looks like there's more water than we expected on the moon, and hopefully that'll be useful for future astronauts!
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Emergency Survival / Prepping >
Storing potable water can be one of the trickiest parts of prepping. It is crucial to have water on hand, though, if the local water supply becomes contaminated or simply isn’t accessible. The problem with storing water is that the shelf life is typically short, and there’s a risk of chemicals from the packaging leaching into the water. Filtration and purification systems are good to have on hand, but they only benefit when there is an actual water supply.
Luckily, there is a company that figured out how to can pure water so that it has a 50 year shelf life. Blue Can Premium Emergency Water is packaged in 12 ounce cans, and can be stored between 33 degrees F to 150 degrees F for up to 50 years.
We’re of the mindset that clean water is safe water. Unfortunately, that can’t be said of those trying to make a buck by selling the “health conscious” on what they’re calling “raw water”: untreated H20 (often sourced from who knows where). While straight-from-the-spring water can be safe, experts point out that “the cleanliness of the water depends on things you can't see—whether herds of elk or moose or caribou have relieved themselves in a stream that you're drinking from and left it full of parasites” (that can cause a very unpleasant gut disease called giardia). Or “whether there has been groundwater contamination from naturally occurring elements such as arsenic, radon or uranium, or from pesticides and other chemicals.” So think twice before paying for a “health” product that might just make you sick.
via TheWorldNewsOrgWorld News
By Guest Nicole
A tardigrade, known as a water bear, is shown magnified 250 times. These tiny aquatic invertebrates can go without water for 10 years, surviving as a dessicated shell.
Steve Gschmeissner/Getty Images
Microscopic, bear-shaped animals called tardigrades are one of the most resilient animals on earth. Known colloquially as water bears, they can survive freezing temperatures, radiation, even a trip to outer space.
The creatures are famous for their ability to withstand extremely dry conditions. Water bears can go without water for 10 years, surviving as a dessicated shell. Just how they come back to life when their environment is friendlier has baffled scientists for years.
Now researchers think they have the answer, and it may someday help us ship pharmaceuticals more efficiently.
Scientists initially thought tardigrades were surviving desiccation by using a sugar called trehalose. In bacteria and fungi, trehalose can turn the inside of cells to a glass-like matrix that keeps proteins from being damaged in super dry conditions. The process, called vitrification, allows dried-up organisms to hold proteins and molecules together until the organism is rehydrated and can get back to business.
But when they looked closely, researchers found that trehalose was barely detectable in water bears, and that some species don't have the ability to make the sugar at all. So researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill set out to find what the tardigrades were doing to regenerate.
Led by UNC postdoctoral fellow Thomas Boothby, the team of biochemists started by drying out tardigrades and determining which genes were "switched on" in response. One group of proteins called IDPs, or intrinsically disordered proteins, stood out. "When we looked at which genes are activated most during that drying stress, the genes that encode the disordered proteins jumped right to the top of the list," Boothby said.
IDPs are the oddballs of the protein world. Most proteins have a stable 3-D structure that's important for their function, but intrinsically disordered proteins have no set shape. That means they're flexible and can wiggle and move to bind things in the cell. Boothby says IDPs are like "wiggly spaghetti springs where they are constantly changing shape."
Water bears that lacked functional IDPs couldn't survive extremely dry conditions, as the biochemists noted in a study published Thursday in Molecular Cell.
Boothby found that IDPs form bio-glass much like trehalose does in bacteria and fungi. Essentially, when the water bears get stressed, they start cranking out IDPs that fill up the cells and form the protective matrix.
Once they determined that IDPs prevented tardigrades from drying up and dying, the researchers put IDPs in yeast and bacteria to see if it could protect them as well. The borrowed tardigrade proteins increased the ability of some bacteria and yeast to survive desiccation by 100-fold. That means that tardigrade proteins are functional even when you put them in other organisms.
