was prepared, he set curds, milk and the calf before them, waiting on them, under a tree, as they ate.[Genesis 18:1Â–8]
One of the visitors told Abraham that upon his return next year, Sarah would have a son. While at the tent entrance, Sarah overheard what was said and she laughed to herself about the prospect of having a child at their ages. The visitor inquired of Abraham why Sarah laughed at bearing a child at her age, as nothing is too hard for God. Frightened, Sarah denied laughing.
After eating, Abraham and the three visitors got up. They walked over to the peak that overlooked the 'cities of the plain' to discuss the fate ofÂ Sodom and GomorrahÂ for their detestable sins that were so great, it moved God to action. Because Abraham's nephew was living in Sodom, God revealed plans to confirm and judge these cities. At this point, the two other visitors left for Sodom. Then Abraham turned to God and pleaded decrementally with Him (from fifty persons to less) that "if there were at least ten righteous men found in the city, would not God spare the city?" For the sake of ten righteous people, God declared that he would not destroy the city.[Genesis 18:17Â–33]
When the two visitors got to Sodom to conduct their report, they planned on staying in the city square. However, Abraham's nephew, Lot, met with them and strongly insisted that these two "men" stay at his house for the night. A rally of men stood outside of Lot's home and demanded that they bring out his guests so that they may "know" (v.5) them. However, Lot objected and offered his virgin daughters who had not "known" (v.8) man to the rally of men instead. They rejected that notion and sought to break down Lot's door to get to his male guests,[Genesis 19:1Â–9]Â thus confirming the wickedness of the city and portending their imminent destruction.[Genesis 19:12Â–13]
Early the next morning, Abraham went to the place where he stood before God. He "looked out toward Sodom and Gomorrah" and saw what became of the cities of the plain, where not even "ten righteous" (v.18:32) had been found, as "the smoke of the land went up as the smoke of a furnace."[Genesis 19:27Â–29]
Abraham settled betweenÂ KadeshÂ andÂ ShurÂ in the land of theÂ Philistines. While he was living inÂ Gerar, Abraham openly claimed that Sarah was his sister. Upon discovering this news, KingÂ AbimelechÂ had her brought to him. God then came to Abimelech in a dream and declared that taking her would result in death because she was a man's wife. Abimelech had not laid hands on her, so he inquired if he would also slay a righteous nation, especially since Abraham had claimed that he and Sarah were siblings. In response, God told Abimelech that he did indeed have a blameless heart and that is why he continued to exist. However, should he not return the wife of Abraham back to him, God would surely destroy Abimelech and his entire household. Abimelech was informed that Abraham was a prophet who would pray for him.[Genesis 20:1Â–7]
Early next morning, Abimelech informed his servants of his dream and approached Abraham inquiring as to why he had brought such great guilt upon his kingdom. Abraham stated that he thought there was no fear of God in that place, and that they might kill him for his wife. Then Abraham defended what he had said as not being a lie at all: "And yet indeedÂ she isÂ my sister; sheÂ isÂ the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife."[Genesis 20:12]Â Abimelech returned Sarah to Abraham, and gave him gifts of sheep, oxen, and servants; and invited him to settle wherever he pleased in Abimelech's lands. Further, Abimelech gave Abraham a thousand pieces of silver to serve as Sarah's vindication before all. Abraham then prayed for Abimelech and his household, since God had stricken the women with infertility because of the taking of Sarah.[Genesis 20:8Â–18]
After living for some time in the land of the Philistines,Â AbimelechÂ andÂ Phicol, the chief of his troops, approached Abraham because of a dispute that resulted in a violent confrontation at a well. Abraham then reproached Abimelech due to his Philistine servant's aggressive attacks and the seizing ofÂ Abraham's well. Abimelech claimed ignorance of the incident. Then Abraham offered a pact by providing sheep and oxen to Abimelech. Further, to attest that Abraham was the one who dug the well, he also gave Abimelech seven ewes for proof. Because of this sworn oath, they called the place of this well:Â Beersheba. After Abimelech and Phicol headed back toÂ Philistia, Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba and called upon "the name of the LORD, the everlasting God."[Genesis 21:22Â–34]
