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JOHN BUTLER

Did Jesus ever forbid the use of blood to save a human life ?

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Jehovah has clearly and unambiguously prohibited the use of blood for sustaining human life.  Many times, OT and NT.

Can I question this point please ?

Did Jesus ever forbid the use of blood to save a human life ?  Can you show me a scripture where JESUS forbids the use of blood to save a human life ? 

Let us look at a few points here.

I think it is true that the Jews / Nation of Israel practised something known as Pikuach Nefesh 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pikuach_nefesh

This meant life was precious and should be saved even if it meant going against the Law.

Add to this that Jesus gave an example which in my opinion goes much deeper than the actual words of the scripture.  Matthew 12 v 9 through 12.

 After departing from that place, he went into their synagogue, 10  and look! there was a man with a withered* hand!k So they asked him, “Is it lawful to cure on the Sabbath?” so that they might accuse him.l11  He said to them: “If you have one sheep and that sheep falls into a pit on the Sabbath, is there a man among you who will not grab hold of it and lift it out?m12  How much more valuable is a man than a sheep! So it is lawful to do a fine thing on the Sabbath.”

Surely here Jesus is saying that it is right to go against 'the Law' and /or the principles of it, to save a life. 

And please tell me, from where do those 'blood bits' come from that the GB say the congregants can use ?  I honestly have no idea on that one. 

However if those 'blood bits' come from blood itself then isn't that actually using blood ?

My wife hates cherries in cakes, so she picks them out, but she still eats the cake. If a person uses bits out of blood then in my opinion they are still using blood. 

Over to you guys. 

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1 hour ago, JOHN BUTLER said:

However if those 'blood bits' come from blood itself then isn't that actually using blood ?

My wife hates cherries in cakes, so she picks them out, but she still eats the cake. If a person uses bits out of blood then in my opinion they are still using blood. 

Over to you guys. 

Does this mean you don’t eat meat? Have you ever gone to a restaurant and ordered a juicy steak? I read this somewhere in the past in this forum. Does animal blood completely get drained by the butcher? Should all witnesses then become vegetarians even though God told Adam he could eat meat?

https://www.news.com.au/national/revolutionary-blood-hboc-201-saves-tamara-coakley/news-story/94e7b09e2b540c87f30fbf08d929bff1

As I recall here. It took about 6 drops of cow blood to make this synthetic blood. 

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1 hour ago, JOHN BUTLER said:

And please tell me, from where do those 'blood bits' come from that the GB say the congregants can use ?  I honestly have no idea on that one. 

However if those 'blood bits' come from blood itself then isn't that actually using blood ?

My wife hates cherries in cakes, so she picks them out, but she still eats the cake. If a person uses bits out of blood then in my opinion they are still using blood. 

I agree 100%.

The GB's current position is based on greed.

They do not want to be sued out of existence, lose their cushy well-fed jobs, and all those billions in free money.

The Lawyers and Accountants are now deciding Theology and Doctrine for Jehovah's Witnesses.

The GB are merely puppets to their "Helpers", the Society's Lawyers, and the Society's Accountants.

Currently, if we separate blood into fractions and hook up 13 different IV's, it's "legal".

If it come into our bodies in ONE tube, we get disfellowshipped.

it makes no sense whatsoever with any other explanation than pure, unadulterated greed.

 

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7 hours ago, Hankulan Tunani said:

Does this mean you don’t eat meat? Have you ever gone to a restaurant and ordered a juicy steak? I read this somewhere in the past in this forum. Does animal blood completely get drained by the butcher? Should all witnesses then become vegetarians even though God told Adam he could eat meat?

https://www.news.com.au/national/revolutionary-blood-hboc-201-saves-tamara-coakley/news-story/94e7b09e2b540c87f30fbf08d929bff1

As I recall here. It took about 6 drops of cow blood to make this synthetic blood. 

I know it isn't the case in some parts of the US. To me, even my own people, they see blood as something sacred, that blood is life, therefore consuming blood of any kind they will not do, be it from man or beast, far deeper than that there is superstition regarding blood use by those who are occult, those who practice voudou, to which in English is referred to as Black Magic, and such is practiced very heavily in forbidden areas of the country in the Caribbean. Anyone who practice such tends to consume not just blood, but flesh too, even from human beings, which is satanic to the highest degree.

Although most of us live in the US or elsewhere, this part of which we abide by still in effect.

Whenever we are to eat something, we clean it because in the US, chemicals is put on to the food, especially meats and poultry, seafood, we do so by using lemons and lime to clean with hot water. This is the same case as making sure the blood is 100% cleaned out, hence using lemon, lime and hot water, sometimes vinegar.

I think what needs to be done is cleaning the meat properly, but for me, it angers me how some here, mainly in New York just unpack some red meat and throw it on the grill like that, no realize things can go south, others can get a sickness and or cancer.

Another factor is what they are feeding the animals, such as Cows, Chicken, and or other, for if the Cows were given drugs and or some hormones or something of that nature, people can end up consuming such.

I know there are JWs who are also Caribbean, some African, Latinos, they clean the meat thoroughly before eating, even non-JWs among them too.

As for blood transfusions it is a mixed bag, for I know JWs are not the only Christians with this view. In Islam, they do not take blood unless you force them, but they are semi-compliant with another Muslim who is their doctor, for Jews, it is 50/50 for some are for it and others are not.

Then you got Project Ambrosia, and the Black Market whereas young children and teens from Black and Latino communities.

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7 hours ago, James Thomas Rook Jr. said:

I agree 100%.

The GB's current position is based on greed.

They do not want to be sued out of existence, lose their cushy well-fed jobs, and all those billions in free money.

The Lawyers and Accountants are now deciding Theology and Doctrine for Jehovah's Witnesses.

The GB are merely puppets to their "Helpers", the Society's Lawyers, and the Society's Accountants.

Currently, if we separate blood into fractions and hook up 13 different IV's, it's "legal".

If it come into our bodies in ONE tube, we get disfellowshipped.

it makes no sense whatsoever with any other explanation than pure, unadulterated greed.

 

The only blood that should be of anyone's concern is the Christ. It isn't easy when one recognizes what Covenant he or she is under. In the end, as they put it, it is up to choice.

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3 hours ago, Matthew9969 said:

Would it be proper for a vampire to pray before their meal?

In a simple world, no, but in reality, yes. This is the case with those who practice vodou/black magic before tearing their victim to shreds for their blood. a Very disgusting and sick thing, but it is the reality in the Caribbean, for such consider black magic and any ritual pertaining to it as a religion and they have false gods and goddesses that they follow. Believe me, I had witness things, that you yourself would not want to see, for even to this day it is one of those memories that you cannot remove from your mind, especially when a relatives of your was victim.

In the US and EU, so called Christians who subjected themselves to the believe that taking the blood of the young [young blood transfusions], age range being 18 to 24, would enhance their life, prolong their life and so forth, hence we have people paying big money, anywhere between $6k-$8k+ for blood donations of the young to give to the older folks. And such ones who do these consider themselves as saints, they eat and they pray, as they are committed to such things. On the other side of the spectrum, you have those who get their blood from blacks and latinos of all ages, organs even, torn out of their bodies, replaced with things, for example, newspaper in one real life situation regarding a minor. People like this take, sell and use whatever they can pull from their victim and when it is Sunday they think they are saints.

There are things of this world that is not spoken of, and even it has been spoken off, not much of it gets out.

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Space Merchant:

I have to admit that I am totally astonished at the ideas that you come up with.

I had to sit down for this one

17 hours ago, Space Merchant said:
20 hours ago, Matthew9969 said:

Would it be proper for a vampire to pray before their meal?

In a simple world, no, but in reality, yes.

 

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On 10/12/2018 at 11:29 AM, James Thomas Rook Jr. said:

Space Merchant:

I have to admit that I am totally astonished at the ideas that you come up with.

I had to sit down for this one

 

These are not ideas, this is what actually takes place i such countries and what is taking place in the US/EU as we speak.

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On ‎10‎/‎11‎/‎2018 at 3:49 PM, Space Merchant said:

In a simple world, no, but in reality, yes. This is the case with those who practice vodou/black magic before tearing their victim to shreds for their blood. a Very disgusting and sick thing, but it is the reality in the Caribbean, for such consider black magic and any ritual pertaining to it as a religion and they have false gods and goddesses that they follow. Believe me, I had witness things, that you yourself would not want to see, for even to this day it is one of those memories that you cannot remove from your mind, especially when a relatives of your was victim.

