Something I thought might be relevant since we are studying the God's Kingdom book. Not long ago, in a WT article, it was mentioned in reference to the "Kingdom being preached in all the inhabited earth" that this will not mean that literally everyone on Earth would have heard about the Kingdom before Armageddon starts.
When one does a bit of mathematics (not my forte) and calculates the percentage of current Jehovah's Witnesses in comparison to the World's population we arrive at 0.1%. This is a very small percentage indeed. (8 million JW to 8 billion population)
If we were to assume some averages, and use the United States as a fair example, then we can assume the ratio of 1 publisher to roughly around 400. This seems a fair number since "only a few are the ones finding the road to life". However, as we know, there is practically a non existent ratio when it comes to India and China, two of the world's countries with a population of over 1billion each (the majority of whom have never heard of the Bible, never mind Jehovah's Witnesses). If we would assume the same ratio of 1:400, then this would immediately create over 3 million Witnesses in each of the two countries, i.e. over 6 million in India and China alone, bringing the total of JWs to over 14 million. If we were to also add 650 thousand in Indonesia, 485 thousand from Pakistan, and 402 thousand from Bangladesh that adds another 1.5 million bringing the total to over 15 million, almost doubling the Witnesses today.
If we go by the fact that all people are equal in Jehovah's eyes, and that no nation is above another when it comes to salvation, and that all people are basically the same, then we have to assume that there are people in those countries who, if given the chance, would embrace the truth and put themselves on Jehovah's side and create that ratio of 1:400.
With that in mind, it is evident that either there is going to have to be a lot of preaching done, verging on the miraculous, in order to bring in over 7 million new Witnesses within the allotted time of the "Generation", or, Jehovah will judge their hearts and allow nearly HALF of the people, (agnostics or believers in false Gods) entry into the new world without them even needing to know him.
Or, is "this Generation" a lot longer than we think.....
Any scriptural thoughts?
By JW Insider
Even before C.T.Russell was born, commentaries on Bible prophecy included dozens of potential dates. Nearly 200 years ago, a couple of them even included 1914 as potentially significant time period. The "1914 presence" doctrine, however, is only about 75 years old.
All the ideas behind the Watch Tower's version of the 1914 doctrine have already been discussed for decades now, and all of them, so far, have been shown to be problematic from a Scriptural point of view. Since the time that the doctrine generally took its current shape in 1943, the meanings and applications of various portions of Matthew 24 and 25 have already been changed, and the timing of various prophesied events and illustrations have changed. Most recently, the meaning and identification of the "faithful and discreet slave" has changed. And the definition of "generation" has changed about half-a-dozen times. This doesn't mean that the current understandings are impossible, of course, only that it has become less likely from the point of view of reason and reasonableness.
Besides, for most of the years of teaching this doctrine, we have had the flexibility of extending the "1914 generation" from a possible 40 years, up to 70, then 75, then 80 years. And this has been applied to teenagers who saw 1914, 10-year-olds who saw 1914, then even newborns who saw 1914. With every one of these options already tried and stretched to their limits, we finally were forced to convert the meaning of generation from its most common meanings and give it a new "strained" meaning that has no other Biblical parallel. (See Exodus 1:6; Matthew 1:17; 16:4; 23:36; Luke 11:50)
But that flexibility is still seen as the last reason for hope that the Watch Tower Society might have still been correct in hanging on to 1914. Since the Bible says that a lifespan is 70 or 80 years and 1914 + 80 = 1994, the "generation" doctrine in its original form (1943) could remain stable until about 1994. Of course, a lifespan could technically reach to 120 years or more, and Gen 6:3 even gives vague support to the idea that the "1914 generation" could last 120 years, until 2034.
The current alternative solution is to make the generation out of the length of two lifespans, which technically could be double 120 years, or nearly 240 years from 1914. That would have had the potential to reach to the year 2154 (1914+240) except for the caveat that it can, by its new definition, only refer to anointed persons who discerned the sign in 1914 and whose lives overlapped (technically, by as little as one second) with the lifespan of another anointed person representing the second group. If persons from each group don't really discern their own "anointing" until age 20, for example, this would effectively remove 40 years from the overall maximum. 1914+120-20+120-20 = 2114. We could also assume a possible lifespan of more than 120 years, but otherwise, the new two-lifespan generation could potentially make the generation last 200 years. This "technical maximum" is not promoted currently, because for now we look at examples like Fred Franz who was part of that original generation already anointed and who saw the sign, and the typical example of an anointed brother who was apparently "anointed" prior to Franz' death in 1992 would be someone like Governing Body member, Brother Sanderson, who was born in 1965, baptized in 1975, and was already a "special pioneer" in 1991. His is currently 52.
However, the generation problem is just one more problem now which we can add onto the list of all the other points that make up the 1914 doctrine. Here are several points related to 1914 that appear problematic from a Scriptural point of view:
All evidence shows the 1914 date is wrong when trying to base it on the destruction of Jerusalem. (Daniel 1:1; 2 Chron 36:1-22; Jer 25:8-12; Zech 1:12, 7:4; Ezra 3:10-13) Paul said that Jesus sat at God's right hand in the first century and that he already began ruling as king at that time. (1 Cor 15:25) Jesus said not to be fooled by the idea that wars and rumors of wars would be the start of a "sign" (Matt 24:4,5) Jesus said that the "parousia" would be as visible as lightning (Matt 24:27). He spoke against people who might say he had returned but was currently not visible. (Matt 24:23-26) Jesus said that his "parousia" would come as a surprise to the faithful, not that they would discern the time of the parousia decades in advance. (Matt 24:36-42) Jesus said that the kingdom would not be indicated by "signs" (Luke 17:20, almost any translation except NWT in this case) The "synteleia" (end of all things together) refers to a concluding event, not an extended period of time (Matt 28:20) Jesus was already called ruler, King and even "King of Kings" in the first century. (1 Tim 6:15, Heb 7:2,17; Rev 1:5; 17:14) Wicked, beastly King Nebuchadnezzar's insanity and humiliation does not represent Jesus as the "lowliest one of mankind." (Heb 1:5,6; 2:10,11; Daniel 4:23-25; cf. Heb 2:7; 1 Pet 3:17,18) The demise of a Gentile kingdom cannot rightly represent the time of the rise of the Gentile kingdoms (Daniel 4:26,27) The Gentile kings did not meet their demise in 1914. (Rev 2:25,26) The time assigned to the Gentile Times that Jesus spoke about in Luke 21:24 is already given as 3.5 times, not 7 times (Revelation 11:2,3) The Devil was already brought down from "heaven" in the first century. (1 John 2:14,15; 1 Pet 5:8; Luke 10:18; Heb 2:14) The Bible says that the "last days" began in the first century. (Acts 2:14-20; 2 Tim 3:1-17; 1 Peter 3:3-5; Heb 1:2, almost any translation except NWT in this case.)
