By Guest Kurt
The computer scientists at BBN Technologies who created ARPANET, which eventually developed into the Internet we know today. Image Source: Fark
On October 29, 1969, the world was humbly changed forever. At 10:30 p.m., a student programmer at UCLA named Charley Kline sent the letter “l” and the letter “o” electronically more than 350 miles to a Stanford Research Institute computer in Menlo Park, California. The letters stood for “login,” and the effort led to a system crash immediately afterward. But a technological revolution had begun.
That first unassuming message was the first flicker of what we now know as the Internet, but was then called ARPANET. Like many expensive, revolutionary technologies, ARPANET was funded by the U.S. military. In particular, the U.S. Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency Network–hence the abbreviation to ARPANET. The Cold War had the country in fear of a nuclear apocalypse, and the military needed a way to command and control their computers remotely in the case of an attack.
working computer with ARPANET connectivity, circa 1970. Image Source: Computer History Museum At the same time, the computer scientists who developed ARPANET had their own motivations. In 1969, being a computer scientist was time consuming; if they wanted computer access; they were required to schedule time on one of the few computers around the country. Scientists wanted to be able to access the information on a certain computer from where they were seated rather than travel large distances. Electronic messages were the answer. A written record of the first message sent over ARPANET. Image Source: NPR.org
In just 45 years since that fateful first message, the Internet has changed the world irrevocably. Those born after the late 1980s have never even seen a world without a commercialized World Wide Web. The tail end of the millennial generation has only heard the dial-up sound used ironically. With the Internet settling into middle age, here are some of the early, staggering breakthroughs that brought us the Internet we know today.
1969: ARPANET is
A map of the four connected computers when the first ARPANET message was sent. Image Source: VOX
Four university computers– at UCLA’s Network Measurement Center, Stanford Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, and The University of Utah–are connected via nodes that allow electronic communication. UCLA sends off the first message, “lo,” to Standford on October 29.
1972: The first form of email is created
Ray Tomlinson creates email as an engineer at the tech firm Bolt, Beranek and Newman. He says he was inspired by colleagues who didn’t answer their phones. He also was the first person to use the @ sign to signal the name of senders and recipients. Unfortunately, Tomlinson doesn’t remember what the first email said, so there will never be an email equivalent of Alexander Graham Bell’s “Mr. Watson-come here-I want to see you.”
1974: ARPANET goes commercial
Telenet becomes the first commercial version of ARPANET. The term “Internet” was created as shorthand for internetworking the year before, and Telenet uses the term when it creates the first Internet Service Provider (ISP).
1983: Website addresses become much easier to remember
The Domain Name System (DNS) creates .edu, .gov, .com, .mil, .org, .net, and .int for naming websites. Before that, websites were identified with numbers (123.456.789.10 for example).
1989: Commercial dial-up is introduced
The World becomes the first commercial ISP. The World is still a website today, and it looks as old as it is.
1991: The first live feed webcam
The Trojan Room Coffee Pot, AKA the first live webcam. Image Source: Digital Archaeology
Webcams have since taken over the Internet for many different reasons, but the first webcam was pure utility. Dubbed the “Trojan Room Coffee Pot,” the video feed solely featured the coffee pot in University of Cambridge’s coffee room. The only goal was to prevent the university’s computer scientists from going to get coffee only to find out that the pot was empty.
1993: The Internet becomes browsable
Mosaic: the first widespread Internet browser. Image Source: Six Revisions
Mosaic becomes the first well-known web browser, opening up the technology to people unfamiliar with computer programming.