In the US and EU, so called Christians who subjected themselves to the believe that taking the blood of the young [young blood transfusions], age range being 18 to 24, would enhance their life, prolong their life and so forth, hence we have people paying big money, anywhere between $6k-$8k+ for blood donations of the young to give to the older folks. And such ones who do these consider themselves as saints, they eat and they pray, as they are committed to such things. On the other side of the spectrum, you have those who get their blood from blacks and latinos of all ages, organs even, torn out of their bodies, replaced with things, for example, newspaper in one real life situation regarding a minor. People like this take, sell and use whatever they can pull from their victim and when it is Sunday they think they are saints.

There are things of this world that is not spoken of, and even it has been spoken off, not much of it gets out.

You really need to get a life, but I would love to see the proof that elderly Christians are paying for blood transfusions from younger people.

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12 hours ago, Matthew9969 said:

You really need to get a life,

Thanks for the concern, Matthew, but I already have a life (not sure if you are joking or not but what I said is serious and true). Another thing is I am aware of what is going around me rather than hide under a rock, not thinking about how critical things are getting, mainly due to the fact that the general public and people of all kinds are unaware of what is going on, it would seem you are out of loop yourself, I would suggest you start looking into things your news media doesn't dare to say in order to maintain their democracy.

12 hours ago, Matthew9969 said:

but I would love to see the proof that elderly Christians are paying for blood transfusions from younger people.

The Christians of which I speak of is of those within the realm of the conservatives/liberal, especially those who reside in Silicon Valley; support it even, their cause regarding such, so to speak.

And what is mentioned is actually true, this Project Ambrosia. Project Ambrosia was founded by Stanford graduate Jesse Karmazin, medical school graduate without a license to practice medicine. It is regarding young blood from those in the ages 18 to 24 range, for this young blood of which is spoken of is something on the menu for wealthy folks who believe that the blood of the young can someone prolong their lives. According to Bill Faloon, the 63-year-old former mortician (also the founder of The Church of Perpetual Life and a speaker at The First Transhumanist Church), he even stated himself that such ones can prolong their lives and become more healthier, in his on words he said: “Not only do you get to potentially live longer … but you’re going to be healthier. And some of the chronic problems you have now may disappear.” Now we have Project Ambrosia who began a clinical trial that had about a sum of 80 people over the ages 35 and older with a pay out of $6,000 to $8,000 range, most sources say $8k, to get an plasma infusion from young donors around ages 18-24, other sources say around the ages of 16 and 25. Project Ambrosia wants to publish this information later on in hopes of positive review.

Other connections to Project Ambrosia: Alkahest and The Young Blood Institute

Links:

There has been a lot of vocal Christians who are against this, such ones like Soulja of God, who he and his crew kept bringing up verses from the Bible, ones like Leviticus 17:14, even that of Acts 15:20 and 29 and several other verses to this regard.

Now on the other side of the spectrum we have Voudou, otherwise known as Black Magic. First things first, the Bible forbids such practices, and it is something that God detests, just as his view on ritualistic practices, fire torment, brazen conduct, etc. In the Caribbean, islands such as Jamaica, Haiti/Dominican Republic, even Cuba, in addition to some Spanish countries, such things are present, but it is far worse in the islands mentioned by name. Vodou is 100% denounced and hated by all Christians here, however some, including the Roman Catholic have merged the practice into their faith, as we can see not only they adhere to Traditions of Men in this sense by adding in something accursed, but, they include Satanic like practices to their practice, hence such ones are not followers of Christ at all, and if you see people who where 100% all white garbs, it is a clear sign you have a devil worshiper in front of you. People like yourself would never know such things because it is never spoken of, but speak to an elderly person who was born and raised on the island, they will tell you, a few of the young ones will say something, which includes me, who is telling you this now.

That being said, an American Christian Youth Group I know of back in 2016 were met with such ones who practiced such, those who believe in the Loa, which is part of the Vodou doctrine.

As for blood, such ones tend to use actual blood from both humans and animals for ritualistic practices, the common targets is usually children and people are at times kidnapped in the dead of the night, either by rebels who were paid to kidnap or kill or by demonic practitioners of such a detestable thing, the worse of the worse is a Lugaroo, in your language it is referred to as a Witch, that comes to snatch up or kill someone, for these demonic persons are spoken of as being influenced and or actual manifestation of demons, as some may claim. The aftermath of any of their actions tend to be very very grim, mainly when they kill their victims, and I know from experience because even those of my own, people from my family, a few of them have been victim, one of which who was partially drained of her blood.

I myself know the country well and we have a saying, Si ce sont pas les rebelles qui vous attirent dans la journee, ce sont les demons qui viennent vous chercher la nuit, meaning if it isn't the rebels that get you in the day, it is the demons that come for you in the night.

The only good thing is that such ones who practice this keep to themselves, but the most extreme among them tend to be in parts of the islands that is forbidden, this is the same even in Africa whereas such is also practiced.

That being said, anything they do, anything they practice includes blood and idols, the very reason why majority of folks on the islands do not partake in blood transfusions due to superstitious reasons and the very threat of practitioners of sorcery being an adversary to them.

One of the reasons I believe that God will soon pout an end to this madness once and for all, hence why the view of blood, especially in my case, is very clear.

Now you have the Black Market, blood farming and organ selling. To be brief, those who fall victim to such usually have their organs and blood removed from their body, to be sold and used as if it is something normal. The common targets are African-Americans and Latinos, in some cases, anyone of this background ends up missing and never found, no trace at all, similar to the situation of the missing DC girls, 13 open cases involving missing teenagers in DC, as of 27 March 2017 to now and onward, all of them, black and several Latinos. That being said, I myself is still digging into this and trying to get more information, at least you are aware, slightly of what is going on - for this is one of many, many things that is never spoken of in mainstream news media, granted the African American Community in of itself speak up on such things themselves.

Other sources, TYT, although not much of a fan, but they had some interesting points of which may not be mentioned in the article during that time:

 

 

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WOW!

It makes you wonder, doesn't it?

I am 72 years old and if I got transfused with the blood of a young black man,  would I become a naturally talented basketball player?

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2 minutes ago, James Thomas Rook Jr. said:

WOW!

It makes you wonder, doesn't it?

I am 72 years old and if I got transfused with the blood of a young black man,  would I become a naturally talented basketball player?

Project Ambrosia takes anyone from 16/18 to 24/25 regardless of race or sex, according to Faloon, it will make you healthier and live longer, no wonder Project Ambrosia is referred to as the Vampire/Dracula.

The other one, the illegal Black Market targets blacks and latinos, but race does matter in this one, as for sex, it is anyone, even any age. Such is taken from young ones as young as the age of 7. It would be wise to understand how grim the blood farming and organ selling is in this regard and how much of a scar it leaves to such ones effected.

You cannot Space Jam your way into the NBA by means of illegal black market blood that came from a 8 year old child.

That being said, the things that is never talked about, the things taking place in the United States of America, it is unknown to some, sadly with all that going on, meanwhile....... you got Babylon the Great who is about to make a pit-stop in Texas in a few days, 4 days to be exact and it will last for 48 hours.

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I remember about eight years ago, after I cut the tip of my left hand trigger finger through the bone at the first joint with a chain saw, and stuck it back on with duct tape, and it apparently healed perfectly ... well, except of about a 12 degree angle from straight, I wondered if  I would ever be able to play the piano afterwards.

Years later I tried, and could not, as I have absolutely no musical talent, and never took lessons.

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3 minutes ago, Space Merchant said:

you got Babylon the Great who is about to make a pit-stop in Texas in a few days, 4 days to be exact and it will last for 48 hours.

WOW!

It's a good thing Texas is a very large State, for all that anticipated poop.