Boothby thinks these proteins could be useful in pharmaceutical storage. "A lot of protein-based pharmaceuticals are very effective but also very unstable," he says.
To keep them stable, some drugs need to be kept very cold as they're transported and stored. This makes shipping and storage very expensive – which can be an insurmountable challenge in developing countries.
Boothby thinks that using the tardigrade proteins to help stabilize the medicines could eventually bring down that cost. "Essentially, what we envision is using these tardigrade proteins to stabilize sensitive proteins in a dried state, and then being able to ship and store these lifesaving drugs all over the world at room temperature."
So water bear proteins might bear benefits for humans, too.
When a tardigrade is stressed, it enters a quasi-death state. The animal retracts its head and its eight legs and curls into a dried-up ball.
Thomas Boothby/University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
By Bible Speaks
WATER is Essential to Life, Do you view it as a gift? If there was no water we would die...Jehovah Our Creator can give and use water for our benefit and also at His disposal for destructive forces. He took care of His people in the Desert.
In the future we may also be dependent on Him for WATER both physical and spiritual...Every drop of water is Life-giving...is that How you view it? 60-70% of your body is water!
NO FEAR HE ALSO HAS CONTROL OF WATER!!
How much freshwater is available?
97.5% Salt water
99% Locked up in glaciers and icebergs or underground
1% Available to nearly seven billion humans and countless billions of other life forms
Consider the composition of a molecule of water, a substance essential to life. Because of their design, two atoms of hydrogen will combine in a unique way with a single atom of oxygen to form a molecule of water—billions of which are in each drop! What can we learn by examining a molecule of water and considering its behavior under different circumstances?
~~ The Wonder of Water ~~
Although individual drops of water seem very simple, water is an extremely complex substance. In fact, Dr. John Emsley, a science writer at Imperial College, in London, England, said that it is “one of the most investigated of all chemicals, but it is still the least understood.” New Scientist magazine stated: “Water is the most familiar liquid on Earth, but also one of the most mysterious.”
Dr. Emsley explained that despite the simple structure of water, “nothing is as complex in its behaviour.” For example, he said: “H20 should be a gas, . . . but it is a liquid. Moreover, when it freezes . . . , its solid form, ice, floats instead of sinking,” as would ordinarily be expected. Regarding this unusual behavior, Dr. Paul E. Klopsteg, a past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, observed:
“This appears as a remarkable design for sustaining aquatic life such as fishes. Think what would happen if water, as it cools to the freezing point, didn’t behave as described. Ice would form and keep forming until it occupied an entire lake, snuffing out all or most marine life.” Dr. Klopsteg said that this unexpected behavior of water is “evidence of a great and purposeful mind at work in the universe.”
According to New Scientist, researchers now think that they know the reason for this unusual behavior of water. They have developed the first theoretical model that accurately predicts the expansion of water. “The key to the mystery,” the researchers realized, “lay in the spacing of oxygen atoms within these structures.”
Isn’t that remarkable? A molecule that appears so simple challenges human comprehension. And to think that water makes up most of the weight of our body! Do you too see in the marvels of this molecule, of only three atoms of two elements, “evidence of a great and purposeful mind at work”? Yet, a molecule of water is extremely small and much less complex than many other molecules.
~~ The liquid that is a major constituent of all living matter. Jehovah is the Source of this liquid so essential to the life of man, animals, and vegetation on earth. ~~
(Revelation 14:7) . . .“FEAR God and give him glory, because the hour of the judgment by him has arrived, and so worship the One who made the heaven and the earth and sea and fountains of waters.”
~~ He provides it and can control it. ~~
(Nehemiah 9:15) . . .And bread from heaven you gave them for their hunger, and waters out of the crag you brought forth to them for their thirst, and you went on to say to them to enter and possess the land that you had lifted your hand [in an oath] to give to them.