By Israeli Bar Avaddhon
Everything we read about the "70-Week" prophecy reported in the book "Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy!" (Chapter 11) is worthy of attention and demonstrates how accurate and reliable the word of God is even when pronouncing prophecies very distant in time. The historical accuracy and the numerous Scriptural references that gave weight and authority to the whole speech were also evident. Anyone who approaches the Word of God without preconceptions can not but be struck by this demonstration of power and wisdom on the part of God. The explanation of the 70 weeks is unexceptionable but can be said to be the same as other prophecies? What about those calculations on which many of us have based the hopes of a lifetime and that clashed with the criticism of the majority? We are talking about 1914. Is this also a prophecy of Daniel? Was this also treated with the same marvelous accuracy of the seventy weeks we have just read? Although it may not be easy, we try to be truly objective because understanding or not understanding the prophecy, like the rest of God's Word, can make much difference to our eternal future - John 17: 3; 2 Thessalonians 1: 8 WHAT DID OF 1914? Â The book "Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy" on pages 85 to 97 explains in detail the dream of Nebuchadnezzar and the 7-time prophecy asserting that it indicates the coming of the Kingdom of God in 1914. It would therefore be profitable to take the book and compare it with what will be read below. Does Nebuchadnezzar's dream really prophesy the coming of the Kingdom of God in 1914? Â THAT'S IT? Let's try to examine what is written in the book without prejudices. At a first reading it seems that Jehovah God wanted to give a lesson of humility to Nebuchadnezzar, which happened. The "seven times", at least for him, were seven years and this is confirmed by the whole story. Reading all this without preconceptions, it does not seem that we should look for other explanations more or less hidden. However, let us take the thesis that "the tree indicates a dominion and a sovereignty much greater than those of the king of Babylon. It symbolizes the universal sovereignty of Jehovah, the King of the heavens, especially with respect to the earth ". This means, first of all, that the Kingdom of God is comparing, in a certain way, to the kingdom of Babylon and this strides with many biblical passages describing Babylon as the greatest enemy of God's people. It also means that the "vigilante" (ie an angel of Jehovah) decides to overthrow the Kingdom of God and this is, to say the least, strange. Some will object that we must not look for similarities in every aspect of the prophecy but also decide which part of the prophecy must have a second fulfillment and which one could be arbitrary enough. After all, we have no other scriptural references to show us which details to focus on and which to leave out. So it is being said that the prophecy of the tree applies entirely to Nebuchadnezzar while only a small part would apply to the Kingdom of God. For the prophecy of the "seventy weeks" we did not need to break the prophecy to try to understand who was applied or if it applied to more than one person because the subject was clear and recognizable from the beginning. On the contrary, all the 7-day prophecy is built on a single verse that is what it says ... "The tree grew and became strong, and its same height finally reached the heavens and was visible to the end of the whole earth" (Daniel 4:11). Meanwhile, the writing says that the tree "becomes visible" to the end of the earth and not that "embraces the end of the earth" and the meaning is very different. The aforementioned book says: "the great tree represents the 'domain that reaches the end of the earth', which embraces the whole realm of mankind. Thus it symbolizes the universal sovereignty of Jehovah, particularly in relation to the earth. - Daniel 4:17 ". "Reaching the end of the earth" means that it extends the domain to the end of the earth while "being visible to the end of the earth" means that it is known, famous. AnyhowÂ… is not it a bit fragile, let's say risky, to build a series of prophecies (all linked together) on this single explanation? Note that the specification "particularly in relation to the earth" is due to the fact that the universal sovereignty of Jehovah is, indeed, universal, for which the tree should have been seen not only in the whole earth but throughout the universe. By specifying, instead, "in relation to the earth", we can exclude the skies from the vision and take the application for good. Anyway, we should ask a question. Is the fact that the tree reaches the heavens or the end of the earth itÂ’s a demonstration or even an indication of the fact that we are talking about the Kingdom of God? We always leave the Bible to enlighten us. Notice what Jehovah told Ezekiel in reference to the Pharaoh. Ezekiel 31: 1-8 says Â… Â“In the 11th year, in the third month, on the first day of the month, the word of Jehovah again came to me, saying: Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â Â“Son of man, say to Phar?aoh king of Egypt and to his hordes, Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â‘Whom are you like in your greatness? Â Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â There was an AsÂ·syr?iÂ·an, a cedar in Leb?aÂ·non,With beautiful branches like a shady thicket, lofty in stature;Its top was among the clouds. Â Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â The waters made it grow big, the deep springs of water caused it to grow high. Streams were all around where it was planted;Their channels watered all the trees of the field. Â Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â That is why it grew taller than all the other trees of the field. Its boughs multiplied, and its branches grew longBecause of the abundant water in its streams. Â Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â All the birds of the sky nested in its boughs,All the wild animals of the field gave birth under its branches,And all the populous nations were dwelling in its shade. Â Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â It became majestic in beauty and in the length of its branches,For its roots went down into abundant waters. Â Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â No other cedars in the garden of God Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. could compare to it. None of the juniper trees had boughs like it,And none of the plane trees could match its branches. No other tree in the garden of God could rival its beautyÂ”. Do we note some similarities with the vision of Nebuchadnezzar? Both are compared to tall and mighty trees. Both reach high heights, up to the sky in fact the expressions "reach the heavens" or "reach the clouds" are equivalent - Compare Job 22:14; Isaiah 14:14; Daniel 7:13 Of both we notice the big difference with the other trees. Of both it is said that all the flying creatures and all the wild beasts find food and shelter. Now if we apply the principle that the tree that "reaches the clouds" must represent the Kingdom of God, then even the Egyptian empire should be an antitype of the Kingdom. Unfortunately, however, in this story there is no mention of the "times" and consequently it is not possible to count anything. If you think it's ridiculous that the Egyptian empire will represent the Kingdom of God, why should it be acceptable to the Babylonian empire? Jehovah goes on to say Â“Â“Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord Jehovah says: Â‘Because it Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. became so tall, lifting its top among the clouds, and its heart became arrogant because of its height, Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â I will hand it over to the mighty ruler of the nations. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. He will surely act against it, and I will reject it for its wickednessÂ”. The Pharaoh was exalted, just as Nebuchadnezzar did, and for this reason God decided to humiliate him - Matthew 23:12 Nebuchadnezzar escaped with seven years of madness while Pharaoh's empire was besieged. Also this verse remarks the fact that God takes away and gives "the kingdom to whom he wills" (and in this case He gave the kingdom of Pharaoh to the "despot of nations"). Ezekiel 31: 12-14 continues Â… Â“And foreigners, the most ruthless of the nations, will cut it down, and they will abandon it on the mountains, and its foliage will fall in all the valleys, and its branches will lie broken in all the streams of the land. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. All the peoples of the earth will depart from its shade and abandon it. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â All the birds of the sky will live on its fallen trunk, and all the wild animals of the field on its branches. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â This is so that no tree near the waters should grow so tall or lift up its top among the clouds and that no well-watered tree may reach up to them in height. For they will all be given over to death, to the land down below, along with the sons of mankind, who are going down into the pit.Â’. Even this tree is cut down and humiliated (Jehovah will do this through the king of Babylon). Because of the many similarities with the kingdom of Egypt, are we really certain that the tree that "reached the heavens" refers to the Kingdom of God? Â When we talk about 1914, are we really like the Bereans? Or are we "Bereans" only when we have to refute the doctrines of Christianity? Â There is another interesting detail that should make us reflect. The Bible compares the heavens to governments, be they human or celestial. Applying this concept to the tree that reaches the heavens and whose other trees do not stand comparison with it, it would simply mean that this tree has the kingdom over the other (smaller) kingdoms and of Babylon the Great is said to have " the kingdom over the kings of the earth "- Revelation 17:18 The only legitimate parallel that you can do with Babylon, without fear of taking corners, is related to Babylon the Great because it is the parallelism that makes the Bible. Indeed, all the world empires mentioned in the Scriptures had, for a time, the kingdom over the other kingdoms. Cyrus, in fact, said of himself ... "I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, legitimate king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four extremities (of the earth), son of Cambyses (Ka-am -bu-zi-ia), great king, king of Anzan, nephew of Cyrus ,. . . descendant of Teispe,. . . of a family (that) has always reigned ". (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, edited by J. B. Pritchard, 1974, p.37). Undoubtedly humility was not a characteristic appreciated by the Persians as well as by the Babylonians but in fact the kingdom had power over the other known kingdoms (so to be called "king of the four ends of the earth") and so it could be said that its height had reached the heavens and was visible or known to the ends of the earth. In the story of Ezekiel and in that of Daniel there is no reference, just anyone, to the Kingdom of God, on the contrary ... both accounts mention a judgment from God on enemy nations, proud and violent. Any chronological calculation should respect the subject in being and in fact this part of the Scripture is very different from what is said about the "seventy weeks" - Daniel 9: 24-27 In the account of Daniel chapter 9, one speaks clearly of the Messiah (see Daniel 9:25) and it is not necessary to read what is not written. Anyone who wanted to be polemical could discuss the start date from which to count the "weeks" or even the adduct method * (one day for a year) but certainly we can not discuss the subject in existence (the Messiah). It could also be absurd to discuss who the Messiah really was (which Jews are still discussing) but certainly we can not argue that Daniel chapter 9 speaks of the arrival of the Messiah! Instead, Daniel chapter 4 speaks of Nebuchadnezzar and his kingdom, while all the "understanding" concerning the Kingdom of God is built on four lines in the book "Pay attention to Daniel's prophecies!" That read: "But the great tree represents the domain that reaches the end of the earth, which embraces the entire kingdom of mankind. Thus it symbolizes the universal sovereignty of Jehovah, particularly in relation to the earth. - Daniel 4:17 "(chapter 6, page 87 of the Italian edition of the book). Does not this seem like a very firm statement with a very weak base? Let us try not to tell Daniel 4:17 what he does not really say because it is enough to know the basic rules of grammar so as not to be distracted by the subject. The subject is Nebuchadnezzar and God makes him understand that, because of the fact that he is exalted, he would have taken away his kingdom and given it to whoever He had wanted (exactly as He did to Pharaoh). In practice the one who really rules is the Creator and the other kingdoms exist only because He allows it - Compare Romans 13: 1 So there is no reason to believe that the tree (that is, one of the many governments that Jehovah has permitted in the history of mankind), actually represents the Kingdom of God. If someone wants to imply that the fact that God mentions His dominion is indicative that the tree itself represents His dominion (and is an incredible semantic acrobatics) then we can take the story reported in 2 Kings 19: 14-19 and do it same reasoning. Â“HezÂ·eÂ·ki?ah took the letters out of the hand of the messengers and read them. HezÂ·eÂ·ki?ah then went up to the house of Jehovah and spread them Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. out before Jehovah. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â And HezÂ·eÂ·ki?ah began to pray Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. before Jehovah and say: Â“O Jehovah the God of Israel, sitting enthroned above Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. the cherubs, Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. you alone are the true God of all the kingdoms of the earth. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. You made the heavens and the earth. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â Incline your ear, O Jehovah, and hear! Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Open your eyes, Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. O Jehovah, and see! Hear the words that SenÂ·nach?erÂ·ib has sent to taunt the living God. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â It is a fact, O Jehovah, that the kings of AsÂ·syr?iÂ·a have devastated the nations and their lands. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â And they have thrown their gods into the fire, because they were not gods Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. but the work of human hands, Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. wood and stone. That is why they could destroy them. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Â But now, O Jehovah our God, please save us out of his hand, so that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that you alone are God, O Jehovah.Â” Hezekiah knew very well that Jehovah was "the true God of all the kingdoms of the earth" and he prayed that Sennacherib would be stopped in his intent to destroy Jerusalem. We know very well what was the answer of Isaiah which last part reads Â… Â“Because your rage against me Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. and your roaring have reached my ears. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. So I will put my hook in your nose and my bridle Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. between your lips,And I will lead you back the way you came.Â” - 2 Kings 19:28 If we did the same reasoning as for chapter 4 of Daniel, then we might suppose that the "reign of Sennacherib" was also an antitype of the kingdom of God because he too had to learn (at his own expense) that Jehovah is "the true God of all. the kingdoms of the earth "or, in other words, "dominates over all mankind ". Unfortunately, even in this story there are no numbers, days, weeks or months to be calculated and therefore no reason to read "the coming of the kingdom of God" even where no mention is made of it. Is it possible that the strong desire to see the prophecies fulfill has influenced the intention and therefore pushed to read what was not actually written? This means that if you really want to see a second fulfillment of the story reported in Daniel chapter 4, you should respect the subject in being and that is Babylon. It is likely that the story of Daniel is simply telling the humiliation of Nebuchadnezzar and that the "seven times" mean only seven years but we can not be categorical. In this regard it is useful to reflect on the fact that even the humiliation of the Pharaoh, reported in Ezekiel, could have a second fulfillment as Jehovah says that he will "shake the nations" and this could be a reference to the Armageddon war. Â So, without fixing ourselves too much with a specific date, in case the story of Daniel wanted to show us a second fulfillment of the prophecy, the report is actually saying: "Babylon will fall, will remain inactive for seven times and then rise again". This can only bring our mind back to the last mention that the Bible makes of Babylon - Revelation 17:5 The clues about Babylon the Great brought us to the nation of Israel so the question we should ask ourselves is ... "From what year we should start counting the 2520 years (ie 360 * 7) until we see the rebirth (if any) of Babylon? " From the story of Daniel the possible dates from which to count the seven times are two: 1) Since Nebuchadnezzar has had the vision or has fallen into "misfortune" (in fact, Daniel says "the tree is you" - Daniel 4: 20-22) 2) From the death of Nebuchadnezzar (if Nebuchadnezzar represents the kingdom of Babylon, his death is the moment when the tree is "knocked down" but it is to be noted that there is no reference to this in the narration of Daniel who, indeed, he says that the kingdom would be assured - Daniel 4:26) As far as the first hypothesis is concerned, it is impossible to have an accurate date because neither the Bible nor the secular history tells us in which year Nebuchadnezzar was expelled from his kingdom. This happened, obviously, after 597 a.E.V. (year in which Nebuchadnezzar brings the first Jewish prisoners to Babylon according to the secular date, there is a difference of 20 years with that of the slave who, in fact, puts 617 a.E.V.) and within 570 a.E.V. (if Nebuchadnezzar dies in 562 BCE - always according to the secular date - and the period of "captivity" lasts 7 years and the kingdom is returned to him presumed to have reigned for at least a year, 570 is the last useful year) . However in the first four chapters of Daniel we mention Daniel, Sadrac, Mesac and Abednego first as children (Daniel 1: 3, 4) and later as robust men (Daniel 3:12, 27) and all this before Nebuchadnezzar has the famous dream tree. This means that, from their deportation until the day when the king erected the image of gold, at least 15, 20 years passed. So if the Jews came to Babylon in 597 a.E.V. but they pass 20 years before the construction of the golden idol and having taken for good the secular date (562 a.E.V) it is possible to restrict the period from 577 a.E.V. up to 570 a.E.V. Obviously they are only estimates but the important date is the maximum time limit (570 a.E.V) so if from the deportation until the construction of the image had passed 15 years instead of 20, the starting date would be 582 a.E.V. but the last possible useful date would always be 570 a.E.V. The eventual rebirth of Babylon, if Daniel is talking about this, would have happened between 1943 E.V. (2520-577) and 1950 E.V. (2520-570). To reinforce this hypothesis there would also be the fact that the narration of his expulsion is the last story reported to Nebuchadnezzar. Few verses later, in fact, we no longer speak of him but of Baldassarre (Daniel chapter 5). It is reasonable to conclude, therefore, that Nebuchadnezzar had the vision in the last years, perhaps during the last decade of his reign. Â The second hypothesis concerns the death of Nebuchadnezzar, which takes place, according to the secular sources, in 562 a.E.V. According to the slave, in 582 a.E.V. (see the book "Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy" chapter 7, page 99). Counting 2520 years we arrive at 1958 E.V. in the first case and to 1938 E.V. in the second case. Â Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. "Babylon will fall, remain inactive for seven times and then rise again" Â What does recent history tell us? If, as we have seen, Babylon the Great is the nation of Israel, this would corroborate the first hypothesis. The first hypothesis places the rebirth of Babylon between 1943 and 1950. Indeed, the "resurrection" of Israel took place in May 1948. Â Knowing the fixation of human beings for dates and calculations, however, it is prudent to pay attention to the most important things. The secular dates can not be secure, based on findings and comparisons more or less incomplete, and certainly we can not base our faith on this - 2 Corinthians 5: 7 What would happen if the 597 a.E.V., as well as 607 or 537 or any other date on which we based much of the biblical prophecies (without there being a real reason for doing so) tomorrow proved to be completely wrong? The consequences could be very serious and not just from a human point of view - Amos 3: 1, 2 We must not take Jehovah's mercy for granted, so we must be cautious in our statements. Since we have no certainty that the "seven times" do not simply represent seven years, we should not lose ourselves in these speculations. Is not the most important thing to understand the identity of Babylon the Great? Those who have truly studied the Bible without preconceptions have understood that Babylon the Great is indeed Israel and this has understood it regardless of dates and calculations. This is a crucial aspect of prophecy because it is the clues that guide us in the subjects and times in which we are living, such as road signs, and not the calculations - Compare Matthew 24:32, 33 and 2 Timothy 3: 1-5 and do a contrast with Matthew 24:36 There is no temporal indication for the killing of the two clothed witnesses (see Revelation chapter 11) but we know that they are revealed at the end of the war. We know that the city called "Sodom and Egypt" is Babylon the Great, hence Israel, and as a result we also know which nation and events to watch carefully. That the Bible actually prophesises the year of his "resurrection" or not, is certainly interesting but not fundamental for those who believe that it is indeed the inspired Word of God. Fundamental, if anything, will be "get out of it" when the UN prepares to destroy it. Â * However the Bible confirms the "one day for a year" method and also that this was the same method used by God's people - Ezekiel 4: 6; Luke 3:15 ** The Bible allows us to be "fully competent" then all the speeches made on 607 a.E.V. pro and contra, they are absolutely useless. Nebuchadnezzar's dream, as we have seen, has nothing to do with the Kingdom of God Â Â
By JW Insider
There are evidently FOUR basic problems in the latest explanation of the "GENERATION" teaching. Of course, this is the teaching based on Jesus' words in Matthew 24:34 where he says that "This generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur." The latest update to the explanation is that Jesus was referring to two groups of anointed persons: the first group who could discern the meaning of the sign they witnessed in 1914, and a second group of anointed persons, whose lives overlapped with that first group.
#1. It creates a set time limit for Armageddon to occur. #2. It is based on the idea that the date 1914 was predicted in the Bible. #3. It is based on a false definition of the word "generation." #4. It is based on a false premise about a supposed belief in 1914 that didn't even exist in 1914. If we're serious about:
paying constant attention to ourselves and our teaching, (1 Tim 4:16) handling the word of God aright, having nothing to be ashamed of, (2 Tim 2:15) not paying attention to false stories, (1 Tim 1:4-7) making sure of all things, (1 Thess 5:21) knowing that teachers will receive heavier judgment, etc., (James 3:1) then we would not be very good Christians if any of us taught something that we were not sure about.
On this forum, participants have already dealt extensively with #1 and #2 above, but there has not yet been a thorough discussion and focus on points #3 and #4.