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      BEIRUT: Farah D., the young girl who was involved in a recent car crash, received a blood transfusion Thursday after the Prosecutor of North Lebanon authorized Batroun Hospital Director Ayoub Moukhtar to perform the procedure despite her family's refusal because it goes against their beliefs as Jehovah Witnesses. 
      After being transported to Batroun Hospital on Wednesday suffering traumatic injuries, doctors were baffled after the girl's parents rejected a blood transfusion critical to save their daughter's life. 
      This bizarre development forced Moukhtar to contact his district's Prosecutor, who directed him to go ahead with the grueling operation which involved a set of blood transfusions. 
      The prosecutor argued the hospital was legally bound to save the girl's life.
      "I contacted the prosecutor, who stressed the need to save the girl's life regardless of the parent's religious beliefs, and the hospital duty is to keep the girl alive," he said.
      According to Moukhtar, Farah is now recovering from her injuries.
      https://en.annahar.com/article/720753-minnesota-couple-delivers-christmas-day-baby-on-side-of-road
    • By Nicole
      Mrs Mortimer was undergoing a hip operation when she refused the blood transfusion
      A Jehovah's Witness lost her life after she refused a blood transfusion during a major hip operation due to her religious beliefs.
      Barbara Mortimer, 69, went against doctors' advice and sadly died on May 24, 2017, shortly after a hip replacement.
      A final hearing was held at The Old Courthouse in Hatfield yesterday (Wednesday, October 18) before Coroner Geoffrey Sullivan.
      The court heard that in January of this year, Mrs Mortimer visited her GP Mark Penwell with "severe left hip pain."
      Doctor Penwell said: "She was struggling to walk with it, even using a stick.
      "The only useful intervention was a hip replacement."
      He admitted however, that he had concerns about Mrs Mortimer, of Portland Road, Bishop's Stortford, who would decline any blood products due to her being a Jehovah's Witness.
      Mrs Mortimer also suffered what was thought to be a heart attack in 2006 and acute coronary syndrome after having chest pain in 2010.
      For her hip, Mrs Mortimer was referred to consultant orthopaedic surgeon Rajeev Sharma.
      He said: "She came to see me in the clinic on Thursday, March 23.
      "She came in with a diagnosis of hip arthritis on one of the sides.
      "She had an X-ray that showed the joints were worn out."
      Risks associated with the procedure including displacing the hip, heart attack and most commonly infection, were discussed with Mrs Mortimer.
      Mrs Mortimer chose to ungergo surgery, but was taking aspirin at the time which thins the blood. There was also a risk that she would need a blood transfusion during the operation.
      Steps included administering tranexamic acid, swabs soaked in adrenalin and a spinal aesthetic as opposed to general, as these all help to prevent and restrict blood loss.
      Mr Sharma said: "We needed to be sure our surgery is in such a manner to prevent bleeding.
      "It was safe to proceed providing we take all the necessary precautions."
      The procedure went ahead with Mrs Mortimer's haemoglobin levels being within an acceptable range.
      But during the operation after the joint was dislocated, the living part of the bone began to bleed.
      The bleed then became "exponentially massive," according to Mr Sharma following the removal of hard cartilage.
      The adrenalin swabs, an alternative method to stopping the bleed due to Mrs Mortimer's belief's, were inserted to constrict the blood vessels as well as a plastic membrane.
      Mr Sharma said: "We continued with the procedure, it was the best way to stop the bleeding.
      "I could not think why such a lot of bleeding would take place.
      "Was it the aspirin? Would it have had a significant effect on her or was there an anomaly in the pelvic bone?"
      Following the surgery, Mr Sharma spoke with Mrs Mortimer's family.
      "The recommended blood products were declined," he said.
      "We were struggling to keep her alive if we can't give her any blood. Persistent refusal was risking her life."
      Mrs Mortimer faced the decision of accepting blood products or hope that the fluids given to her post-operation would stimulate cell production after such a huge blood loss.
      She died during the early hours of the morning at Rivers Hospital in Sawbridgeworth.
      Mr Sharma was challenged in court by Counsel Kate Smith, who asked whether further enquiries should have been made prior to the hip replacement due to her age, religious beliefs, medical history and the fact she was taking aspirin.
      Ms Smith presented a booklet in court regarding Jehovah's Witnesses and surgery.
      It said "should avoid any medication that could increase blood loss," referring to aspirin which thins the blood and makes the likelihood of needing a blood transfusion more likely.
      Mrs Mortimer signed a refusal form indicating her religious convictions that "no blood transfusions are to be administered in any circumstances".
      Mr Sharma said in "hindsight" there are things that would have been done differently but at that stage all the safety precautions had been made.
      The operation was also not considered to be life-threatening.
      He was also challenged whether Mrs Mortimer needed to be on aspirin. The decision to take this course was made working on the basis that she had suffered a heart attack – later found to be untrue.
      Coroner Geoffrey Sullivan, said: "I cannot see a short form conclusion.
      "The adequate way to my mind is a narrative verdict to encompass blood loss [from the] surgical procedure and declining of blood products.
      "She was admitted to Rivers Hospital, she had advanced decision not to accept blood products, and asked to consider accepting blood products, but declined to do so."
      http://www.essexlive.news/news/essex-news/jehovahs-witness-dies-after-refusing-654766
    • By Nicole
      A judge has authorized a Montreal hospital to perform blood transfusions to treat a 14-year-old teen with cancer, despite her refusal because she is a Jehovah's Witness.
      By allowing transfusions, the court ruled that it is lawful to protect children, sometimes "against themselves," when their decisions can be fatal.
      Under Quebec law, minors over the age of 14 can refuse certain health services. However, if the child’s parents or a hospital--in this case, the McGill University Health Centre--wants to administer those services, they can seek a judge’s permission.
      Superior Court Judge Lukasz Granosik said in his decision that the teen is "a brilliant, articulate girl" who is very successful at school and has a "maturity beyond her biological age," but that she was not yet mature enough to decide for herself, and was under pressure from her parents who are also Jehovah's Witnesses.
      Granosik also noted the girl spoke of death with "resignation," despite having a 97 percent chance of recovery if she underwent treatment.
      In June 2017, she found out she had Hodgkin's lymphoma, a form of cancer, and had to begin chemotherapy.
      This treatment, however, often requires blood transfusions. Without it, the patient could die or suffer irreversible neurological damage, her doctor said.
      Jehovah’s Witnesses do not accept blood transfusions.
      Judge Granosik’s decision was rendered on Sept. 1.
      - With a report from The Canadian Press
      http://montreal.ctvnews.ca/judge-rules-teen-jehovah-s-witness-will-get-blood-transfusions-1.3599245
    • By Nicole
      When Jim Steenhuizen wound up in the intensive care unit with massive internal bleeding, doctors ordered a blood transfusion to save him.
      But even though his condition was serious, the father of two refused.
      As a Jehovah’s Witness, his religion forbids taking blood transfusions from another person.
      So doctors tried a new blood replacement product, which was acceptable.
      And after a few weeks, the 48-year-old Anderson man was back at work delivering the mail on his rural route thanks to Sanguinate.
      “I had never heard of it. And I was very thankful for it,” he told The Greenville News. “I try not to think about what might have happened.”
      Dr. Sharif Khan, a hematologist with Bon Secours St. Francis Health System where Steenhuizen was treated, said it’s challenging when providers can’t offer supportive care because of religious restrictions. But Sanguinate could solve that problem.
      “About 85 percent to 90 percent of Jehovah’s Witness patients who are told about this product accept it,” he said. “He got several doses and was stabilized. And he made a complete recovery.”
      Promising alternative
      As a result of vehicle crashes, injuries and illness, about 13.2 million transfusions are performed every year in the U.S., according to the National Institutes of Health.
        And there are 1.04 million Jehovah’s Witnesses, according to nationmaster.com, which compiles data about a variety of issues.
      There are others who can’t take blood transfusions as well, including those who develop multiple antibodies for whom matching blood can’t be found, such as patients with sickle cell disease, Khan said.
      An alternative could be helpful in those circumstances, he said. But earlier efforts to develop such a product have proven unsuccessful, he said, and even dangerous.
      As a physician specializing in disorders of the blood, Khan followed the research and learned about Sanguinate. It looked more promising than the previous attempts.
      Sanguinate is produced through a process that links molecules from cow’s blood with molecules from carbon monoxide to create a bigger molecule that lasts longer than human blood and doesn’t have to be refrigerated, he said. It’s manufactured by New Jersey-based Prolong Pharmaceuticals.
      As a stabilizing agent, Sanguinate is not being considered as a replacement for chronic blood transfusions, he said. Rather, it’s used as a bridge to something else — surgery to stop the bleeding or buying enough time until the body can make more of its own blood, he said.
      Danger zone
      When Steenhuizen arrived at the hospital, he was bleeding severely in his intestines, Khan said. He’d lost more than 80 percent of his red cells — the cells that carry oxygen to the brain, kidneys and other vital organs.
      A search located some Sanguinate at a hospital in Charlotte, he said. And a staffer drove there to retrieve it.
      At the time, Steenhuizen was facing multiple organ failure, Khan said. But after receiving a few units of Sanguinate, his oxygen level improved substantially and he was out of the danger zone.
      “He was completely coherent, his oxygen level was up,” he said. “And made a complete recovery.”
      After that, St. Francis became one of 27 sites involved in a Phase 2 clinical trial of Sanguinate already underway across the country when blood is not an option, whether for religious or medical reasons, he said.
      It’s hoped that it can one day be used by the military in battlefield conditions and by EMTs who arrive on the scene to find a victim bleeding profusely, Khan said.
      “If somebody has been in a crash, the (EMTs) can’t stick an IV into their arm and start blood,” he said. “And the Department of Defense is interested in research into these products for obvious reasons. They are stored like medications on shelves, not refrigerated, and they can be carried in an ambulance or military vehicle.”
      They don’t need to typed either like blood does, he said. And while undetected diseases may be spread through human blood transfusions, the manufacturing process destroys all the organisms in the cow’s blood that might cause disease, he said.
      But Sanguinate is not without risks, though they’re considered manageable, he said. Patients must be monitored closely for potentially dangerous blood pressure spikes and kidney dysfunction.
      Staying alive
      Steenhuizen developed internal bleeding on Feb. 13 — as best anyone can figure from taking ibuprofen for his back pain. Ibuprofen is one of a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, that can cause bleeding in some people. A day later, he was in the ICU.
      At that point, he said, his hemoglobin was a fraction of what it should have been. But a life-saving transfusion was out of the question because of the religion he and his family observe.
      Sanguinate (Photo: Bon Secours St. Francis Health System)
      “Because of my stance as a Jehovah’s Witness, I refused to take blood,” he said. “The Bible states to abstain from blood, that blood is sacred and belongs to God.
      “If I was to die because I didn’t take blood, I would have died in good standing with Jehovah, my God,” he added. “And my family was OK with that.”
      Thankfully, it never came to that. As his concerned doctors were considering surgery to try and stop the bleeding, they decided to try Sanguinate along with other medications he was given. And slowly, his blood count began to rise.
      “The main thing was to boost the oxygen level to the organs to keep me alive,” he said. “Eventually ... my blood cells started going up.”
      Steenhuizen was released after two weeks in the hospital and was back at work on March 11. He no longer takes NSAIDS, says he’s pretty much back to normal, and is glad that Sanguinate is available for him and other Jehovah’s Witnesses.
      “I think it was a great product. And I think it could benefit others,” he said. “It saved my life.”
      http://www.greenvilleonline.com/story/news/health/2017/04/11/blood-replacement-bridge-life-upstate-man/100081856/
    • By Nicole
      Peace Euodia pictured above, died of excess bleeding during child delivery, because her church, Jehovah Witness Church does not permit her to accept blood transfusion.
      http://www.lindaikejisblog.com/2017/02/photo-nigerian-woman-dies-after.html
       