(Exodus 14:21-31) 21 Moses now stretched his hand out over the sea; and Jehovah began making the sea go back by a strong east wind all night long and converting the sea basin into dry ground, and the waters were being split apart. 22 At length the sons of Israel went through the midst of the sea on dry land, while the waters were a wall to them on their right hand and on their left. 23 And the Egyptians took up the pursuit, and all the horses of Phar′aoh, his war chariots and his cavalrymen began going in after them, into the midst of the sea. 24 And it came about during the morning watch that Jehovah began to look out upon the camp of the Egyptians from within the pillar of fire and cloud, and he went throwing the camp of the Egyptians into confusion.
(Nehemiah 9:20) . . .And your good spirit you gave to make them prudent, and your manna you did not hold back from their mouth, and water you gave them for their thirst.
(Psalm 78:16) 16 And he went bringing forth streams out of a crag And causing waters to descend just like rivers. . .
(Psalm 78:20) 20 Look! He struck a rock That waters might flow and torrents themselves might flood forth. “Is he able also to give bread itself, Or can he prepare sustenance for his people?. . .
ing waters to descend just like rivers. . .
~~ God furnished the Israelites with water, miraculously when necessary gave them a land having plenty of water and promised to bless their water supply as long as they obeyed him.~~
(Exodus 23:24, 25) . . .. 25 And YOU must serve Jehovah YOUR God, and he will certainly bless your bread and your water; and I shall indeed turn malady away from your midst.
~~ Because of the power of water as a destructive agent (causing drowning, washing away, or similar effects), it is often employed as a symbol of some destructive force. ~~
~~ Life-giving water. Jehovah is “the source of living water.” Only from him and through his Son, Jesus Christ, the Chief Agent of life, can men receive everlasting life. ~~
~~ God’s word of truth. God’s word of truth is likened to water that cleanses. The Christian congregation is clean in the sight of God, like a chaste bride for Christ, who cleansed it “with the bath of water by means of the word.” ~~
(Ephesians 5:25-27) . . .Christ also loved the congregation and delivered up himself for it, 26 that he might sanctify it, cleansing it with the bath of water by means of the word, 27 that he might present the congregation to himself in its splendor, not having a spot or a wrinkle or any of such things, but that it should be holy and without blemish.
(John 4:13, 14) 13 In answer Jesus said to her: “Everyone drinking from this water will get thirsty again. 14 Whoever drinks from the water that I will give him will never get thirsty at all, but the water that I will give him will become in him a fountain of water bubbling up to impart everlasting life.”
By Guest Nicole
Diet sodas may undermine weight loss efforts, a new study suggests.
Researchers put 81 overweight women with Type 2 diabetes on the same weight-control diet, except that half drank diet beverages five times a week after their main meal at lunch, while the other half substituted plain water. The study is in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.
After 24 weeks, the water group had lost an average of 14 pounds, while the diet soda group lost 11.5 pounds. Average body mass index declined by 2.49 in the water group compared with 2.06 in the diet-drink group. Compared with the diet soda group, the water group also had greater improvements in fasting insulin, postprandial glucose level and other measures of diabetes severity.
Waist circumference declined in those who drank water or diet beverages, with no significant difference between the two groups.
According to the senior author, Dr. Hamid R. Farshchi, an associate professor of medicine at the University of Nottingham, the mechanism remains unclear.
But, he said, “The best drink for your health not only for weight loss but also for carbohydrate metabolism is water. Still, obese people are used to a sweet taste, and it’s very difficult for them to just say goodbye to sugary food.”
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By Guest Nicole
It took nearly a decade, but former EPA scientist Dominic DiGiulio has proved that fracking has polluted groundwater in Wyoming
Former EPA scientist Dominic DiGiulio never gave up.
Eight years ago, people in Pavillion, Wyo., living in the middle of a natural gas basin, complained of a bad taste and smell in their drinking water. U.S. EPA launched an inquiry, helmed by DiGiulio, and preliminary testing suggested that the groundwater contained toxic chemicals.