By Patrick J Delaney
After much prayerful reflection on the Scriptures, I have come to the realisation that the true identity of the “generationÂ” Jesus spoke of at Matthew
Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. may soon be revealed. There Jesus said, Â“This generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur.Â” I think the understanding JehovahÂ’s Witnesses currently hold on this scripture is incorrect. I believe that Joel chapter 2 will have a second fulfillment in the last days of this complete world system, just as it had a primary fulfillment in the last days of the Jewish system at Pentecost 33 CE. At that time true Christians were sealed with Holy Spirit. I believe that there will be yet another true spirit anointing or sealing in the near future. This is what John was referring to when he spoke of the sealing of the 144,000 in revelation chapter 7. The spiritual Israelite nation must be reborn. (Isaiah 66:8). The great crowd mentioned in the same chapter belong to the same group but are seen standing before the throne after Armageddon coming out of all nations. This sealing will result in a true restoration of pure worship as indicated by EzekielÂ’s prophecy of the valley of dry bones. (Ezekiel 37). Jehovah blows his spirit into the bones and they live. The preaching work up to now could be compared to the work of John the Baptist. It is a baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. By their actions JehovahÂ’s Witnesses prove themselves to be true Christians having repented of their sins. Yet they are not spirit anointed. I believe Jehovah is preparing them for a true spirit anointing. Their understanding of scripture will be refined. (See Malachi 3:1) The great worldwide preaching work, in fulfillment of the the Â“angel flying in mid heaven with everlasting good news to declareÂ” is yet future. (Revelation 14) The fulfillment of the prophecies in Matthew 24, and other related prophecies concerning the last days find their real fulfillment in the future. The last days have not yet begun. Jesus told his followers to Â“Learn from the fig tree when itÂ’s branch grows tender and puts forth leaves.Â” (Matthew Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. -34). The fig tree represents Israel. I believe that this illustration could be a referring to the spiritual Israelite nation blossoming forth beginning with an outpouring of Holy Spirit. At least some of the generation of Christians that witness the birth of this new spiritual nation will be still alive on earth to witness the end of the age. This outpouring of Holy Spirit may occur in the very near future. Â
By The Librarian
Continue forward to the Master Chronological List
Timeline of the Kings of Israel (needed) Graphical Chart version of the Promised Seed (needed) 1826 C.E. The Russian czar was induced to have the Russian Bible Society placed under the management of the "Holy Synod" of the Russian Orthodox Church, which then effectively suppressed its operations. See w97 10/1 pg. 12. 1823 C.E. Joseph Smith a 17-year old, told his family that an angel named Moroni had appeared to him and had shown him a set of golden plates. Four years later he claimed that he was given the plates and the exclusive divine power to translate them, in 1830 C.E. "The Book of Mormon" was published from Smith's manuscripts, financed by a prosperous believer, thus was the formation of the Mormon religion or also known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. See g95 11/8 pgs. 17-25. 1813 C.E. From the time of the British and Foreign Bible Society's formation in 1804 C.E., by 1813 C.E., associate Bible societies had been formed in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Russia. In time, Bible societies in other countries were added. However, relatively few translators knew Hebrew or Greek and there were literally thousands of languages, therefore, when the British and Foreign Bible Society sponsored translations, the translators very often based their work on the English-language King James Version. See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12. 1807-18 C.E. At the risk of his own life, Robert Morrison translated the Bible into Chinese. See w97 10/1 pg. 13. 1806 C.E. Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, refuses to recognize the "Holy Roman Empire" as existing effectively bringing it to its end. [Emperor Francis II released the Germanic states from their allegiance to the "Holy Roman Empire." He resigned from the Roman Imperial Dignity and withdrew to his national government as emperor of Austria.] 19th Century. Early in the century, Pavsky, a professor at the St. Pertersburg Academy for Divinity, translated the Gospel of Matthew from Greek into Russian. Other books of the Christian Greek Scriptures were also translated into Russian and Pavsky served as editor. Later, Pavsky translated the Hebrew Scriptures from Hebrew into Russian. About the same time Makarios, an archimandrite of the Orthodox Church, also translated the Hebrew Scriptures into Russian. Both Pavsky and Makarios were punished for their efforts and their works were put into the church archives. See w97 10/1 pg. 12. 1800 C.E. Mary Jones a 16-year old Welsh girl walked barefoot for 25-miles to buy a Welsh Bible from a clergyman. She had saved her money for six years, when Mary learned that all the Bibles had been sold, she sobbed. Deeply moved the clergyman gave Mary one of his own Bibles. This clergyman reflected on the many others who needed Bibles, he discussed this problem with some friends in London, the result was the formation, in 1804 C.E. of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Its premise: to provide people with affordable Bibles in their own language, printed "without note or comment." See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12. 1793 C.E. England as a world power [being a seafaring and colonial power], certain Englishmen took the Bible with them on their journeys. This laid the groundwork for an extended Bible campaign. Missionary William Carey sailed to India, he eventually translated the entire Bible or parts of it into 35 Indian languages. See w97 10/15 pgs. 8-12. 1775 C.E. American colonies of Britian, revolt, leading to the establishment of the United States of America. [Future ally of Britian the SEVENTH WORLD POWER] See yw pgs. 104-27. 1763 C.E. GREAT BRITAIN emerges as the SEVENTH WORLD POWER. See yw pgs. PGS. 104-27, also bf pg. 592. 1588 C.E. Jehovah disperses the Spanish Armada causing a "Protestant Wind"
1587 C.E. Independent Russian Orthodox Church is established, with the Patriarch of Moscow as head.
1559 C.E. Pope Paul IV rules that no Bible could be printed in the vernacular without church approval, and this the church refused to grant. [In 1564 C.E. Pope Pius IV stated: "Experience has shown that if reading the Bible in the vulgar tongue is permitted indiscriminately, ...more harm than good arises therefrom."] a. 1544 C.E. Francisco de Enzinas is imprisoned by the Catholic Inquisition for translating and publishing the Christian Greek Scriptures in Spanish. See w97 10/1 pg. 13. 1538 C.E. King Henry VIII of England, for his own reasons ordered that Bibles be placed in every church in England. Though Tyndale is not credited, the translation that was chosen was essentially his. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1535 C.E. Miles Coverdale completes William Tyndale's work of translation, the entire English Bible appeared in 1535 C.E. See sh pg. 325. 1534 C.E. John Calvin leaves Paris, France because of religious persecution settles in Basel, Switzerland, in defense of protestants he publishes "Institutes of Christian Religion" [French Calvinist Protestants were called Huguenots, from Calvinism sprang the Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Churches.] See sh pgs. 321-5. 1534 C.E. English Parliment passes acts declaring Henry VIII to be the supreme head of the Church of England, (Episcopal Church), with authority to redress errors, heresies, and abuses in the church. (The Puritans demanded more thourough reform to purify the church of Roman Catholic practices, many dissidents fled to the Netherlands or to North America, where they further developed their Congregational and Baptist Churches.) There also sprang up in England the Society of Friends (Quakers), under the leadership of George Fox (1624-91), and under John Wesley (1703-91), the Methodist Church was founded in 1738. See sh pgs. 313, 325-7. 1531 C.E. King Henry VIII of England imposes royal supremacy on the English clergy. 1529 C.E. Protestant movement is established by Luther's supporters, and the following year the Protestant League of Schmalkald is entered into. 1526 C.E. William Tyndale produces 3,000 copies of his English New Testament, in Worms, Germany, these are sent to England and began to be distributed there. Some of these were the Bibles that Bishop Tunstall bought and burned, unknowingly he finantially aided Tynsdale to continue his work. In 1536 C.E. Tyndale was betrayed in Antwerp, Belgium, and strangled at the stake, then his body was burned. See sh pg. 325, also see w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 16th Century Reformation: Anglican Episcopal from which sprang the Methodist Church, [from which sprang the Salvation Army], the Baptist Church [from which sprang the Pentecostal Church, and the Congregational Church]. See sh pgs. 320-1, & 326-7. c. 1519 C.E. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), in Switzerland, began to preach against indulgences, Mariolatry, clerical celibacy, and other doctrines of the Catholic Church. Zwingli advocated the removal of all vestiges of the Roman Church, including images, crucifexes, clerical garb [sacerdotal vestments], even liturgical music. See sh pgs. 319-20. 1517 C.E. Reformations beginning, on October 31, Martin Luther (1483-1546) nails his 95-theses to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany adding more branches to the false religious tree of Christendom. From which sprang the Lutheran Church i.e. the German, Swedish, American, and others. Though Luther spoke of reform, today's modern church is not much different from its predecessor. See sh pgs. 21, 314-9. 1516 C.E. Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus produced the first complete printed edition of the Greek text. Erasmus wished that the Scripture "were translated into all languages of all people." However, he hesitated to risk his great popularity by translating it himself. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1497 C.E. Girolamo Savonarola (1452-98), a Dominican monk spoke out against corruption of both the Church and State, in 1497 C.E. the pope excommunicated him and the following year, he was arrested, tortured, and hanged. See sh pgs. 312-3. 1453 C.E. Constantinople is captured by Mohamet (Mohammed II), Greek Patriarch of Constantinople is allowed to continue in office. 1450 C.E. Johannes Gutenberg began printing with movable type in Germany. His first great work was an edition of the Latin Vulgate Bible, completed a. 1455 C.E. By 1495 C.E. all or part of the Bible had been printed in German, Italian, French, Czech, Dutch, Hebrew, Catalan, Greek, Spanish, Slavonic, Portuguese, and Serbian--in that order. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1403 C.E. Jan Hus (1369?-1415), a Bohemian Catholic priest preaches against corruption of the Roman Catholic Church and stressed the importance of reading the Bible. In 1403 church authorities ordered him to stop preaching the anti-papal ideas of Wycliffe, whose books they also publicly burned. Hus wrote some of the most stinging indictments against the practices of the church, including the sale of indulgences. Hus was condemned and excommunicated in 1410 C.E., and in 1415 C.E. he was tried for heresy and burned at the stake. See sh pgs. 311-2, also w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1382 C.E. Anne of Bohemia, possessed Wycliffe's translation, she married Richard II of England in 1382 C.E., she studied the Scripture constantly. When she became Queen, her favorable attitude helped to advance the cause of the Bible, not only in England, she encouraged students from Prague University in Bohemia to come to Oxford. There they studied the works of Wycliffe enthusiastically and some took them back to Prague. See w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. SEEDS OF RELIGIOUS REFORM. John Wycliffe (1330?-84) a Catholic priest, translated the Latin Vulgate Bible into English. Wycliffe's writings and portions of the Bible were distribued throughout England by a body of preachers. See sh pgs. 310-2, also w97 9/15 pgs. 25-9. 1270-2 C.E. Eighth Crusade, led by Louis IX of France, but collapsed following his death in North Africa. This was the final crusade. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1252 C.E. Infamous Catholic Inquisition begins, Pope Innocent IV issued the Papal bull "Ad extirpanda" which allowed torture of suspected "heretics" (being burned at the stake, the usual method employed to put heretics to death by the 13th century, ...had its symbolism, implying that by administering this kind of punishment, the church was not guilty of shedding blood.) The Catholic Inquisition went on for more than 600 years, in the pope's name [the inquisitors] were responsible for for the most savage and sustained onslaught on human decency in the history of mankind. Of Dominican inquisitor Tomas de Torquemada in Spain, Peter De Rosa, in his book, "Vicars of Christ--The Dark Side of the Papacy" states: "Appointed in 1483, he ruled tyrannically for fifteen years. His victims numbered over 114,000 of whom 10,220 were burned at the stake." See sh pgs. 282-3, w90 2/1 pgs. 18-9, g89 8/8 pgs. 24-5, g86 4/22 pgs. 20-4. 1248-54 C.E. Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France. See w 90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1229 C.E. During the 12th century Pierre Valdes (Peter Waldo), of Lyons, France engaged some scholars to translate the Bible into a regional language of the south of France, he studied the translation zealously, and concluded that Christians should live like the apostles without individual property. He started a preaching movement that became known as the Waldenses, these rejected the Catholic priesthood, indulgences, purgatory, transubstantiation, and other traditional Catholic practices & beliefs. In 1229 C.E. the Council of Toulouse tried to check them by banning the possession of Scriptural books. See sh pgs. 280-2, w87 7/15 28-9, g89 8/22 pg. 17. 1228-9 C.E. Sixth Crusade, was led by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, whom Pope Gregory IX had previously excommunicated. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1217-21 C.E. Fifth Crusade, the last under papal control, failed because of flawed leadership & clergy interference. See w90 2/1 pgs.17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4.