    • By Nicole
      A two year-old boy with failing health can receive blood treatment despite the reluctance of his parents,  the High Court has ruled.
      In An NHS Foundation Trust v T, the youngster, referred to as ‘Child T’, had an abnormally low blood platelet (cell) count which doctors believed was related to problems with his bone marrow. As a result he had fallen ill and regularly required hospital treatment.
      A haematologist (doctor specialising in blood disorders) concluded that T would require medical treatment for the foreseeable future “in order to prevent a very serious deterioration in his health”.
      But the likely use of “blood products” in this treatment had caused a dilemma for T’s parents because they were practicing Jehovah’s Witnesses, a high profile Christian sect based in the United States which objects to blood transfusions and similar procedures on religious grounds.
      High Court Judge Mr Justice Peter Jackson described the parents as:
      “…fully committed to their son and to achieving the best outcome for him.”
      The clash between their religious beliefs and their desire to do their best for their son meant they could neither consent to the treatment nor oppose it, a position they explained in letters to the court. They asked for alternative forms of treatment to be considered.
      The NHS Trust looking after the boy applied for a legal declaration that treatment with blood products would be lawful despite the parents’ reluctance to consent.
      Mr Justice Peter Jackson concluded that:
      “I am in no doubt at all, having read the medical evidence and having considered the views of T’s parents, that it is overwhelmingly in T’s best interests for him to be able to receive this treatment in order for his health to be supported.”
      If the hospital were unable to administer the necessary treatment, there could be “very serious and possibly even fatal consequences as time went on”, he explained.
      In the circumstances it was necessary, the Judge said, for the court to make this decision rather than the parents. The resulting legal order would, however, specify that blood products would only be used “if there is no clinically appropriate alternative.”
      Read the full judgement here.
      Image by Howard Lake via Flickr under a Creative Commons licence
      A two year-old boy with failing health can receive blood treatment despite the reluctance of his parents,  the High Court has ruled.
      In An NHS Foundation Trust v T, the youngster, referred to as ‘Child T’, had an abnormally low blood platelet (cell) count which doctors believed was related to problems with his bone marrow. As a result he had fallen ill and regularly required hospital treatment.
      A haematologist (doctor specialising in blood disorders) concluded that T would require medical treatment for the foreseeable future “in order to prevent a very serious deterioration in his health”.
      But the likely use of “blood products” in this treatment had caused a dilemma for T’s parents because they were practicing Jehovah’s Witnesses, a high profile Christian sect based in the United States which objects to blood transfusions and similar procedures on religious grounds.
      High Court Judge Mr Justice Peter Jackson described the parents as:
      “…fully committed to their son and to achieving the best outcome for him.”
      The clash between their religious beliefs and their desire to do their best for their son meant they could neither consent to the treatment nor oppose it, a position they explained in letters to the court. They asked for alternative forms of treatment to be considered.
      The NHS Trust looking after the boy applied for a legal declaration that treatment with blood products would be lawful despite the parents’ reluctance to consent.
      Mr Justice Peter Jackson concluded that:
      “I am in no doubt at all, having read the medical evidence and having considered the views of T’s parents, that it is overwhelmingly in T’s best interests for him to be able to receive this treatment in order for his health to be supported.”
      If the hospital were unable to administer the necessary treatment, there could be “very serious and possibly even fatal consequences as time went on”, he explained.
      In the circumstances it was necessary, the Judge said, for the court to make this decision rather than the parents. The resulting legal order would, however, specify that blood products would only be used “if there is no clinically appropriate alternative.”
       