Then, in 2013, the agency suddenly transferred the investigation to state regulators without publishing a final report.
Now, DiGiulio has done it for them.
He published a comprehensive, peer-reviewed study last week in Environmental Science and Technology that suggests that people’s water wells in Pavillion were contaminated with fracking wastes that are typically stored in unlined pits dug into the ground.
The study also suggests that the entire groundwater resource in the Wind River Basin is contaminated with chemicals linked to hydraulic fracturing, or fracking.
This production technique, which involves cracking shale rock deep underground to extract oil and gas, is popular in the United States. It’s also controversial. There are thousands of wells across the American West and in California that are vulnerable to the kind of threat documented in the study, DiGiulio said. He is now a research scholar at Stanford University.
“We showed that groundwater contamination occurred as a result of hydraulic fracturing,” DiGiulio said in an interview. “It contaminated the Wind River formation.”
The findings underscore the tension at the heart of the Obama administration’s climate change policy, which is based on replacing many coal-fired power plants with facilities that burn cleaner natural gas.
That reliance on natural gas has sometimes blinded agencies to local pollution and health impacts associated with the resource, said Rob Jackson, an earth scientist at Stanford and co-author of the study. In 2015, EPA said in a controversial draft study that hydraulic fracturing has not had “widespread, systemic impacts on drinking water resources in the United States” (Greenwire, June 4, 2015).
“The national office of EPA has tended to downplay concerns of their own investigators, in part because the Obama administration has promoted natural gas,” Jackson said. “Natural gas is here to stay. It behooves us to make it as safe and environmentally friendly as possible.”
EPA spokeswoman Julia Valentine said the agency hasn’t yet finalized its assessment that natural gas has no “widespread, systemic impacts.” As part of that process, the agency will evaluate all recent research, including DiGiulio’s study, she said.
Encana Corp., the company that operated in the Pavillion basin, said repeated testing has shown people’s water wells are safe for consumption.
“After numerous rounds of testing by both the state of Wyoming and EPA, there is no evidence that the water quality in domestic wells in the Pavillion Field has changed as a result of oil and gas operations; no oil and gas constituents were found to exceed drinking water standards in any samples taken,” said Doug Hock, an Encana spokesman.
LABS CAN’T SEE FRACKING CHEMICALS
Water testing began in 2009 when the local EPA office responded to complaints from residents. EPA headquarters, and DiGiulio, got involved in January 2010.
“Conducting a groundwater investigation related to fracking is extremely complicated,” DiGiulio said. “It is difficult because a lot of the compounds used for hydraulic fracturing are not commonly analyzed for in commercial labs.”
These labs were originally set up for the Superfund program, under which EPA cleans up the most contaminated sites in the nation. They are great at detecting chemicals found at Superfund sites but not as good at detecting chemicals used in fracking, DiGiulio said.
“You have some of these very water-soluble exotic compounds in hydraulic fracturing, which were not amenable to routine lab-type analysis,” he said.
One such chemical was methanol. The simplest alcohol, it can trigger permanent nerve damage and blindness in humans when consumed in sufficient quantities. It was used in fracking in Pavillion as workers pumped thousands of gallons of water and chemicals at high pressure into the wells they were drilling. About 10 percent of the mixture contained methanol, DiGiulio said.
So the presence of methanol in the Pavillion aquifer would indicate that fracking fluid may have contaminated it. But methanol degrades rapidly and is reduced within days to trace amounts. Commercial labs did not have the protocol to detect such small traces, so DiGiulio and his colleagues devised new procedures, using high-performance liquid chromatography, to detect it. They devised techniques for detecting other chemicals, as well.
By then, Pavillion was roiling in controversy as EPA and residents collided with industry. EPA had drilled two monitoring wells, MW01 and MW02, in 2011, and its testing had found benzene, diesel and other toxic chemicals. But these results were contested by oil and gas industry representatives, who criticized EPA’s sampling techniques (EnergyWire, Oct. 12, 2012). They pointed to a technical disagreement between EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey on the best methods to cast doubt on EPA’s overall findings.