As had been prophesied in Mamre the previous year,[Genesis 17:21]Â Sarah became pregnant and bore a son to Abraham, on the first anniversary of the covenant of circumcision. Abraham was "an hundred years old", when his son whom he named Isaac was born; and he circumcised him when he was eight days old.[Genesis]Â For Sarah, the thought of giving birth and nursing a child, at such an old age, also brought her much laughter, as she declared, "God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me."[Genesis]Â Isaac continued to grow and on the day he was weaned, Abraham held a great feast to honor the occasion. During the celebration, however, Sarah found Ishmael mocking; an observation that would begin to clarify the birthright of Isaac.[Genesis 21:8Â–13]
IshmaelÂ was fourteen years old when Abraham's sonÂ IsaacÂ was born to Sarah. When she found Ishmael teasing Isaac, Sarah told Abraham to send both Ishmael and Hagar away. She declared that Ishmael would not share in Isaac's inheritance. Abraham was greatly distressed by his wife's words and sought the advice of his God. God told Abraham not to be distressed but to do as his wife commanded. God reassured Abraham that "in Isaac shall seed be called to thee."[Genesis 21:12]Â He also said that Ishmael would make a nation, "because he is thy seed".[Genesis 21:9Â–13]
Early the next morning, Abraham brought Hagar and Ishmael out together. He gave her bread and water and sent them away. The two wandered in the wilderness ofÂ BeershebaÂ until her bottle of water was completely consumed. In a moment of despair, she burst into tears. After God heard the boy's voice, anÂ angel of the LordÂ confirmed to Hagar that he would become a great nation, and will be "living on his sword". A well of water then appeared so that it saved their lives. As the boy grew, he became a skilledÂ archerÂ living in the wilderness ofÂ Paran. Eventually his mother found a wife for Ishmael from her home country, the land of Egypt.[Genesis 21:14Â–21]
Binding of Isaac
At some point inÂ Isaac's youth, Abraham was commanded by God to offer his son up as a sacrifice in the land ofÂ Moriah. The patriarch traveled three days until he came to the mount that God told him of. He then commanded the servants to remain while he and Isaac proceeded alone into the mount. Isaac carried the wood upon which he would be sacrificed. Along the way, Isaac asked his father where the animal for the burnt offering was, to which Abraham replied "God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering". Just as Abraham was about to sacrifice his son, he was interrupted by the angel of the Lord, and he saw behind him a "ram caught in a thicket by his horns", which he sacrificed instead of his son. For his obedience he received another promise of numerous descendants and abundant prosperity. After this event, Abraham went toÂ Beersheba.[Genesis 22:1Â–19]
Sarah died, and Abraham buried her in theÂ Cave of the PatriarchsÂ (the "cave of Machpelah"), nearÂ HebronÂ which he had purchased along with the adjoining field from Ephron theÂ Hittite.[Genesis 23:1Â–20]Â After the death of Sarah, Abraham took another wife, aÂ concubineÂ namedÂ Keturah, by whom he had six sons:Â Zimran,Â Jokshan,Â Medan,Â Midian,Â Ishbak, andÂ Shuah.[Genesis 25:1Â–6]Â According to the Bible, reflecting the change of his name to "Abraham" meaning "a father of many nations", Abraham is considered to be the progenitor of many nations mentioned in the Bible, among others theÂ Israelites,Â Ishmaelites,[Genesis 25:12Â–18]Â Edomites,[Genesis 36:1Â–43])Â Amalekites,[Genesis 36:12Â–16]Â Kenizzites,[Genesis 36:9Â–16]Â MidianitesÂ andÂ Assyrians,[Genesis 25:1Â–5]Â and through his nephew Lot he was also related to theÂ MoabitesÂ andÂ Ammonites.[Genesis 19:35Â–38]Â Abraham lived to see his son marryÂ Rebekah, (and to see the birth of his twin grandsonsÂ Jacob and Esau). He died at age 175, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah by his sons Isaac and Ishmael.[Genesis 25:7Â–10][1 Chronicles 1:32]
Abraham is given a high position of respect in three major world faiths,Â Judaism,Â ChristianityÂ andÂ Islam. In Judaism he is the founding father of the Covenant, the special relationship between the Jewish people and GodÂ Â– a belief which gives the Jews a unique position as theÂ Chosen People of God. In Christianity, the ApostleÂ PaulÂ taught that Abraham's faith in God Â– preceding theÂ Mosaic lawÂ Â– made him the prototype of all believers,Â circumcisedÂ and uncircumcised. The Islamic prophetÂ MuhammadÂ claimed Abraham, whose submission to God constitutedÂ IslamÂ as a "believer before the fact" and undercut Jewish claims to an exclusive relationship with God and the Covenant.
In Jewish tradition, Abraham is calledÂ Avraham AvinuÂ (????? ?????), "our father Abraham," signifying that he is both the biological progenitor of the Jews and the father of Judaism, the first Jew.Â His story is read in the weeklyÂ TorahÂ reading portions, predominantly in theÂ parashot:Â Lech-LechaÂ (????-????),Â VayeiraÂ (????????),Â Chayei SarahÂ (?????? ??????), andÂ ToledotÂ (?????????).