1998: Google begins world domination
The first beta version of Google, 1998. Image Source: Six Revisions
There are many similarities between the dangers of surfing in the ocean and the dangers of surfing on the web. Dangers such as jagged rocks, sharks, sea urchins, jellyfish, riptides, thunderstorms, other surfers and shallow reefs can seriously harm or even kill the unprepared surfer. Similarly, aimlessly surfing the web can cause lasting spiritual, mental and emotional damage. What are some of the dangers that we may face if we aimlessly surf the web? 1.) Satan is like a hungry shark swimming beneath the surface in the sea of information found on the internet. 2.)Posting too much personal/private information into the cloud has created stormy times for many, especially for young ones. 3.) Cyber bullies are like sea urchins that will stick you with painful toxic taunts and insults. 4.) Pornographic sites are abundant like a large swarm of jellyfish. Just a slight brush with one can be shocking. Getting stung by pornography can cause lasting pain and can even lead to spiritual death. 5.) Political discussions/opinions are all over the internet and are like shallow reefs. Political promises of wealth, change, peace and prosperity may appear appealing, but they are lies that can cause much harm to those trusting and reaching out for them. If we don’t maintain our neutrality we may lose our balance and fall into political debates. The scrapes from such debates can easily cause our thinking to become infected. 6.) Others surfing the web include apostates that won’t hesitate to drop in and make waves for you. Their goal is to try to trick or scare you so that you lose balance and fall spiritually. 7.) Worldly thinking and trends are like strong currents that can easily drag us away from the safety of God’s spiritual shore and into the depths of sin. 8.) False teachings and philosophies are all over the internet like jagged rocks that can wreck our faith if we surf toward them. 9.) Even if we manage to avoid all of these dangers, we still must avoid sinking too much time into surfing the web. Doing so can eventually cause us to drown spiritually. The internet, like the ocean, has a lot of beautiful things in it, but there are many dangers above and below the surface that can harm us. If we choose to go into those waters, we must be prepared. If children want to go into those waters, parents need to pay attention. So many kids are easily getting addicted to the thinking and imagery found on the internet. To turn a blind eye to this would be like sending a child into shark infested waters in a storm to go surf. Check their history, monitor their activity, protect them from the shark, the urchins and the jellyfish. The best option to enjoy the ocean and stay safe is to stay on God’s shore and enjoy the spiritual waters he provides as they roll in.
Many of us remember the exciting Internet as the arena for the free exchange of ideas, debate and sharing of creativity, news, commerce etc.
The Internet once held the promise of a more democratic world. Everyone would have a voice, a medium, to share ideas and thoughts on.
Instead of pointing at commerce as the culprit for killing the Internet I will point at large corporations exploiting people's inherent laziness.
Once Apple and Google introduced apps to the world more and more percentage of user eyeballs were now locked into the apple or google app bubble world. I remember being told about the "halo effect" of buying an Apple device which I love. I use these great devices to use the Internet still. If you are reading this story... then so do you. Congratulations.
But the question really is... How did you get to this page?
Forums would also simultaneously be ignored as Facebook.com would become an app and actually become the de facto Internet for most people.
Apple would purposely handcuff it's iOS browser in order to make developers use apps.
The browser wars have never ended. This is a race for people's eyeballs.
Google searches for news would start to slide.
Forums like this would try to add more functionality to compete with social media and would see readership and engagement suffer over time.
Information is power. True. But we should update this saying to something like.... Power is controlling the flow of information to the masses of people.
The pen truly is mightier than the sword.
How will this story end? Will ever faster connections make apps (which are basically caches) disappear in favor of fully functional browsers?
Will another dominant player arise?
Will Google empower the people again as it did with Windows Office subjugation?
We live in interesting times.
Almost every major service that isn't part of a major internet provider seemed to be having issues. As such, Google and Facebook appeared to stay up – but almost everything else was down
Twitter is down again!
Twitter felt the sting of downtime Friday. In the two-hour window of the initial impact, it said, "various Twitter domains including twitter.com may have been inaccessible for users in some regions, due to failures resolving particular DNS hostnames."
In a denial-of-service attack, targeted computers get hit with an overwhelming volume of bogus data requests, which dramatically slows down access and in extreme cases can completely cut off legitimate traffic.
The outage, mainly affecting the northeast U.S., seems to have been brought on by a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack on Dyn, an Internet company that hosts a variety of widely used platforms, though it is currently unclear why this happened.
Writing on its website Friday morning, Dyn said it had been the subject of an attack, adding that “some customers may experience increased DNS query latency and delayed zone propagation during this time.” Service has since been restored, according to DNS status reports.
Dyn, the affected company, indicated earlier that the issue had been fixed. But then it reported again that it had "begun monitoring and mitigating a DDoS attack against our Dyn Managed DNS infrastructure. Our Engineers are continuing to work on mitigating this issue".
It still isn't clear where that cyber attack originated or when or how it was likely to stop.
A list of major websites who have been affected:
and even service providers including Comcast, Cox, Time Warner Cable and AT&T were also affected.
and several other platforms appeared to go dark or experience problems
By Guest Nicole
A generously funded “online hate crime hub” has been set up to tackle online vitriol by identifying suspects and encouraging citizens to report them to police, but critics fear the newly-established unit might endanger freedom of speech.