EPA realized it needed a consensus on its water testing methodology. In February 2012, it assembled a technical team from the USGS, Wyoming state regulators and tribal representatives from the Wind River Indian Reservation. They retested the monitoring wells in April 2012.
This time, they also tested for methanol. But EPA never released those results to the public. In 2013, the agency backed out of its investigation in Pavillion, handing it over to state regulators, who moved forward using a $1.5 million grant from Encana (EnergyWire, June 21, 2013). DiGiulio said the decision had come from EPA’s senior management.
METHANOL, DIESEL AND SALT
Industry representatives repeatedly pointed out that EPA had not published a peer-reviewed study on its findings.
“If the EPA had any confidence in its draft report, which has been intensely criticized by state regulators and other federal agencies, it would proceed with the peer review process,” Steve Everley, a spokesman for Energy in Depth, an industry group, said at the time. “But it’s not, which says pretty clearly that the agency is finally acknowledging the severity of those flaws and leaning once again on the expertise of state regulators.”
In December 2015, state regulators published a draft of their findings. It stated that fracking had not contributed to pollution in Pavillion, according to the Casper Star Tribune. The report said the groundwater is generally suitable for people to use.
When DiGiulio retired from EPA in 2014, he trained his sights on Pavillion. He felt he had to finish his work.
“EPA had basically handed the case over and a peer-reviewed document was never finalized,” he said. “If it is not in the peer-reviewed literature, then it presents a problem with credibility in terms of findings. It is important that the work be seen by other scientists and enter the peer review realm so that other scientists will have access to virtually everything.”
Since 2012, a trove of new data had accumulated from USGS, EPA and state regulators. He obtained EPA’s methanol testing results through a Freedom of Information Act request and downloaded the rest of the information from the Wyoming oil and gas regulator’s website. All of it was publicly available, waiting for the right person to spend a year crunching the information.
The end result: a peer-reviewed study that reaffirms EPA’s findings that there was something suspicious going on in Pavillion. More research is needed.
The sampling wells contained methanol. They also contained high levels of diesel compounds, suggesting they may have been contaminated by open pits where operators had stored chemicals, DiGiulio said.
The deep groundwater in the region contained high levels of salt and anomalous ions that are found in fracking fluid, DiGiulio said. The chemical composition suggests that fracking fluids may have migrated directly into the aquifer through fractures, he said.
Encana had drilled shallow wells at Pavillion, at depths of less than 2,000 feet and within reach of the aquifer zone, said Jackson of Stanford University.
“The shallow hydraulic fracturing is a potential problem because you don’t need a problem with well integrity to have chemicals migrate into drinking water,” he said.
The study also shows that there is a strong upward flow of groundwater in the basin, which means contamination that is deep underground could migrate closer to the surface over time.
“Right now, we are saying the data suggests impacts, which is a different statement than a definitive impact,” DiGiulio said. “We are saying the dots need to be connected here, monitoring wells need to be installed.”
SHALLOW WELLS ARE PREVALENT
EPA came to the same conclusion in a blistering response last week to Wyoming’s draft findings.
“Many of our recommendations suggest that important information gaps be filled to better support conclusions drawn in the report, and that uncertainties and data gaps be discussed in the report,” said Valentine, the EPA spokeswoman.
The state had tested people’s water wells and detected 19 concerning chemicals. But regulators had concluded that only two chemicals exceeded safe limits and the water could be used for domestic purposes. EPA disagreed. Nearly half the 19 chemicals are unstudied, and scientists do not know the safe level of exposure, EPA stated.
Keith Guille, spokesman for Wyoming’s Department of Environmental Quality, declined to comment on DiGiulio’s study and on EPA’s response to the state’s draft report. The state is finalizing its findings and has its eyes set on the future, he said.
“We are not done yet,” Guille said.