InÂ Jewish legend, God created heaven and earth for the sake of the merits of Abraham.Â After theÂ deluge, Abraham was the only one among the pious who solemnly swear never forsaking God,Â and studied in house ofÂ NoahÂ andÂ ShemÂ to learn about "Ways of God,"Â and continuing the line ofÂ High PriestÂ from Noah and Shem, then he descended the office toÂ LeviÂ andÂ his seedsÂ forever. Before leaving his fathers' land, Abraham was miraculously saved from the fiery furnace ofÂ Nimrodfollowing his brave action of breaking the idols of theÂ ChaldeansÂ into pieces.Â During his sojourning in Canaan, Abraham was accustomed to extend hospitality to travelers and strangers and taught how to praise God also knowledge of God to those who had received his kindness.
Besides Isaac and Jacob, he is the one whose name would appear united with God, asÂ God in JudaismÂ was calledÂ Elohei Abraham, Elohei Yitzchak ve Elohei Ya`aqobÂ ("God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob") and never the God of any one else.Â He was also mentioned as the father of thirty nations.
Abraham does not loom so large in Christianity as he does in Judaism and Islam. It isÂ JesusÂ as theÂ Jewish MessiahÂ who is central to Christianity, and the idea of a divineÂ MessiahÂ is what separates Christianity from the other two religions.Â InÂ RomansÂ 4, Abraham's merit is less his obedience to the divine will than his faith in God's ultimate grace; this faith provides him the merit for God having chosen him for the covenant, and the covenant becomes one of faith, not obedience.
The Roman Catholic Church calls Abraham "our father in Faith" in theÂ Eucharistic prayerÂ of theÂ Roman Canon, recited during theÂ MassÂ (seeÂ Abraham in the Catholic liturgy). He is also commemorated in theÂ calendars of saintsÂ of several denominations: on 20 August by theÂ Maronite Church, 28 August in theÂ Coptic ChurchÂ and theÂ Assyrian Church of the EastÂ (with the fullÂ officeÂ for the latter), and on 9 October by the Roman Catholic Church and theÂ Lutheran ChurchÂ–Missouri Synod. In the introduction to his 15th-century translation of theÂ Golden Legend's account of Abraham,Â William CaxtonÂ noted that this patriarch's life was read in church onÂ Quinquagesima Sunday.Â He is theÂ patron saintÂ of those in the hospitality industry.[pageÂ needed]Â TheÂ Eastern Orthodox ChurchÂ commemorates him as the "Righteous Forefather Abraham", with twoÂ feast daysÂ in itsÂ liturgical calendar. The first time is on 9 October (for those churches which follow the traditionalÂ Julian Calendar, 9 October falls on 22 October of the modernÂ Gregorian Calendar), where he is commemorated together with his nephew "Righteous Lot". The other is on the "Sunday of the Forefathers" (two Sundays before Christmas), when he is commemorated together with otherÂ ancestors of Jesus. Abraham is also mentioned in theÂ Divine LiturgyÂ ofÂ Saint Basil the Great, just before the Anaphora, and Abraham and Sarah are invoked in the prayers said by the priest over a newly married couple.
Islam regards Abraham as a link in the chain of prophets that begins with Adam and culminates inÂ Muhammad.Â Ibr?h?mÂ is mentioned in 35 chapters of theÂ Quran, more often than any other biblical personage apart fromÂ Moses.Â He is called both aÂ hanifÂ (monotheist) andÂ muslimÂ (one who submits),Â and Muslims regard him as aÂ prophetÂ andÂ patriarch, the archetype of the perfectÂ Muslim, and the revered reformer of theÂ KaabaÂ inÂ Mecca.Â Islamic traditions considerÂ Ibr?h?mÂ (Abraham) the first Pioneer of Islam (which is also calledÂ millat Ibrahim, the "religion of Abraham"), and that his purpose and mission throughout his life was to proclaim theÂ Oneness of God. In Islam, Abraham holds an exalted position among the major prophets and he is referred to as "Ibrahim Khalilullah", meaning "Abraham the Beloved of Allah".
BesidesÂ IshaqÂ andÂ Yaqub, Ibrahim is among the most honorable and the most excellent men in sight of God.Â Ibrahim was also mentioned in Quran as "Father of Muslims" and the role model for the community.
