Autor: National Geographic Traveler Fecha: 2017-11-16
La primera tortuga caimán (Macrochelys temminckii) salvaje encontrada en el estado de Illinois en 3 décadas podría haber vagado por las profundidades de un arroyo estos últimos años en esta región de Estados Unidos. Investigadores de la Universidad de Illinois informaron sobre este reciente hallazgo, que podría significar una esperanza para esta especie, al diario de Southeastern Naturalist.
El biólogo Chris Phillips se zambulló en las aguas de Clear Creek, ubicado al sur de Illinois con el objetivo de encontrar una tortuga caimán macho. Sin embargo, su mano finalmente sintió un caparazón, pero uno mucho más grande de lo esperado. Este pertenecía a una tortuga hembra de medio metro de largo y con un peso de 10 kilos, según informes de la universidad.
Leer más: http://www.ngenespanol.com/traveler/agenda/17/11/16/hallan-la-primera-tortuga-caiman-en-mas-de-30-anos/
In the country’s first camp for internally displaced people since the civil war, 70 people are living on a basketball court: ‘We won’t go back’
People have dinner at the shelter for the displaced community of El Castaño. A total of 19 families left their community after receiving threats. Photograph: Encarni Pindado for the Guardian
A gloomy group of men and women watch in silence as a truckload of armed soldiers slowly drive past the basketball court where they are living in makeshift plastic shelters.
This encampment in Caluco, a small town 40 miles west of the capital, San Salvador, is home to about 70 people from a nearby farming community, forced to flee their homes after a recent escalation of gang violence.
It is El Salvador’s first camp for internally displaced people since the 12-year civil war, when an estimated one million people were forcibly displaced and 80,000 killed.
The war between the leftist guerrillas and US-supported military dictatorships ended in 1992, but peace never came to this small Central American country, where the social and economic inequalities which triggered the conflict remain unresolved. Social exclusion, state repression and gang violence have steadily grown worse, and in recent years, El Salvador has become the world’s most violent country outside a declared war zone.
Ironically, the region around Caluco was spared much of the civil war bloodletting, said the local mayor, Bianca Oriana, who set up the camp in the shadows of the Santa Ana volcano. “In this area, we were not badly affected by the war violence. For us, the gangs are much worse,” she said.
The Caluco camp serves as the latest stark warning that extreme violence is again displacing huge numbers of Salvadorans, forcing entire families to leave home in search of safety.
More than 1,000 people, including several entire communities, are known to have been internally displaced since the beginning of 2015, according to human rights activists in El Salvador. The actual number is likely to be much higher.
Tens of thousands more have fled the country altogether. In the past year, almost 40,000 Salvadorans travelling in family groups, and unaccompanied children, were apprehended by US border control agents.
While the worst violence was once concentrated in deprived urban areas, it has since spread to small towns and rural communities.
Caluco is a picturesque semi-rural district with about 9,000 inhabitants. About seven years ago, Barrio 18 Sureños – one of the three largest gangs in the country - started forming clicas, or cells, in the area.
“At first they didn’t cause any problems, it was just about belonging to something –but then came the drugs and violence,” said Oriana.
According to local people, around three years ago, the gang leaders suddenly started carrying high-calibre weapons and pressuring families to cooperate: providing money and food whenever demanded, or acting as lookouts for police or soldiers.
The murder rate inched up steadily, despite the presence of an army base in the district; one by one, families started to leave.
One of the worst-affected communities was El Castaño, where a 64-year-old man called Francisco Barrientos was killed after allegedly refusing to cooperate with a gang led by one of his nephews. His relatives responded by burning down the house of the gang leader’s mother.
“We knew this was a declaration of war, but I am happy we did it,” said a family member, who asked not to be named. “They had been doing bad things for a long time.”
The military are in charge of the 24-hour security of the shelter for displaced people in Caluco, Sonsonate. Photograph: Encarni Pindado for the Guardian
In response, the gang ordered the entire community to leave – on pain of death. Within days, almost every family had abandoned their corn and yucca fields, and fled with only the clothes on their backs.
Since then, the national police have sent in reinforcements from the anti-gang unit, and 35 alleged gang members have been detained and paraded in front of TV cameras. Human Rights groups say El Salvador’s new mano dura – or iron fist – policy against the gangs has resulted in the indiscriminate targeting of young men.
The families in the camp have been told they must soon return home, but many are too scared – both of the gang members and the local police – and are considering fleeing the country.
“Those who are guilty should pay, but those who are innocent should be let go,” said one 53-year-old woman, whose eldest son was among those arrested. “We won’t go back; we can’t trust the police who have stained my son’s name. I don’t know where we’ll go, but maybe to another country.”
El Salvador and Nicaragua earthquake: Tsunami warning after 7.0 magnitude quake strikes in Pacific OceanBy Nicole
Earthquake hits, triggering tsunami warnings, after Nicaragua Caribbean coastline battered by hurricane
A 7.0 magnitude earthquake has shaken El Salvador and Nicaragua, just an hour after a powerful hurricane hit Nicaragua's eastern coast.
The double whammy was a grim test for a largely poor region which lacks resources and emergency plans for natural disasters.
Salvadoran authorities issued a tsunami alert as a precaution after the tremor, which struck around 75 miles off the coast of El Salvador, at a depth of 20 miles beneath the Pacific Ocean, according to the US Geological Survey. The quake was first measured at a magnitude of 7.2 but was then downgraded.
"Hazardous" waves measuring about up to 1m (three feet) are possible to hit coastal areas within 300km of the quake's epicentre.
Shaking was also felt in the Nicaraguan capital of Managua, and as far as the Costa Rican capital San Jose.
Nicaragua's president, Daniel Ortega, declared a state of emergency immediately after the quake. The country was already on alert for an hurricane which struck earlier the same day, as was Costa Rica.
There were no immediate reports of damage or casualties, according to the country's civil defense agency.
Just one hour before the earthquake, a powerful hurricane, Otto, packing winds of 110mph, made landfall on Nicaragua's Caribbean coast.
Thousands of people had already been evacuated from coastal areas into shelters - a total of 7,000 people are expected to evacuate in Nicaragua alone. Government officials said some people had refused to evacuate but did not say how many. Earlier this week, four people died in Panama due to outer bands of the storm.
The heavy rains it was offloading were likely to cause dangerous flooding and mud slides, according to the US National Hurricane Center, as much as 20 inches of rain are expected in isolated areas across northern Costa Rica and southern Nicaragua. Schools were shut down and emergency teams were mobilised.
Otto was the southernmost hurricane to ever make landfall in Central America, the NHC said, and residents were not prepared.
The storm came ashore on Thursday near the Costa Rican border on the town of San Juan de Nicaragua, also known as Greytown. Residents said they were scared, and saw heavy rains and winds rip off roofs and bring down cable lines. In the town of Bluefields, panic buying meant bottled water and lamps were swept off the shelves, and some residents fled in boats while others hammered themselves into their homes with metal sheeting, praying the storm would move on.
Otto will weaken as it moves inland and will likely become a tropical storm by Thursday evening, the center added. It is currently travelling west at around 9mph, chewing its way along both sides of Costa Rica's and Nicaragua's coastlines.