      http://www.marilynstowe.co.uk/2016/12/02/toddler-can-receive-blood-treatment-high-court-rules/
    • By Nicole
      The death of a Frankston toddler who contracted a rare infection that left him with blood-stained diarrhoea and coffee-coloured vomit was most likely linked to his consumption of unpasteurised bath milk, a coroner has ruled.
      Coroner Audrey Jamieson has issued a stern warning to parents still considering giving their children unpasteurised milk, despite new restrictions put in place by Dairy Food Safety Victoria.
      "If members of our community choose to drink farm-gate unpasteurised milk, that is their choice," Ms Jamieson said.
      "However, they should do so in the knowledge that it may contain harmful bacteria."
      The three-year-old boy, who cannot be named, died on October 13, 2014, from a rare and severe complication of E. coli infection, called haemolytic uraemic syndrome, after drinking unpasteurised Mountain View Organic Dairy milk.
      Four other children fell seriously ill in the same month. Three of the affected children contracted haemolytic uraemic syndrome, while two others developed a parasitic bowel infection called cryptosporidium.
      All five children had consumed Mountain View milk being sold in health food shops as "bath milk".
      "I find on the balance of probabilities that [the] child's death was most likely linked to the consumption of unpasteurised milk," Coroner Audrey Jamieson said.
      Yet, she cleared Mountain View Organic Dairy of any wrongdoing, saying the container was properly labelled and included a warning. She said regulation of unpasteurised milk sales had been adequately managed in the wake of the boy's death.
      The police investigation revealed the boy's parents had changed his diet in June 2014, after a naturopath assessed the toddler as intolerant to dairy, gluten and eggs.
      The boy's father said they had gone to "a lot of trouble to get milk". The family had been buying Mountain View Organic Dairy bath milk for two or three months before the toddler's death.
      The father told police he and his wife understood the milk was labelled as "not to be drunk", but said he "would be surprised if anyone used it for cosmetic purposes", because the bath milk was packaged in a two-litre plastic container which looked like "every other milk container". 
      The couple used the milk in tea and occasionally gave the boy a small amount with his formula. They also used the bath milk to make their own yoghurt.
      Since the boy's death authorities have imposed licence conditions on Victorian diary producers to ensure that "cosmetic dairy products" are not sold in regular two-litre milk containers and presented in such a way that they cannot reasonably be mistaken as being for human consumption.
      The parents took their son to the Medicentre Clinic at Frankston Hospital on September 30, 2014, after he had been unwell for 24 hours with abdominal pain, diarrhoea and fever. They were sent home with advice to keep up his fluid intake.
      They returned to the hospital on October 2 and October 4 and were sent home both times with a diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis. 
      The father expressed concerns about his son's medical treatment to police, saying he and his wife refused to be sent home when they visited the hospital with their son again on October 5 after he developed blood in his stools.
      "We knew he was sick and we insisted that he was admitted," the father said.
      "I felt like they were still treating [it] like a severe case of gastro. All they wanted to do was get fluids into him and get him to start eating.
      "If he had had the surgery or been given the right antibiotics then I feel like this could've been fixed and we would still have our son."
      The boy was transferred to Monash Medical Centre on October 6.
      His treatment at the Monash Medical Centre was somewhat delayed when his parents, who are practicing Jehovah's Witnesses, initially objected to the toddler receiving a blood transfusion.
      The coroner said the medical management of the boy was reasonable and appropriate, noting that nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramping were common symptoms of acute gastroenteritis.
      http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/frankston-toddlers-death-most-likely-linked-to-unpasteurised-bath-milk-coroner-finds-20161111-gsn5yj.html
    • By Nicole
      Mirlande Cadet, 46, died of suspected hemorrhage day after giving birth by C-section. 

      Mirlande Cadet left behind two daughters and her newborn son. (Isaac Cadet)
      A Quebec coroner is investigating the death of a 46-year-old Jehovah's Witness who died Oct. 3 from complications shortly after giving birth by caesarian section in a Montreal hospital.
      A spokeswoman for the coroner's office, Geneviève Guilbault, confirmed that the bureau was launching an investigation into Cadet's death in an email to CBC Montreal.
      "Based on information that's been circulating … and other information we received from the hospital, it's been decided that a coroner will investigate the death of Mrs. Cadet," Guilbault wrote.  
      The inquest is the second coroner's investigation this month into the death of a Jehovah's Witness following childbirth in Quebec.
      Unclear circumstances
      Cadet experienced complications after she gave birth to a healthy son by C-section at St. Mary's Hospital on Oct. 2 and required a blood transfusion, according to her brother Isaac Cadet.
      It is unclear if Cadet got a blood transfusion, or if she did, when she received it and what the circumstances were that led to its approval.
      Blood transfusions are forbidden under Jehovah's Witness doctrine, which holds that the Old and New Testaments command them to abstain from blood.