1215 C.E. King John of England signs the Magna Carta setting forth a new world of freedoms from Monarchy. 1212 C.E. Children's Crusade, brought death to thousands of German & French children before they even reached their destination. See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1202-4 C.E. Fourth Crusade, was diverted for lack of funds from Egypt to Constantinople; material assisstance was promised in return for helping enthrone Alexius, an exiled Byzantine pretender to the crown. "The [resulting] pillage of Constantinople by the crusaders is something that the Orthodox East has never forgotten or forgiven," says the Encylopedia of Religion, adding: "If any single date is to be cited for the firm establishment of the schism, the most appropriate at least from a psychological standpoint is the year 1204 C.E." See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1189-92 C.E. Third Crusade, was undertaken after the Muslims retook Jerusalem, (had as one of its leaders Richard I, "the Lionhearted," of England), this crusade soon "disintegrated," says the Enclyclopedia of Religion, "through attrition, quarreling and lack of cooperation." See w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1147-9 C.E. Second Crusade, was initiated because of the loss of the County of Edessa to Syrian Muslims in 1144 C.E.; it ended when the Muslims successfully turned back Christendom's "infidels." See w90 2/1 pgs.17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1096-9 C.E. First Crusade, resulted in the recapture of Jerusalem and the establisment of four Latin states in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli. An authority quoted by H.G. Wells says of the capture of Jerusalem: "The slaughter was terrible; the blood of the conquered ran down the streets, until men splashed in the blood as they rode. At nightfall, 'sobbing for excess of joy,' the crusaders came to the Sepulchre from their treading of the winepress, and put their blood-stained hands together in prayer." For more information about the crusades see sh pgs. 281-2, w987 7/15 pg. 28, w90 2/1 pgs. 17-8, g89 8/8 pgs. 22-4. 1079 C.E. Pope Gregory VII issued the first of many medieval church edicts banning the production and sometimes even the possession of vernacular versions of the Bible. He revoked permission for mass to be celebrated in the Slavonic language on the grounds that it would require portions of the Holy Scripture to be translated, he wrote: "It [has] pleased Almighty God that holy scripture should be secret in certain places." With this as the official position of the church, promoters of Bible reading were increasingly considered dangerous. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. 1054 C.E. Eastern Orthodox church breaks in a major schism. Final break between the Greek & Latin churches, when the pope's legates excommunicate Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople. When this break occurred, this formed the Eastern Orthodox Church from which sprang the Russian Orthodox Church, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Romanian Orthodox Church & others. See sh pg. 280. 962 C.E. February 2, Pope John XII crowns Otto the Great, (Otho I), emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire," it came to be known as the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" the capital was in Germany, the emperors and the majority of the subjects were Germans. So under Otho I Germany and Italy were brought into a close relationship, but with Germany on top, for Italy was treated finally as a conquered province, at this point the KING OF THE NORTH in Daniel's prophecy effectively changes from Rome to Germany. See yw pgs. 220-63. 863 C.E. Two Greek-speaking brothers, Cyril and Methodius, went to Moravia, (now part of the Czeck Republic), they began to translate the Bible into Old Slavonic. To do so, they devised the Glugolitic alphabet, which was later superseded by the Cyrillic alphabet, (named after Cyril). This was the source of present-day Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and Bulgarian scripts. The Slavic Bible served people of that area for generations. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. 800 C.E. Pope Leo III crowns Frankish king Charlemagne as emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire." For a thousand years, this empire represented the union between Church & State, during this time the clergy enjoyed varying degrees of power over secular authorities. See bf pg. 484. 622 C.E. Mohammed flees from his enemies to Medina. (Islam Era begins) See sh pgs. 284-303 a. 550 C.E. A group of Jews known as the Masoretes developed a systematic copying method for preserving the Hebrew Scripture text. This involved counting the lines and even the individual letters, noting variations among manuscripts, all in an effort to preserve the authentic text. A comparison of modern Masoretic text with the Dead Sea Scrolls, written between 250 B.C.E. & 50 B.C.E., shows no doctrinal changes in over 1,000 years. This Masoretic Text preparation continued to a. 950 C.E. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see si pgs. 310-14. 395 C.E. January 17th at the death of Roman emperor Theodosius, the Roman Empire was divided between his sons, Honorius receiving the western section and Arcadius the eastern, with its capital at Constantinople.Egypt fell to the lot of Constantinople and became a province of the eastern division of the Roman Empire. See yw pg. 260. 382-405 C.E. Pope Damasus commisions his secretary, Jerome, to prepare an authoritative Latin Bible. Jerome completed his work a. 405 C.E., Jerome's work became known as the Vulgate, or common version, rather than using the Greek Septuagint version which proved to have many errors, (despite many criticisms from the church, because of fears that not using the Greek Septuagint as the basis for translation would further divide the western church from the Greek eastern church), however, Jerome translated from the inspired Hebrew manuscripts available to him at that time, and it benefited people for centuries. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see w99 1/1 pgs. 26-29. 378 C.E. Emperor Gratian conferred upon [Damasus], the right to pass judgment upon those clergymen of the other party who had been expelled from Rome, and at the request of a Roman synod held the same year, instructed the secular authorities to give him the necessary support. ... The Pope, as he is now, was at the close of the fourth century, the only representative of Belshazzar, or Nimrod, on the earth, for the Pagans manifestly accepted him as such. See "Damasus I, pope," pg. 252b of Vol. 2 M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. Also see the book "The Two Babylons by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255. Also see bf pg. 340. 366 C.E. Pope Damasus I succeeded Liberius as bishop of Rome, he was opposed by Ursicinus, who claimed the election, and in their disgraceful stifes many people were murdered ... The man [Pope Damasus I] that came into the bishopric of Rome, as a thief and a robber, over dead bodies of above a hundred of his opponents, could not hesitate as to the election he should make. The results shows that he acted in character, that, in assuming the Pagan title of Pontifex, he had set himself at whatever sacrifice of truth to justify his claims to that title in the eyes of the Pagans, as the legitimate representative of their long line of pontiffs.. See "Damasus I, pope," pg. 252b of Vol. 2 M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. Also see the book "The Two Babylons" by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255. Also see bf pg. 340. 330 C.E. May 11th Emperor Constantine moved his imperial residence from Rome to Byzantium, he founded the new imperial capital and dedicated it as New Rome or Constantinople. But there was still one Roman Empire. See yw pg. 260. 325 C.E. Christendom's early beginnings, Emperor Constantine, (324-337), Pontifex Maximus, calls for a council of "his bishops" at Nicaea, Asia Minor out of which the pagan trinity doctrine was adopted as "Christian Theology" this was the early beginnings of the Catholic Church. See sh pgs. 262, 271, 268-72 & 309-13. 303 C.E. Emperor Diocletian decrees that Christian meeting places be razed and their "Scriptures be consumed with fire." See w97 10/1 pg. 11. 272-4 C.E. Palmyrenes surrender their city. Aurelian, though he dealt magnanimously with the inhabitants, collected an immense quantity of plunder, including the idol from the Temple of the Sun, and departed for Rome. The Roman emperor spared Zenobia, making her the prize feature of his triumphal procession through Rome in 274 C.E. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31. 271 C.E. Roman Emperor Aurelian, (270-275) now representing the "KING OF THE NORTH" of Daniel's prophecy, Aurelian "aroused his power and his heart against the king of the south," represented by Zenobia. (Daniel 11:25a) Aurelian dispached some of his forces directly to Egypt and led his main army eastward through Asia Minor. The "KING OF THE SOUTH" or the ruling entity headed by Zenobia--"excited himself" for warfare against Aurilian "with an exceedingly great and mighty military force" under two generals, Zabdas and Zabbai. (Daniel 11:25b) Aurelian conquered Egypt, then launched an expedition into Asia Minor and Syria. Zenobia was defeated at Emesa (now Homs), she retreated to Palmyra. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31. 269 C.E. Zenobia of Palmyra, (Syria) seizes opportunity to expand her power and throne when a pretender disputing Roman rulership appeared in Egypt, Zenobia's army marched into Egypt, crushed the rebel and took possession of the country. Proclaiming herself queen of Egypt. Her kingdom now stretched from the river Nile to the river Euphrates. At this point she came to occupy the position of the "KING OF THE SOUTH" spoken about in the book of Daniel, (Daniel 11:25, 26). She also conquered most of Asia Minor. See w99 1/15 pgs. 28-31. a. 170 C.E. The earliest known catalog of the "New Testament" books, called the "Muratorian Fragment," was produced, it list most of the Christian Greek Scriptures. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. 150-170 C.E. Tatian, a student of the early Christian, Justin Martyr, produces the "Diatessaron," a composite account of Jesus' life, compiled from the same four Gospels found in our present-day Bibles. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. c. 125 C.E. Rylands Papyrus 457 (P52), are fragments of the Gospel John. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11, also see si pgs. 305-14. c. 100 C.E. APOSTASY firmly established at the death of the last apostle (John). "Man of Lawlessness" is revealed in fulfillment of 2-Thess. 2:3 & 2:7 . Christian Greek Scriptures completed c. 98 C.E. with the writing of the Gospel John. See sh pgs. 260, 263-5 & 278, also see jv pgs. 33-41, also see bf pgs. 472, 474, 479 & 480. 98-117 C.E. Emperor Trajan, ambitious to build a great oriental empire, entered upon a war of aggression in which he defeated the Parthians in Persia and added Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria to the empire as provinces. This represents the expansion of Rome to its greatest extent, but these conquest by Trajan in the east were abandoned by his successor. See "On the Road to Civilization," by Heckel and Sigman (1937), pg.198, par. 1. also see yw pg. 256. 70 C.E. Roman General Titus returns to Jerusalem and lays seige with pointed stakes, 1,100,000 Jews perish, 97,000 are taken captive, this is in fulfillment of the prophecy given by Jesus Christ at Luke 19:44. 66 C.E. Roman General Cestius Gallus surrounds Jerusalem with soldiers and even undermines the temple wall, then for some reason suddenly departs. This allows faithful Christians to flee to the mountains, fulfillment of prophecy by Jesus Christ at Luke 21:20. 41 C.E. Caligula, or Gaius is succeeded by his uncle, Claudius in the year 41 C.E. Claudius saw to the further development of the empire along the lines that Augustus had in mind. Says one authority: "Client-states were absorbed, southern Britian was conquered, the Romanization of the West received powerful impulse, public works were executed in Rome and Italy, and the organization of the imperial bureaucracy made rapid strides." (See The Encyclopedia Britanica, Volume 23, pg. 651b.) Says a history: "An important extension of the state was made under Claudius, who sent a sucessful expedition into Britian in 43 C.E. and added to the southern portion of the island as the province of Britania. Later the British frontier was pushed farther northward and secured by a line of defenses. See "On the Road to Civilization," by Heckel and Sigman (1937), pg. 198, par. 1., also see yw pg. 256. 37 C.E. Tiberius Caesar dies in the latter half of March, 37 C.E. The historian Tacitus refers to him as "one of studied dissimulation and hypocrisy from the beginning." He is remembered as a "contemptible person." Tiberius is succeeded by Gaius Caesar also known as Caligula. See yw pg. 256. 36 C.E. Roman centurion Cornilus, and members of his household are baptized. End of the 70-weeks of years as prophesied at Daniel 9:1-27. See IT-1 pgs. 439-442 & 496-500 & pg. 513. 33 C.E. Nisan 14, Jesus impaled on torture stake. Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. is poured out upon 120-Christian disciples on the day of Pentecost 33 C.E., in fulfillment of the prophecy at Joel 2:28, 29. 29-33 C.E. Jesus Christ earthly ministry. The end of 69-weeks of years, when Jesus presents himself to John to be baptised at the Jordan River, and is annointed with Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. as the "Christ" or "Messiah," in 29 C.E. in fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 9:1-27. For Jesus' life story and the Bible prophesies that he fulfilled, see the book "The Greatest Man Who Ever Lived," published by the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society of Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. (1991). Also see IT-2 pgs. 54-72. 14 C.E. (August 19th) Caesar Augustus, (Octavius) dies leaving as successor his stepson Tiberius. Caesar Augustus did not want Tiberius to be his successor, he hated his stepson because of his bad qualities. Augustus was forced to accept Tiberius as his successor only after every other hope had failed. Emperor Augustus had no sons, his sister had a son Marcellus, but he died. His daughter had two sons, Gaius and Lucius, and these Augustus appointed as his successors. These also died, he loved his dear stepson Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius but again Drusus died on September 14, 9 C.E. This left only Tiberius, who was a capable general of the top-ranking soldier of the Roman Empire. In the year 12 C.E. Agrippa the great general of the Emperor Augustus died at the age of fifty-one years, then Livia, the mother of Tiberius, induced the emperor wih great difficulty, to replace Agrippa with her son Tiberius. To replace Agrippa, though required Tiberius to become the son-in-law of the emperor. So to his great grief, Tiberius was compelled to exchange Agripina, the daughter of Agrippa, for the emperor's daughter Julia. In 4 C.E. Emperor Augustus adopted Tiberius and Agrippa Postumus. Nine years later, by special law, Tiberius was raised to the coregency with emperor Augustus. When Augustus died the following year, Tiberius was made emperor. No wonder that Jesus referred to Tiberius as "that fox." See yw pgs. 250-2. 13 C.E.** Caesar Augustus sets up the emperor's bodyguard known as the Praetorian Guards which are later enlarged by his successor. These Guards had been seen only near Rome in small detachments, later Tiberius changed this, he had the Guards encamp permanently in full force close to the city walls of Rome. By this arrangement he held in check any unruliness of the people. This attached great importance to the commander of the Guards. The Guards came to to enjoy special privileges and in time became so powerful that they were able to put emperors in office or to dethrone them, according to their will. See yw pg. 250 & 254. 2 B.C.E. John the Baptizer born [about April], Jesus born [about October 1st.] 27 B.C.E. In the battle for power Octavius finally came forth as the sole ruler of Rome and became the first Roman emperor. He turned down the titles of rex ("king") and dictator. Finally, in 27 B.C.E. by decree of the Roman Senate, he was styled Augustus. The Greeks translated this title as Sebastos, which means "Reverend One." See yw pg. 248. 30 B.C.E. Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt the KING OF THE SOUTH commits suicide, Egypt becomes a Roman province, subject to the KING OF THE NORTH. See yw pg. 248. 37 B.C.E. Herod the Great captures Jerusalem and establishes himself as king, to end Maccabean rule. See yw pg. 246. 39 B.C.E. Herod the Great succeeds his father Antipater II to the throne, appointed king by Rome the SIXTH WORLD POWER. See bf pg. 335. 45 B.C.E. Julius Gaius Caesar is elected Pontifex Maximus, as such he is not only the head of the Roman state, he is the head of the Roman religion, all of the powers and funtions of the true Babylonian Pontiff were supremely vested in him, and he found himself in a position to exert these powers. ...Then, on certain occasions, in the exercise of his high pontifical office, he appeared of course in all the pomp of the Babylonian costume, as Belshazzar himself might have done, in robes of scarlet, with the crozier of Nimrod in his hand, wearing the mitre of Dagon [the fish god] and bearing the keys of Janus [the two-faced god] and Cybele [the "mother" goddess]. Notice the similarities in false religion today. See the book "The Two Babylons" by Doctor Alexander Hyslop pgs. 241, 242, 247, 250, 252, & 255 Also see bf pg. 339. 63 B.C.E. Roman General Gnaeus Pompey lays a three month seige to Jerusalem and captures it, the Egyptian KING OF THE SOUTH was powerless to prevent it. Rome annexes Judea to the Roman Empire. ROME becomes the SIXTH WORLD POWER. Herod the Great is appointed king of the Jews in 40 or 39 B.C.E., and in 37 B.C.E. Herod effectively crushes the Hasmonean [Sadducees] rule. See IT-2 pgs. 822-5, also see yw pgs. 104-27 & pgs. 220-63. 