Energy in Depth, the industry group that had earlier criticized EPA for not publishing a peer-reviewed study, said that DiGiulio’s study is “a rehash of EPA’s old, discredited data by the very researcher who wrote EPA’s original report.”
Jackson stressed that the contamination seen at Pavillion could occur in other states where, according to a study published last year in Environmental Science & Technology on which he was the lead author, fracking sometimes occurs at shallow depths. That includes the Rocky Mountain region, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Montana and California. At present, no state has restrictions on how shallowly a company can frack, he said.
“Shallow hydraulic fracturing is surprisingly common, especially in the western U.S.,” Jackson said. “Here in California, half of the wells are fracked shallower than about 2,000 feet.”
Given the threat, fracking deserves much greater scrutiny than it has so far received from the Obama administration, said Hugh MacMillan, a scientist with the environmental group Food and Water Watch.
“Communities have never argued that every well goes bad; they’ve argued that when you drill and [are] fracking thousands, too many go bad,” he said. “For those living on groundwater, it becomes a matter of luck, and that’s not right, because over years, more and more people’s luck runs out.”
Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from Environment & Energy Publishing, LLC. www.eenews.net, 202-628-6500
By Guest Nicole
TRENTON (CBSNewYork) – Thirty Newark Public Schools have been ordered to use alternate water supplies due to elevated lead levels.
The Department of Environmental Protection said it found elevated lead levels at various taps in recent tests. CBS2’s Meg Baker reported officials first realized there was an issue at Louise A. Spencer Elementary School last Thursday where there were reports of discolored water.
“How long ago was this report done? How long did Newark Public Schools sit on this information?” community advocate Donna Jackson asked.
Christopher Cerf, superintendent of Newark Public Schools, told CBS2 he was first briefed on the issue on Monday. However, parents were not notified until Wednesday afternoon.
“Well, we needed to put a plan in place… By the way, we received assurance this was not high-level emergency nature that a day would make,” Cerf said.
Parents were alarmed by the delay.
“I was not aware. I didn’t know until you told me,” Sabrina Olivier told CBS2’s Meg Baker. “The children do need water to stay hydrated during the day. That’s very alarming. As a parent, not knowing, that’s even more alarming.”
The Newark Public Schools system is supplying the schools with alternate water for drinking and for food preparation.
WCBS 880’s Kelly Waldron reported residents are being asked to drop off cases of bottled water at their local recreational centers.
All drinking fountains at the impacted schools have been shut down. Notices have been put up in bathrooms telling students not to drink water from the taps.
“In 30 schools, no more than four of 10 points were showing elevated lead levels,” Newark Schools Superintendent Christopher Cerf told WCBS 880.
Water points of entry and taps at all public schools – including charters – will be tested.
“I understand in the Flint environment that any sign of elevation is going to make everyone go haywire,” said Mayor Ras Baraka. “But here, the water system in Newark is still safe, it’s still drinkable. There have been some high detectable levels of lead in about 30 of the schools.”
Baraka said the lead is coming from within each school, not from the public works water source.
Sen. Cory Booker, D-N.J., told CBS2 in a statement that he is “deeply concerned” about the elevated lead results.
“Lead in our drinking water is a national issue that requires a robust response from every level of government. Under no circumstance should the health and safety of our children be jeopardized, particularly when they are supposed to be in the confines of a safe learning environment. My staff and I will continue to monitor this situation closely and offer any and all assistance we can to help remedy this problem,” Booker said.
The DEP says no lead has been found in the Newark Water Department’s source water. Lead found in drinking water often due to leaching from lead pipes, household fixtures that contain lead, or lead solder, the DEP said.
“A lot of these are older schools with older piping, with lead piping, or solder, that we need to address long-term,” Bob Constantine of the DEP said.
Concerned parents can have their children take a blood test for lead at the Newark Health Department.
Officials have also begun sending out robocalls to alert parents to the matter.