McCarter 2000, p.Â 8. Levenson 2012, p.Â 8. Ska 2009, pp.Â 26Â–31. McNutt 1999, pp.Â 41Â–42. Ska 2006, pp.Â 227Â–28, 260. Abram and Lot Separate", Chabad.org Moore & Kelle 2011, pp.Â 18Â–19. Dever 2002, p.Â 98 and fn.2. Thompson 2002, pp.Â 23Â–24. Pitard 2001, p.Â 27. Ska 2009, p.Â 260. Enns 2012, p.Â 26. Ska 2006, pp.Â 217, 227Â–28. Carr & Conway 2010, p.Â 193. Ska 2009, p.Â 43. Ska 2009, p.Â 44. Peters 2010, pp.Â 170Â–71. Levenson 2012, p.Â 3. Ginzberg, Louis (1909).Â The Legends of the Jews Vol. IÂ : The Wicked GenerationsÂ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Ginzberg, Louis (1909).Â The Legends of the Jews Vol. IÂ : In the Fiery FurnaceÂ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Samuel, Moses, 1840,Â Book of JasherÂ (Sefer Hayashar) Referred to in Joshua and Second SamuelÂ Chapter 9: 5-6] Ginzberg, Louis (1909).Â The Legends of the Jews Vol. IÂ : In the Fiery FurnaceÂ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Ginzberg, Louis (1909).Â The Legends of the Jews Vol. IÂ : The Covenant with AbimelechÂ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Ginzberg, Louis (1909).Â The Legends of the Jews Vol. IÂ : Joy And Sorrow in the House Of JacobÂ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Ginzberg, Louis (1909).Â The Legends of the Jews Vol. IÂ : The Birth Of Esau And JacobÂ (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Peters 2010, p.Â 171. Firestone, Reuven.Â "Abraham."Â Encyclopedia of World History. Caxton, William.Â "Abraham".Â The Golden Legend. Internet Medieval Source Book. RetrievedÂ 3 AprilÂ 2014. Holweck 1924. Levenson 2012, p.Â PA8. Peters 2003, p.Â PA9. Levenson 2012, p.Â PA200. Mecca, Martin Lings, c. 2004 Quran (chapter Shaad) 38:45-47 Maulana, Mohammad, 2006,Â Encyclopaedia Of Quranic StudiesÂ p. 104 Quran (chapter Al-Hajj) 22:78 Quran (chapter Al-Mumtahanah) 60:4-6 For a very thorough online collection of links to artwork about Abraham see:Â Artwork Depicting Scenes from Abraham's Life. Retrieved 25 March 2011 Exum 2007, p.Â 135. Journal of Early Christian Studies, Leonard Victor Rutgers,Â The Iconography of the Sarcophagus of Junius BassusÂ (review of Malbon book), Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 1993, pp. 94Â–96; for Janson it is also the "finest Early Christian sarcophagus". or 1595, see Elsner, p. 86n. Abraham's Farewell to Ishmael.Â George Segal.Â Miami Art Museum. Collections: Recent Acquisitions.. Retrieved 10 September 2014. "Abraham the Patriarch in Art Â– Iconography and Literature". Christian Iconography Â– a project ofÂ Georgia Regents University. RetrievedÂ 2014-04-18. Boguslawski, Alexander.Â "The Holy Trinity". Rollins.edu. RetrievedÂ 3 AprilÂ 2014. Â Kierkegaard 1980, pp.Â 155Â–56. "Highway 61 Revisited". Retrieved 25 March 2011. "Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Archived fromÂ the originalÂ on 13 September 2008. RetrievedÂ 8 AugustÂ 2008. - Wikipedia
Abram or Abraham?
By Bible Speaks
It is written: “the Abrahamic covenant went into effect in 1943 B.C.E., when 75-year-old Abraham left Haran and crossed the Euphrates River.Â”
However, Abraham had already left his home in Ur out of obedience to Jehovah. Why did it not start at that time? The Bible tells us Abraham postponed the arduous trip out of consideration for his fatherÂ’s poor health and remain in Haran until his fatherÂ’s death.Â
Many Christians today likewise have the privilege of caring for aging or sick parents, some even having to make an adjustment in order to do so.
When that is necessary, such ones can be assured that their loving sacrifices are Â“acceptable in GodÂ’s sight.Â”Â—1 Timothy 5:4. Lev. 19:32. -
By Bible Speaks
"In faith all these . . . publicly declared that they were strangers and temporary residents in the land."—Heb. 11:13
From earliest times, faithful servants of Jehovah stood out as different from those in the ungodly world in which they lived. Before the Flood, Enoch and Noah “walked with the true God.” (Gen. 5:22-24; 6:9)
Both of them were courageous preachers of Jehovah’s judgments against Satan’s wicked world. (2 Pet. 2:5; Jude 14, 15)
Because they walked with God in an ungodly world, Enoch “pleased God well” and Noah “proved himself faultless among his contemporaries.” (Heb. 11:5; Gen. 6:9)
At God’s invitation, Abraham and Sarah gave up the comforts of city life in Ur of the Chaldeans and accepted the challenge of living as nomads in a foreign land. (Gen. 11:27, 28; 12:1)
The apostle Paul wrote: “By faith [Abraham] resided as an alien in the land of the promise as in a foreign land, and dwelt in tents.”—Heb. 11:8, 9. NWT
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