64 B.C.E. Roman General Gnaeus Pompey annexes Syria as a Roman province, therefore Rome becomes the KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 11:20-22. See yw pg. 229. 65 B.C.E. Antiochus XIII the last king of the Seleucid dynasty of kings is dethroned by Roman General Gnaeus Pompey the Great. See yw pg. 248. 104 B.C.E. The Maccabees establish a kingdom, when Aristobulus I assumed the title of king. See yw pg. 246. 139 B.C.E. Jews expelled from Rome for proselytizing. The government of Rome according to tradition was founded in the year 753 B.C.E., in 710 B.C.E., King Numa Pompillius set himself up in the office of Pontifex Maximus at Rome, the very office occupied by the head of the Catholic Church, he was a pagan Etruscan magic-practicing priest. See sh pgs. 262, 271 & 268-72. a. 150 B.C.E. Greek Septuagint version of the Hebrew Bible is completed. See w97 pgs. 8-11. 161 B.C.E. The Maccabees made a treaty with Rome, the first of theirs on record. See yw pg. 246. 163 B.C.E. Antiochus IV won his war with Egypt. He had himself crowned as king of Egypt. Then the Roman fleet brought its ambassador Caius Popilius Laenas with orders from the Roman Senate that Antiochus IV renounce his kingship of Egypt and quit the country. The Syrian king did so, but kept his hold on Coele-Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia. In 163 B.C.E. he died as a temple looter in Persia. After him there were many more independent kings of the Seleucid dynasty in Syria. See yw pgs. 247-8. 165 B.C.E. Temple rededicated to Jehovah. Jewish celebration of Hanukkah begins in commemoration of this event. Beginning a period of rule of Maccabean kings, in the order in which they ruled as follows: Simon Maccabeus, John Hyrcanus I, Aristobulus I, Alexander Jannaeus and his widow Salome Alexandra, Aristobulus II, John Hyrcanus II, and the last Hasmonean king, Antigonus, who was deposed and executed by the Romans under Mark Antony. Jewish political parties were formed such as the pro-Hasmonean Sadducees and the anti-Hasmonean Pharisees, these ruled until 63 B.C.E., when Rome sent General Pompey to interfere with political party scwabbling. Rome begins to come into the role of the KING OF THE NORTH, but not until 64 B.C.E. when Rome annexes Syria does this transition completely take place. See Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 11:20-22. See yw pgs. 247, 249, & 251. 166 B.C.E. Judas Maccabeus recaptures Jerusalem from Syrian rule. 167 B.C.E. Judas Maccabeus, a Levite priest, became leader of a resistance movement against the Syrian rule of Antiochus IV. 168 B.C.E. Antiochus IV, (KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel chapter 11), erects an altar to the Greek god Zeus on top of Jehovah's altar in the temple courtyard. Judas Maccabeus attacks Ashdod, later in 148 B.C.E. Ashdod came under attack by Judas Maccabeus' brother Johnathan, during this second attack the temple of Dagon was burned down. Macedonia becomes dependent upon Rome in 168 B.C.E. and in 146 B.C.E. becomes a Roman province further reducing the Hellenistic empires to two, that of the KING OF THE NORTH and the KING OF THE SOUTH . See yw pgs. 220-263. 175 B.C.E. Antiochus IV of Syria, (KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel chapter 11), rules over the Jews, Antiochus is not tolerant of the worship given to Jehovah. Hoping to unify all peoples under his domain created one religion for all, with himself as "god manifest." See yw pgs. 220-263. 187 B.C.E. After being driven from Greece and losing Asia Minor and practically all of his fleet, Antiochus III turned his face back towards the strongholds of his own land. The Romans had turned back his reproach against themselves upon his own self. He was pressed to pay the large fine to Rome. In 187 B.C.E., while trying to rob the temple at Belus at Elymais in Persia, he was killed. He staggered and fell in death. He left two sons, Seleucus and Antiochus, to succeed him. See yw pg. 243. 189 B.C.E. Final peace arrangements were made, Antiochus III was required to disown everything in Asia Minor, everything west of the Taurus Mountains, as well as everything in Greece. He must pay 15,000 talents to Rome and 500 talents to her ally, Eumenes, king of Pergamum, who had helped defeat Antiochus III at Magnesia. As a further reward King Eumenes received European territory and all the possessions of Antiochus III in Asia Minor as far as the Taurus Mountains. Rome thus established a dominion over the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH. One of his sons, who became Antiochus IV, lived as a boy at Rome, as a hostage. See yw pgs. 242-3. 190 B.C.E. A decisive battle took place at Magnesia, near Ephesus, and Antiochus III with 80,000 men lost to the Roman "commander," Lucius Scipio Asiaticus. The KING OF THE NORTH was now willing to make peace with Rome. See yw pg. 242. 191 B.C.E. Rome declares war on Antiochus III, who was then at Acarnania. He returned to Chalcis. At Thermopylae he met the Romans and suffered defeat. He sailed back to Asia Minor to his capital at Ephesus, The Romans purposed to oust the KING OF THE NORTH from Asia, battles at sea were fought. Antiochus III was defeated, he abandoned Lysimachia on the Chersonese peninsula. By giving up Lysimachia he left the way for the Romans to cross the Hellespont into Asia Minor. See yw pg. 242. 192 B.C.E. Antiochus III met with reversals, it happened that war broke out in Greece in 192 B.C.E. and King Antiochus III was induced to come to Greece, he landed there that year. He captured Chalcis, gained a foothold in Boeotia and tried to take over Thessaly but retreated before the Macedonian army. See yw pg. 242. 193 B.C.E. Ptolemy V is declared of legal age and is crowned KING OF THE SOUTH at the age of eight. His marriage to Cleopatra is performed. Antiochus III did not actually let the dowry of conquered territories pass over to his southern son-in-law by way of his daughter Cleopatra, she became Queen Cleopatra I of Egypt, (seven successive queens of Egypt also carried the name Cleopatra), the intent of this political marriage was to "destroy it," or to bring Egypt to ruin, making it subject to Syria. But this scheme did not stand, and the advantage did not remain with Syrian King Antiochus III. In the difficulties that followed, Cleopatra took the side of her young husband rather than that of her Syrian father. In this way she frustrated the selfish designs of her father Antochus III. When at last war broke out between her father and Rome, Egypt took the side of her protector, Rome. See yw pg. 241. 196 B.C.E. Antiochus III aimed to have Syria dominate Egypt. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, king of Egypt, was only five years old, when Antiochus III and Philip V of Macedonia leagued against the boy king to take over his territories and split them between themselves, the guardians of Ptolemy V made a tragic mistake. They turned to Rome and placed him under the protection of that aggressive power. Under compulsion of Rome, Antiochus III brought terms of peace to the KING OF THE SOUTH. For a selfish reason he decided to make the boy king his son-in-law. Instead of making an outright surrender of his conqquered territories in obedience to Rome, he would make a nominal transfer of territory to King Ptolemy V by means of the "daughter of women," (Daniel 11:17), Cleopatra, the "daughter of his wife." In consideration of this political marriage she was to receive as dowry from her father the conquered provinces of Coele-Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia. See yw pgs. 240-1. 198 B.C.E. Antiochus III proved victorious. He drove Egypt's General Scopas and his 100,000 picked troops or "chosen people" back into the Phoenician seaport of Sidon, a "well-fortified city." Here he "cast up a mound" or seigeworks. He took Sidon in 198 B.C.E., for the bottled-up General Scopas was forced to surrender because of famine. Antiochus III pressed forward "according to his own will," as the forces of the KING OF THE SOUTH were unable to stand before him. He captured more cities and proceeded against the capital of the "beautious land," Jerusalem, with its rebuilt santuary. (Daniel 11:15, 16) Jerusalem and Judea passed from under the domination of the KING OF THE SOUTH to the KING OF THE NORTH. See yw pg. 239. 209 B.C.E. Antiochus III defeats the Parthians. The following year 208 B.C.E. He carries his conquest even further eastward, against the Bactrians deep in Asia. See yw pg. 236. 242 B.C.E. Ptolemy III Bernice's brother now became KING OF THE SOUTH, he came into the stronghold of the KING OF THE NORTH and dealt out death to the queen mother Laodice for the death of his sister. (Daniel 11:7) Ptolemy III overran Syria, captured the fortified part of the capital city of Antioch and also its seaport, Seleucia. Internal troubles in Egypt forced Ptolemy III to return, after taking back spoils that had been robbed from Egypt by Persian King Cambyses, (Daniel 11:8). Taking advantage of this situation Seleucus II Callinicus, (the Gloriously Thriumphant) struck back in revenge only to meet with defeat. He retreated to his Syrian capital of Antioch. He died before his humiliator, Ptolemy III of Egypt. His son Seleucus III, surnamed Ceraunus ("Thunderbolt") suceeded him only to be assassinated after reigning less than three years. His brother Antiochus III succeeds him and became called "the Great." See yw pgs. 233-4. 