      Isaac Cadet says his family welcomed the news of the coroner's investigation after getting little information from hospital. (CBC)
      All Jehovah's Witnesses are expected to sign and carry a card refusing a blood transfusion.
      Isaac Cadet questions whether his sister would have signed a card and refused a blood transfusion. He described her as a loving mother to her two other children and a devoted aunt who loved to get family together. 
      "I have a lot of doubt that my sister signed that document," Cadet told CBC News.
      He welcomed news of the coroner's investigation, saying his family needs to know what happened to its "leader."
      "It's a relief because we've tried to find out what happened, tried to access documents, and we weren't allowed. We were told they're confidential," he said.
      Mirlande Cadet's husband declined to be interviewed when contacted by CBC Montreal.
      Church elders at hospital 'intimidating'
      A Quebec coroner is already investigating the death of Éloise Dupuis, 27, who is said to have refused an emergency blood transfusion for a hemorrhage after delivering a baby by C-section at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis Hospital near Quebec City.
      She died Oct. 12.
      Coroner Luc Malouin is working to determine whether her refusal was free and informed as required by medical and legal standards.
      After her death, Dupuis's aunt, Manon Boyer, filed a complaint with police in Lévis alleging her niece was pressured into refusing consent by a Jehovah's Witness hospital liaison committee.
      The committees are composed of Jehovah's Witness elders who are dispatched to a hospital when a member is facing a blood transfusion decision.
      According to the faith group, their role is to advocate for bloodless medical procedures and ensure their members' wishes are respected.
      Their presence, however, has been criticized by a former Jehovah's Witness, who said it's "intimidating."
      http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/quebec-coroner-investigates-death-of-another-jehovahs-witness-1.3822768
    • By Nicole
      Éloïse Dupuis was giddy with excitement the day before she gave birth to her first child, a son she and her husband named Liam.
      In a Facebook message to her aunt Manon Boyer, the 27-year-old said “she couldn’t wait to see him, to hold him and to rock him.”
      “She said the dream of her life was about to come true and she couldn’t wait to introduce him to me,” Boyer recalled, one week after her niece died in a hospital following complications from a difficult delivery.
      Dupuis was a Jehovah’s Witness and had signed a document, when she became an adult, saying she would not accept a blood transfusion. Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that passages in the Bible order them to abstain from taking blood, even when their life is in danger.
      The young woman died six days after giving birth in a hospital in Lévis, near Quebec City, after being transferred from a birthing centre when complications arose. The exact cause of death has not yet been determined. However, reports suggesting she didn’t accept a blood transfusion have created a stir in Quebec, with friends, some family members and politicians questioning whether she made the decision freely. 
      Her parents, her husband and her in-laws were with her for six days before she died, Boyer said.
      “I don’t believe she would have refused blood after having her baby if she knew her life was in danger. I don’t think she had the capacity to make a free choice because she was ill from two surgeries. The family never notified us that she was ill.”
      Boyer said she is happy that coroner Luc Malouin is investigating her niece’s death, because he will probably question the nurses and doctors who treated Dupuis at the hospital. Boyer said she has already spoken to Malouin about the death.
      Boyer said she felt that something was amiss when Dupuis, and her niece’s mother, failed to answer Facebook messages she had sent inquiring about the birth on Oct. 6.
      “I sent a message congratulating her on being a grandmother, but she didn’t answer,” Boyer recalled. “The next day, I sent a message saying I know they’re busy, but could they let me know if Éloïse is fine. But that wasn’t answered either.” 
      A few days later, Boyer noticed a message on Dupuis’s Facebook wall, congratulating her and her husband on their second wedding anniversary. However, the person who posted the message said that they knew “it wasn’t a happy time but that the couple would have other times to celebrate.”
      Boyer said she was confused by the message, so she replied to it asking for news about her niece.
      “Why isn’t it a good day to celebrate when you just had a baby?” she wondered.
      It was then that someone wrote that Dupuis was fighting for her life and had lost a lot of blood.
      Boyer said her daughter called the hospital to find out what was going on. A nurse said she would ask a member of Dupuis’s family to speak to her, but family members refused to come to the phone, she said.  
      “The nurse said we could come to the hospital to visit, but she said that Éloïse’s heart was beating slowly and it was just a question of hours before she would die.”
      After hearing the news, Boyer contacted Cassandra Zélézen, a childhood friend of her niece. Zélézen and her two sisters, who are triplets, drove to the hospital from their home in Rawdon, in the Lanaudière region, to try to see their ailing friend.
      Zélézen told the Montreal Gazette that Dupuis’s father refused to allow them to see his daughter. Dupuis’s husband told the triplets that he had regrets about having the baby at the birthing centre and wondered about the decision not to have a blood transfusion. 
      “Now, it’s too late,” Zélézen recalled the husband saying.
      Her friend died a short time later. 
      While at the hospital, Zélézen said that Dupuis’s husband showed her a note that Dupuis had written, while intubated, after having her uterus removed. 
      “It’s OK, we can adopt,” the note read.
      After Dupuis’s death, her friends messaged her aunt saying: “She’s dead, she’s dead.”
      On the day Dupuis died, three elders from a Jehovah’s Witness congregation were present at the hospital, according to Zélézen.
      John Redwood, a former Jehovah’s Witness from Maryland who wrote about Dupuis’s death on his website, said the organization has a Hospital Liaison Committee made up of trained elders who are dispatched to hospitals any time a Witness may require a blood transfusion.
      “Their purpose is to support the family in their decision (and) to avoid being coerced into taking blood,” said Redwood, 49, who left his congregation three years ago. “They may not have ever met the patient, but these are the enforcers of the policy.”
      He said there is a second committee, called the Hospital Visitation Committee, made up of members who visit and pray with sick patients but don’t “interfere with blood policy.”
      Simon Picard, a spokesperson for the Jehovah’s Witnesses in Canada, denied that elders are sent to hospitals to ensure that blood transfusions do not take place.
      “We have members who will be there to provide support, but the choice to not have a blood transfusion is an individual choice,” he said. “When you’re in a crisis situation, you like to have members to support you in a decision you have made.”
      Quebec Premier Philippe Couillard called Dupuis’s death “terrible,” but said it was important for society to respect the law and individual choice.
      “The jurisprudence has been very clear: if a person of sound mind refuses medical treatment, even if it costs them their life, we can’t go against their will.”
      In Quebec City, the Coalition Avenir Québec described the incident as “troubling,” and said it raises serious questions about the health care system.
      “I don’t have answers today, but I say to myself: ‘How can it be that we let someone die in Quebec for religious reasons?’ ” CAQ Leader François Legault said. 
      Nathalie Roy, the CAQ critic for secularism, wondered whether Dupuis “had really given free and clear consent. Are there people who spoke for her, who decided for her? Did she know she was going to die leaving her child there?” 
      Dupuis, whose immediate family could not be reached for comment, had moved to the Beauce region two years ago, following her marriage, but still remained in touch with Boyer and her family.
      “It’s unbelievable that you could die a few days after having a baby,” Boyer said. “The baby will be raised by them (Dupuis’s family) and we will never see him. We have lost a beautiful girl. She was full of love and was ready to help anyone, anywhere, any time.”
      http://montrealgazette.com/news/aunt-questions-whether-niece-refused-blood-transfusion-before-death
    • By Nicole
      (QUEBEC) The Government does not intend to restrict access to hospital rooms to specific groups, religions of the disciples, said yesterday the Minister of Health, Gaétan Barrette.
      “You ask me to decide on a person can receive visits from his entourage. You are going away, “said Mr. Barrette briefing. Mr. Barrette has acknowledged that as a physician, he had already faced JW representations to patient.
      Earlier in the National Assembly, the caquiste MP Simon Jolin-Barrette had claimed that Quebec clearly gives hospitals the right to restrict access to patients. In addition, a judge should be asked to intervene to assess if a patient refuses treatment rightly whose life may depend, proposed caquiste Member for Borduas.
      The young Eloise Dupuis, died last week at the Hotel Dieu de Lévis, refused a blood transfusion because she was a follower of Jehovah’s Witnesses. However, shortly before his death, the young woman had been in the hospital, visiting senior members of the sect. This “Jehovah’s Witnesses Hospital Liaison Committee” had pressured the young woman to conform to the dogma and refusing to receive blood. The Sun reported yesterday that relatives of M me Dupuis had indicated that members of this group were found in the room of the young mother until the final hours of his life.
      “We know that a font of blood is present in Québec hospitals,” said Simon Jolin-Barrette, caquiste Member for Borduas.
      “[The policy of blood] put pressure on patients and their families, it denies access to people who are not members of Jehovah’s Witnesses in the patient’s room,” reported Mr. Jolin-Barrette. According to him, access to in-patients should fall away. Can not let the “blood police” control access to rooms.
      It exceeds certain limits”
      According Gaétan Barrette, it is an exaggeration to talk of “blood police”; the opposition would, in fact, create a “police visits.” But the patient is “autonomous in his choice must be done independently.” It is a “situation is dramatic.”
      “But to use inflammatory language, when we talk of” blood police, “I think here we exceed certain limits,” said Gaétan Barrette.
      A coroner examines the circumstances of his death.
      For the PQ member Agnes Maltais, not need a judge. “Decisions on the free and informed consent, he takes daily by doctors, and it faces, in general, this kind of situation. We do not agree with the position that says that they can attack the doctors. The doctors do their job. In this case especially, we know very well that there were lawyers, there was an ethics committee and there were doctors who intervened, “said she summarized.
      http://stopru.org/quebec-said-no-to-a-police-visits-in-hospitals/19694
    • By Nicole
      More and more doctors have come to understand the risks of blood transfusions, in part over the scriptural stand of Jehovah's Witnesses.
      One of the most misunderstood and misjudged beliefs practiced by Jehovah’s Witnesseses is their refusal to eitherdonate blood or accept a transfusion of blood in a medical emergency. So firm is their conviction in this regard that they are willing to die in order to uphold ascriptural command to “abstain from blood.” But this long standing precept now has forced many in the medical community over the last number of decades to admit the stand of the Witnesses is – and has always been – a medically sound decision.
      Why don’t Jehovah’s Witnesses accept blood?
      To be clear, Jehovah’s Witnesses are a people of high morals and principles. Like anyone else, they seek out the best medical treatments available. They do not practice “faith healings.” But just as organ transplants, abortions, and right-to-die decisions are left to one's conscience, deliberated on in courts and debated for their ethical ambiguity,#Blood Transfusions are also questioned – not just for medical reasons, but based on Bible commands.
      Witnesses believe that the life force of a person – their spirit if you will – is found in one’s blood. From a physiological point of view, this is accurate. Blood is linked intrinsically to life; it carries life-giving oxygen to cells and removes carbon dioxide. But the Bible also makes a number of references to blood, first off as “belonging” to God, and second, not to consume it.
      Bible references to blood
      When Noah and his family left the ark, they were allowed to eat animals, but not their blood (Genesis 9:3-6). In the law code given to the Israelites, God forbade the eating of blood (Leviticus 17:10-14, Deuteronomy 12:23-25). In the First Century, the direction sent to the early congregations was the same – to “keep abstaining from blood” (Acts 15:29). That apostolic decree was binding, was not allayed in medical emergencies, and was listed among other well-known Christian tenets as not giving worship to idols and not engaging in immorality. Whether the blood enters via one's mouth or through a transfusion directly into the veins, it is the same.
      A medically sound decision
      Decades ago, a refusal to accept blood was seen as ill-informed – even barbaric. But no longer. Doctors now see the tremendous medical risks of blood transfusions. More than ever, major hospitals and trauma centers employ a variety of bloodless alternatives – thanks in part to studies done by Jehovah’s Witnesses.
      “When I was in medical school, honestly, that was never a thing. People didn’t talk about blood conservation,” commented Dr. Daniel DiBardino, a surgeon atHennepin County Medical Center (HCMC) in Minneapolis. “You just used blood because that’s what you did. And that has changed.”
      HCMC is one many hospitals to roll out a non-blood program. The hospital’sBloodless Surgery and Medicine Program even has a firewall restriction that physically prevents doctors from overriding a patient’s non-blood medical proxy.
      Back in 2004, the medical journal Continuing Education in Anesthesia said: "Many of the techniques developed for use in Jehovah’s Witness patients will become standard practice in years to come." And they have. A 2010 article in the journalHeart, Lung and Circulation said that "bloodless surgery should not be limited to Jehovah’s Witnesses, but should form an integral part of everyday surgical practice."
      Alternatives to transfusions
      Witnesses accept a wide range of bloodless alternatives, such as hemodilution – where blood is diverted but remains in a circuitous relationship to the patient and volume expanders are added – and cell salvage – which captures and returns blood lost during surgery. 
      http://us.blastingnews.com/news/2016/10/bloodless-surgeries-are-no-longer-procedures-simply-requested-by-jehovah-s-witnesses-001161089.html
    • By Nicole
      Much has changed as doctors have come to understand the risks of blood transfusions and the ways to avoid them — helped in part by studies of Jehovah's Witnesses. 

