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El Comité de Ética Asistencial del HUBU aborda doce casos al año


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Es el comité más activo de la Comunidad / Está compuesto por una veintena de personas, entre ellas un licenciado en Derecho y una profesora de filosofía de la UBU

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El concepto ‘bioética’ fue usado, por primera vez, por el biólogo Van Rensselaer Potter en 1970, pero ha sido en los últimos años cuando ha protagonizado un amplio progreso. Como explica Jacinto Bátiz, jefe de la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos del Hospital de San Juan de Dios de Santurce en un artículo sobre este ámbito, la bioética ayuda al profesional sanitario «a pensar y ponderar con rigor y sentido crítico sobre cómo debe ser nuestro comportamiento profesional al servicio de nuestros enfermos».

Con este precepto, los centros hospitalarios empezaron a incluir en sus espacios comités de ética asistencial o de bioética. En la capital burgalesa, aún con el Hospital General Yagüe, nacía «en el año 2003» el Comité de Ética Asistencial del Área de Burgos, tal y como explica su presidente, el oftalmólogo Javier Jiménez.

El comité es un órgano consultivo e interdisciplinar al servicio de los profesionales sanitarios y de los usuarios del centro, que se encarga de analizar y asesorar en la resolución de conflictos éticos que puedan surgir como consecuencia de la labor asistencial. El objetivo final «es siempre mejorar la dimensión ética de la práctica clínica y la calidad de la asistencia sanitaria», comenta la doctora Rosa María Martínez, secretaria del comité.

La bioética recoge una serie de principios. Entre ellos «el respeto a la autonomía del paciente; la beneficencia, es decir, que el profesional siempre debe buscar siempre el bien del paciente;el principio de no maleficencia- no hacer daño a un paciente aunque este lo pida- o el principio de justicia, el acto médico debe ser justo, máxime en una Sanidad pública donde los recursos son limitados».

La actividad del comité burgalés se ha incrementado poco a poco y actualmente «gestionamos una docena de casos al año». Una cifra que les lleva a convertirse en «uno de los comités más activos de la región» aunque «aún queda mucho camino por recorrer», comenta Jiménez. Y es que a pesar de que la bioética «es una asignatura obligatoria en las carreras sanitarias, los profesionales de la medicina están muy volcados en su preparación técnica y no deben olvidar que la bioética no es un asunto menor, sino que requiere mucha energía».

Precisamente porque el ser humano camina «hacia las enfermedades crónicas y a un mayor envejecimiento de la población, lo que conllevará otro tipo de medicina, menos espectacular y menos glamurosa», pero que «requerirá de más cuidados y más atención porque los profesionales tendrán que tratar con enfermos pluripatológicos», añade.

Además, con el paso de los años, han surgido nuevos debates como la gestación subrogada, los cuidados paliativos o la limitación del esfuerzo terapéutico, entre otros, que «requieren de nuevas herramientas y que no solo pueden abordarse desde un punto de vista ‘técnico’ sino que deben valorarse desde un punto de vista ético».

Aunque en la inmensa mayoría de los casos, el médico es capaz de resolver por sí mismo un conflicto ético, en otras ocasiones «se ve incapaz de tomar una decisión solo y es cuando recurre al comité», comenta Jiménez. En tal caso, el proceso de actuación está perfectamente definido. «Una vez el médico hace la consulta, el comité debate y emite un informe con una recomendación, pero es el profesional quien finalmente decide», explica la secretaria del ente, quien recuerda que «el comité es un órgano consultivo sin capacidad de decisión». El ente se reúne de forma periódica «una vez al mes, pero si hay casos urgentes tenemos un compromiso de respuesta de 24 ó 48 horas», explica la médico, quien recuerda que «también es un servicio que pueden utilizar los usuarios a través de Atención al Paciente».

Uno de los colectivos que más uso hace del comité es el de los Testigos de Jehová, ya que no aceptan las transfusiones de sangre. «Estos casos están ya muy asumidos y en ellos prima la libertad individual», comenta Martínez, quien recuerda, que «estos conflictos se tratan de resolver buscando una serie de alternativas, nunca hay un abandono, hay centros que se ofrecen a tratar a estos pacientes sin transfusiones».

Una veintena de personas conforman el comité. Además de por profesionales de la Sanidad y representantes del ámbito administrativo del HUBU, en el ente hay un licenciado en Derecho «porque no podemos recomendar algo que no vaya en contra de la ley» y una profesora de filosofía de la UBU, que «aporta la visión más humanista». Y es que una de las herramientas claves de la ética es la comunicación. «Hablar, debatir fundamentando las cosas o estar dispuesto a cambiar de opinión y a cuestionar lo que uno piensa es el método de trabajo principal de un comité de ética».

Los tiempos cambian y a la bioética, como a todo, se le plantean nuevos retos. «Cómo gestionar las enfermedades crónicas, cómo acompañar mejor a los pacientes, cómo gestionar el inicio y el final de la vida o dónde poner los límites son solo algunos de ellos».

Cursos, sesiones clínicas y un ciclo de cine temático

Además del papel consultivo del Comité de Ética Asistencial del Área de Burgos, el ente ofrece cursos y hace sesiones clínicas dirigidas a los profesionales sanitarios. Además los médicos y enfermeros residentes «deben realizar de forma obligatoria un curso de bioética», explica el oftalmólogo Javier Jiménez, presidente del comité.

Entre las actividades que desarrolla el comité destaca un ciclo de cine que «tiene una gran acogida y que se centra cada año en un tema», explica la doctora Rosa María Martínez, secretaria del comité. «Este año nos hemos centrado en la maternidad», comenta y añade que «se hacen tres proyecciones de películas relacionadas con el tema en horario de tarde y posteriormente se abre un debate entre los asistentes».

«Es una actividad que permite a los médicos acercarse al mundo de la bioética y demostrar que la inteligencia colectiva suma», asevera.

http://www.elcorreodeburgos.com/noticias/burgos/comite-etica-asistencial-hubu-aborda-doce-casos-ano_159951.html

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