      Michael Anderson, a Jehovah’s Witness minister who underwent a bloodless emergency bypass procedure after a heart attack earlier this month, was visited in his hospital room by Syl Jones, a fellow Jehovah’s Witness and an administrative resident/fellow at Hennepin County Medical Center.
      Dr. Daniel DiBardino didn’t have much time for niceties on Sept. 8 as he consulted patient Michael Anderson about the emergency cardiac bypass he needed. Anderson is a Jehovah’s Witness — opposed to donor blood transfusions — and DiBardino needed to know if he could breach that religious conviction during the procedure.
      “What if he’s bleeding to death, which occasionally can happen in cardiac surgery?” he recalled asking Anderson and his wife. “A lot of things can go wrong.”
      “Absolutely not,” was the reply.
      A decade ago, that answer might have touched off a doctor-patient argument or the kind of ethics crisis featured in medical TV shows.
      But as doctors have come to understand the risks of blood transfusions and the ways to avoid them — helped in part by studies of Jehovah’s Witnesses — much has changed.
      Hospitals such as Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC), where DiBardino practices, have become more accommodating — and more adept at conserving patients’ own blood during surgeries.

      “When I was in medical school, honestly, that was never a thing; people didn’t talk about blood conservation,” DiBardino said. “You just used blood because that’s what you did. And that has changed.”
      Today, for example, surgeons understand that one unit of blood often works as well as two and that excessive blood from donors can result in transfusion-related complications and even deaths. As a result, HCMC has reduced the use of donated red blood cells by 32 percent since 2009. Other Twin Cities hospitals have reduced their use of blood products as well.
      HCMC has taken the approach a step further through its Bloodless Surgery and Medicine Program, including a firewall in its computerized medical records system that prevents doctors from ordering donor blood products once patients have refused them.
      The computer system gives doctors alternatives, such as medications that stimulate more blood production in the body, which they can consider even when preparing for emergency surgeries, said Dr. Jed Gorlin, who directs transfusion medicine at HCMC and is the medical director for Memorial Blood Centers, a regional donor agency.
      “In the heat of battle, you won’t remember all of those,” Gorlin said, “so it’s a checklist to go through all of that stuff.”
      The Jehovah’s Witnesses’ objection to receiving donor blood comes in part from interpretations of the Bible, including a passage in Acts that calls on people to “abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood.”
      Practical interpretations vary somewhat, Gorlin said. Some members of the religion accept the experimental use of a substitute made from cow’s blood, while others refuse it. A few object to the use of a machine that recycles a patient’s own blood once it has exited the body. But almost all reject transfusions of red blood cells from donors.
      Anderson, 66, has walked hundreds of miles visiting homes in southwest Minneapolis to teach his religion. He carried a medical directive with him for just such emergencies.
      Then, driving from his home in Robbinsdale to his Kingdom Hall on Sept. 8, the minister knew something was wrong.
      “All the way there, I had pain and it wouldn’t go away, and it wouldn’t go away and it wouldn’t go away,” he recalled.
      Medics determined that he was having a heart attack and gave him aspirin and nitroglycerin pills, which had eased his pain by the time DiBardino sat with him to discuss his surgery: a triple bypass to reroute blood flow around blockages to the heart.
      “There was no question ... transfusion would not be an option,” Anderson said in an interview from his hospital bed last week.
      Hemoglobin levels
      HCMC’s policy is to accommodate such objections for adult patients, when they are conscious and able to communicate their wishes, but not necessarily for parents acting on behalf of pediatric patients.
      A 1944 child labor decision in Massachusetts still governs such cases, stating that “parents are free to become martyrs themselves. But it does not follow that they are free ... to make martyrs of their children.”
      Once viewed harshly by the medical establishment, Jehovah’s Witnesses have taught doctors much about the body’s ability to survive surgeries without transfusions, Gorlin said. He gave a lecture in South Dakota this month titled “Management of blood: What we can learn from Jehovah’s Witnesses.”
      A key measure is the patient’s hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs. Doctors once thought a hemoglobin measure of 10 grams per deciliter was the key threshold at which patients needed a transfusion. Now, they have found that patients are just as likely to survive if their levels drop to seven.
      In one local case, a woman who hemorrhaged after childbirth survived despite her hemoglobin dropping to 2.3.
      “Nobody really knows for any given person how much blood loss they’ll tolerate,” DiBardino said. “You just have to kind of put your faith into it.”
      ‘Every red blood cell matters’
      Still, the odds of surviving the triple bypass that Anderson underwent are substantially lower without transfusions, DiBardino said.
      As a result, surgeons make it a priority to conserve blood, from the initial step — severing a leg vein to serve as a bypass line around a clogged artery — to connecting that bypass line to the heart.
      “It’s on your mind that every red blood cell matters for this guy,” DiBardino said. “You’re operating on the biggest structures filled with the most blood in the human body.”
      At the end of the four-hour operation, Anderson’s hemoglobin level stood at seven. But with rest, iron pills and other medications, it rose to 12.
      One week later, Anderson had fewer IV tubes and was standing and eating solid food. Two weeks later, he was back home.
      He believes his clean living helped him survive the surgery and said he is eager to ease back into walking and his door-to-door ministry.
      “It’s just a matter of pacing myself,” he said, “as I go.”
      http://www.startribune.com/minneapolis-hospital-embraces-bloodless-surgery/394648141/
    • By Nicole
      Highlights
      •Neurosurgical outcomes in patients who refuse blood products are similar to control patients when blood management protocols are followed
      •No significant differences in mortality or morbidity were identified
      •No significant differences in hospital length of stay or readmission rates were identified
      Abstract
      Background
      Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) are a Christian faith with > 1 million members in the United States who do not accept autologous blood transfusions. The optimal management of these patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures is not well defined. Here, we examined the feasibility and safety of JW undergoing neurosurgery in a blood management program.
      Study Design and Methods
      Sixty-eight JW patients including 23 males and 45 females (mean age 53 +/- 12 years) who underwent a variety of cranial (n=19) and spinal (n=49) neurosurgical procedures over a 5-year period were identified retrospectively and their hospital charts, anesthetic records and operative reports reviewed. A concurrent cohort of sex - age- and procedure-matched non-JW controls also was identified.
      Results
      Among JW patients a cell-saving system was used in 27 cases, with blood re-transfused in 13 cases. Lactated Ringers solution was used extensively intra-operatively; albumin was given to 15 patients. The median decrease in Hgb was 2.1 g/dL. One patient had a postoperative Hgb value < 7 g/dL. One patient returned to the operating room to revise a lumbar pedicle screw, and one patient had postoperative seizures. No cardiopulmonary complications, sepsis, pneumonia, or wound infection were observed. When compared to the matched control group, similar outcome results were observed. Blood loss and operative time also were similar in JW patients and controls.
      Conclusions
      Neurosurgical procedures in Jehovah's Witnesses are feasible, safe, and have similar outcomes to patients willing to accept transfusion when managed within a multidisciplinary blood management program.
      http://www.worldneurosurgery.org/article/S1878-8750(16)30854-3/abstract
    • By Nicole
      Donated blood at a bank in Indianapolis. The F.D.A. has recommended that all donated blood in the United States be screened for the Zika virus. CreditMichael Conroy/Associated Press
      The Food and Drug Administration on Friday took steps to safeguard the nation’s blood supply from the Zika virus, calling for all blood banks to screen donations for the infection even in states where the virus is not circulating.
      The recommendations are an acknowledgment that sexual transmission may facilitate the spread of Zika even in areas where mosquitoes carrying the virus are not present. Officials also want to prepare for the possibility that clusters of local infection will continue to pop up in parts of the United States for years to come.
      “There could be multiple outbreaks of Zika happening outside the known current ones in South Florida, but because we are not actively looking they could be happening silently,” said Dr. Peter J. Hotez, the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, who applauded the F.D.A.’s move.
      Without federal funds, it is generally not possible for local health departments to conduct active surveillance for Zika virus in the blood or urine of patients with fever or rash, he added.
      “In some ways the inaction from Congress has forced the F.D.A. to adopt this position,” Dr. Hotez added. “They have no other choice.”
      The agency urged blood centers to use one of two experimental tests intended to detect active infections, called nucleic acid tests, before releasing donated blood for use in transfusions. As an alternative, banks may decontaminate plasma and platelets with so-called pathogen reduction technology.
      But the recommendations are likely to pose a significant challenge for some blood banks and for the third-party labs that perform much of the blood screening nationwide, some experts said.
      Eleven states must put the new safeguards into place within four weeks. They include Alabama, Arizona, California, Georgia, Louisiana, New York and Texas, which have many residents who travel to Zika-affected countries or are near an area that already has locally acquired mosquito-borne cases.
      Other states have 12 weeks to carry out the recommendations.
      “This is a bombshell, because this is extremely rapid introduction of a new test nationwide that’s almost unprecedented,” said Dr. Jeffrey McCullough, emeritus professor of laboratory medicine and pathology at the University of Minnesota Medical School. “To try to implement this, in four weeks, is really, really difficult.”
      Yet the new safeguards also are necessary, Dr. McCullough said. Under current guidelines, it is too difficult to identify infected donors by “trying to sort out risky donors by history of where they’ve been or what they’ve exposed to.”
      Nationwide, nearly 14 million units of whole blood and red blood cells are collected each year from about seven million donors. Every day, as many as 36,000 units of red blood cells are given to patients, along with 7,000 platelet units and 10,000 units of plasma. Consistent screening of the blood supply is an enormous task.
      There are more than 11,500 confirmed cases of Zika virus in states and territories, according to the C.D.C. Nearly 2,500 of them are people in the continental United States who traveled abroad where Zika-infected mosquitoes are circulating. More than 30 cases were acquired in Florida.
      Puerto Rico has been screening all blood donations since March. TheCenters for Disease Control and Prevention in June found that asurprisingly high percentage of donors had signs of active infection with the Zika virus.
      The F.D.A. provisionally approved two screening tests for Zika in blood donations on an investigational basis in March and June respectively. The first is made by Roche Molecular Systems, and the second by a collaboration between Hologic Inc. and Grifols.
      Neither test is fully F.D.A approved yet, and the facilities using them are enrolled in a continuing study. As part of Roche’s investigation, four centralized testing labs that screen blood for multiple banks in the South have been “collecting and testing blood for weeks now,” said Tony Hardiman, who leads the blood screening operations at Roche.
      For the 11 states that need to be ready in a month, he said, “we are pretty much locked and loaded.”
      “Our focus now is what do we do for the rest of the country to bring them up in 12 weeks,” he added.
      Officials at Blood Systems, which operates blood banks in 24 states, said they will be able to test blood donations in California and some Southern states like Mississippi in a month. The company will then work on getting sites in the Rocky Mountain States operational, said Dr. Ralph R. Vassallo Jr., the chief medical and scientific officer.
      Creative Testing Solutions, a large blood donor testing lab, already is using both experimental Zika screening tests. In Tampa, the company has relied on Roche’s test since the Zika outbreaks began in Miami-Dade County.
      In its Dallas and Phoenix outposts, C.T.S. has installed two so-called Panther machines to be able to screen tubes of blood with the Hologic-Grifols test, in case Zika-infected mosquitoes arrive along the Gulf Coast.
      In light of Friday’s F.D.A. recommendations, officials said they will have to train more employees to use new tests and significantly scale up.
      “We test 35 percent of the blood supply, so in order to be able to do that in all states in 12 weeks, we are going to need additional pieces of equipment,” said Marc Pearce, a spokesman for C.T.S. — 12 more Panthers and one more machine that runs the Roche test.
      Asked on a conference call with reporters about funding the new safeguards, Dr. Peter Marks, the director of the F.D.A.’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, said, “I can’t speak to the cost of implementation at this time.”
      Hospitals may wind up paying more for each unit of blood because of additional screening costs, some experts said.
      “When hospitals hear this, they will be concerned that they could see a cost increase of up to $8 more per unit,” Dr. Vassallo said, which is roughly how much it costs to screen each unit for the Zika contamination.
      This month, after the first cases of local transmission in Miami were discovered, some blood banks near Zika hot zones in Florida began screening blood donations. According to Dr. Marks, one donation contaminated with the virus had been found in recent weeks in the state.
      The bag of contaminated blood was discarded. “The system worked correctly,” Dr. Marks said.
      http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/27/science/all-donated-blood-in-us-will-be-tested-for-zika.html?_r=0
    • By Nicole
      Dana Edson was talking with a friend from her church in Kerrville, TX. Her friend’s son was in need of a kidney transplant. Edson offered to be tested to see if she was a match for Mark Ridgaway, whom she’d never met.
      Ridgaway had been given a kidney transplant from his mother 16 years ago, but he was in need of another transplant and had been on a wait list for over a year. It turned out that Edson was match, but instead of donating a kidney to Ridgaway, Dr. Osama Gaber – director of the J.C. Walter Jr. Transplant Center at Houston Methodist – asked her to enter a swap program.
      She agreed on one condition: “I wouldn’t want to give my kidney if Mark had to wait three years for his, and that’s when (Dr. Gaber) gave me the guarantee that Mark would get his the same day as I gave mine,” says Edson. 
      When it was all said and done, Edson’s willingness to enter the program resulted in a six-way kidney swap. 71-year old Rudyne Walker was the last of the six to receive a kidney. She was in stage five renal failure when she received, Edson’s.
      “I got from Dana a kidney that is young and vigorous and excited about life. I haven’t had a kidney like that in 40-years. It moves me when I’m not ready to go,” said Walker.
      In order for a recipient to receive a kidney, they must have a donor willing to enter the swap program. Kellie Canaday worked with Walker at Exxon. Canaday had offered to donate a kidney for Walker but they weren’t a match. Maria Coronado ended up receiving Kellie’s kidney.
      Juan Coronado shed 30 pounds to help his wife. Maria had been dealing with dialysis for two years. Juan’s kidney went to Steve Miller, whom Coronado had never met. Miller had been battling with diabetes for 43 years and like Ridgaway, was in need of a second transplant. 
      Olivia Miller wanted to help her husband, but she was not a match. So instead she helped Esmerelda Guerrero. Guerrero and her husband Cesar are Jehovah’s Witnesses from New Mexico. They had been turned down in their effort to receive a kidney transplant for Esmerelda because they refuse to have blood transfusions. Fortunately for them, Houston Methodist is one of a select few hospitals that perform bloodless transfusions.
      “We have a program for Jehovah’s Witness transplants. We do actual lung transplants with Jehovah’s Witnesses. So, we give them hormones to raise their blood count, we prepare them differently for the transplant,” says Dr. Gaber.
      While Cesar didn’t provide a kidney for his wife, he was still able to help. Felix Rodriguez received Cesar’s kidney. Sandra Izquierdo wanted to help her brother, Felix, but couldn’t because she wasn’t a match. Instead her kidney went to Mark Ridgaway.
      Six donors and six recipients, all thanks to the kindness of strangers, though they all consider themselves family now. Dr. Gaber says months of preparation went into performing the “six-way” organ swap. “You actually need 12 operating rooms and it is hard on the hospital because of the complexity, you don’t want to make mistakes. The kidney needs to go to the right place,” said Dr. Gaber.
      With more than 1,400 people on the Methodist kidney transplant wait list, the hospital hopes more people will participate in the program.
      http://www.houstonpublicmedia.org/articles/news/2016/08/01/162583/houston-methodist-performs-six-way-kidney-swap/
    • By Nicole
      At least 2,234 Indians have contracted HIV while receiving blood transfusions in hospitals in the past 17 months alone, say officials.
      The information was revealed by the country's National Aids Control Organisation (Naco) in response to a petition filed by information activist Chetan Kothari.
      Mr Khothari told the BBC that he was "shocked" by the revelation.
      India has more than two million people living with HIV/Aids.
      The highest number of patients who had been infected with HIV as a result of contaminated blood in hospitals, were from the northern state of Uttar Pradesh with 361 cases, Mr Kothari's RTI (Right to Information) query revealed.
      The western states of Gujarat with 292 cases and Maharashtra with 276 cases rank second and third respectively.
      The Indian capital Delhi is at number four with 264 cases.
      "This is the official data, provided by the government-run Naco. I believe the real numbers would be double or triple that," Mr Kothari told the BBC.
      Under law, it is mandatory for hospitals to screen donors and the donated blood for HIV, hepatitis B and C, malaria and other infections.
      "But each such test costs 1,200 rupees ($18; £12) and most hospitals in India do not have the testing facilities. Even in a big city like Mumbai, only three private hospitals have HIV testing facilities. Even the largest government hospitals do not have the technology to screen blood for HIV," Mr Kothari said.
      "This is a very serious matter and must be addressed urgently," he added.
      Source: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-36417789

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    • Thanks for the review
    • What a great actress Keira Knightley is. She nailed this part so elegantly. What a story of one of France's most successful authors. It also showed how a country girl was tortured by picking the wrong man. But on the other hand he did make her into what she became?
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