247-6 B.C.E. Ptolemy II dies, hence Bernice his daughter does not "retain the strength of her arm" (Daniel 11:6) with her husband King Antiochus II of Syria. He rejected her, and took back his first wife, Laodice, and named her first son, Seleucus Callinicus, to be his successor to the Syrian throne. Bernice and her infant son are murdered, along with her Egyptian attendants by plans of Laodice. Laodice also poisoned her husband Antiochus II who had taken her back. See yw pgs. 231-2. 250 B.C.E. King Ptolemy II, "KING OF THE SOUTH" waged two wars with the Syrian "KING OF THE NORTH," Antiochus II (Theos). The two kings entered into a peace arrangement. As the price of this alliance or "agreement" the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH must marry Bernice the daughter of Ptolemy II. Antiochus II was already married to Laodice. So this obliged him to divorce her in order to marry the Egyptian Bernice. By Bernice, Antiochus II of Syria had a son, who became heir to the throne of the "KING OF THE NORTH" to the exclusion of the sons of his first wife Laodice. (Daniel 11:5, 6) See yw pg. 231. 277 B.C.E. Antigonus Gonastas, the grandson of one-eyed General Antigonas, gained possession of the throne of Macedonia after General Lysimachus fell in battle before General Seleucus Nicator. See yw pg. 228. a. 280 B.C.E. A group of Hebrew scholars are gathered to Alexandria, Egypt to translate the Hebrew Bible into the popular Koine [or common] Greek language which came to be known as the Greek Septuagint [Latin for "seventy," referring to the approximate number of translators believed to be involved]. See w97 8/15 pgs. 8-11. 280 B.C.E. Seleucus Nicator is assassinated after transferring the capital from Babylon to Seleucia, a new city he had built, the Seleucid dynasty of kings that he left to succeed him continued in power until 64 B.C.E., Antiochus I, his son succeeds him to the throne. Antiochus I dies in battle fighting the Galatians in Asia Minor, he is succeeded by his son Antiochus II. (Daniel's prophecy of the KING OF THE NORTH & the KING OF THE SOUTH, Dan. chap. 11, has its first & minor fulfillment between Seleucus Nicator of Syria & Ptolemy Lagus of Egypt, for further information see yw pgs. 221-63, in the year 191 B.C.E. Rome formally declared war on Antiochus III, in 190 B.C.E., Antiochus III was decisively defeated by the Roman commander Lucius Scipio Asiaticus.) See Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, Book 12 chapters 4&5, Polybius' Book 28 chapter 17, also see yw pgs. 220-63. 281 B.C.E. General Lysimachus dies and is defeated in battle before General Seleucus Nicator and thus left Seleucus practically the master of all of the Asian territories. See yw pg. 228. 285 B.C.E. General Lysimachus took possession of the European part of the Macedonian Empire. However, in 277 B.C.E. Antigonus Gonatas, the grandson of one-eyed General Antigonus, gained possession of the throne of Macedonia after General Lysimachus fell in battle, (281 B.C.E.) before General Seleucus Nicator, reducing the Hellenistic empires to three. See yw pg. 228. 301 B.C.E. One-eyed General Antigonus, is killed and is defeated in battle after meeting the confederacy of three other generals against him, Cassander, Selecus, and Lysimachus. He fell in battle against them at the Ipsus in Phyrgia, Asia Minor, in 301 B.C.E. The four Hellenistic empires that resulted were (1.) that of General Cassander in Macedonia and Greece; (2.) that of General Lysimachus in Asia Minor and European Thrace, including Byzantium; (3.) that of General Seleucus Nicator (the Conqueror), who secured Babylon, Media, Syria, Persia and the provinces east of the Indus River; and (4.) that of Ptolemy Lagus, who secured Egypt, Libya, Arabia and Palestine and Coele-Syria. In a few years the male line of General Cassander died out, and in 285 B.C.E. General Lysimachus took possession of the European part of the Macedonian Empire. See yw pg. 228. 306 B.C.E. Ptolemy I the son of Lagus, (one of Alexander the Great's eight bodyguards), who was made the satrap of Egypt but assumed the title of king in 306 B.C.E. in imitation of one-eyed General Antigonus. Ptolemy I becomes the KING OF THE SOUTH in Daniel's prophecy, at Daniel 11:5, He was first of thirteen or fouteen Macedonian kings or Pharaohs of Egypt. According to his name, he established the Ptolemaic line of rulers over Egypt. See yw pg. 230. a. 312 B.C.E. Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem on a sabbath day. He persuades the Jews to come south to Egypt as colonist, and a colony of Jews was established in Alexandria. With his son and successor he shared in founding the famous library and museum in Alexandria. The Jewish province of Judea stayed under control of Ptolemaic Egypt or the "KING OF THE SOUTH" until 198 B.C.E., when the "KING OF THE NORTH" took over. See yw pg. 230. 332 B.C.E. Alexander the Great defeats the Persian Empire. GREECE becomes the FIFTH WORLD POWER. Alexander's kingdom divided between his generals after his death in 323 B.C.E. One-eyed General Antigonus, after attempting to set himself up as lord of all Asia, and finally took the title of king after Alexander's death, claiming to be his heir. (Seleucus Nicator taking Mesopotamia & Syria; Cassander taking Macedonia & Greece; Ptolemy Lagus taking Egypt & Palestine; Lysimachus taking Thrace & Asia Minor.) Daniel chapter 8, Daniel chapter 11, Ezekiel chapter 26 & Jeremiah chapter 51 ~ See IT-1 pgs 70-1, also see yw pgs. 104-27, also bf pgs. 187, & 392. 455 B.C.E. Jerusalem's walls are rebuilt. Beginning 70-weeks of years as prophesied at Daniel 9:1-27. Book of Nehemiah written a. 443 B.C.E.; Book of Malachi written a. 443 B.C.E. 475 B.C.E. Artaxerxes Longimanus, Xerxes' successor, authorizes Ezra's return to Jerusalem with a large contribution for the support of the temple in 468 B.C.E.; Books of 1st & 2nd Chronicles completed in one roll c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Ezra written c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Psalms completed c. 460 B.C.E.; Book of Esther written 474 B.C.E. See Artaxerxes #2 IT-1 pg. 182. 480 B.C.E. Xerxes launched massive forces against the Greek mainland in retaliation for the defeat suffered at Marathon, following a costly victory at Thermopylae and the destruction of Athens, Xerxes' forces met defeat at Salamis and later at Plataea, causing Xerxes to return to Persia. Xerxes is assassinated by one of his courtiers. See Ahasuerrus #3 IT-1 pg. 61. 490 B.C.E. In a campaign against Greece at Marathon, Darius I is defeated. Darius I dies in 486 B.C.E., his son Xerxes (Ahasuerrus, husband to Queen Esther) succeeds his father. See Ahasuerrus #3 IT-1 pg. 61. 530 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great dies his son Cambyses succeeds him. 537 B.C.E. Jews repatriated to their homeland, return from exile in Babylon. Book of Daniel written c. 536 B.C.E. 539 B.C.E. Babylon captured by Cyrus of Persia. MEDO-PERSIA becomes the FOURTH WORLD POWER. See IT-2 pgs. 358-60, 611-17, also see yw pgs. 104-27, also bf pg. 187. 543 B.C.E. Buddhist Era begins in India. See sh pgs. 129-60. 551 B.C.E. Confucian Era begins in China, Taoism in China begins in the 5th or 6th century B.C.E. See sh pgs. 161-86. c. 700 B.C.E. During the 8th century B.C.E. the Shinto religion sprang up in Japan. See sh pgs. 187-204 740 B.C.E. Ten-tribe kingdom of Israel destroyed by the Assyrian Empire. ASSYRIA attains prominence as the SECOND WORLD POWER. See IT-1 pgs. 200-5, also bf pg. 110. 748 B.C.E. Hoshea begins his rule [9-yrs.] Hoshea assassinated Pekah and then "began to reign" in place of him, however, it seems that his control became fully established or possibly he received the backing of the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III in c. 748 B.C.E. Book of Hosea written a. 745 B.C.E. See Hoshea #4 IT-1 pgs. 1148-9. 775 B.C.E. Pekah begins his rule [20-yrs.] Pekah assassinated Pekahiah and then began to rule as king. See IT-2 pgs. 594-5. 777 B.C.E. Pekahiah begins his rule [2-yrs.] See IT-2 pg. 595. 788 B.C.E. Menahem begins his rule [10-yrs.] Menahem assassinated Shallum, then began to rule, however, it seems that his years of kingship counted from c. 790 B.C.E. See IT-2 pg. 371. 788 B.C.E. Shallum begins his rule [1-mo.] Shallum assassinated Zechariah and then ruled as king. See Shallum #5 IT-2 pg. 906. 789 B.C.E. Zechariah begins his rule [6-mos.] Zechariah, "began to reign" in some sense, but evidently the kingship was not fully confirmed as his until c.792 B.C.E. See Zechariah #14 IT-2 pgs.1223-4. 852 B.C.E. Jeroboam II begins his rule [41-yrs.] Prophets: Jonah, Hosea, Amos [Book of Jonah written c. 844 B.C.E.] See Jeroboam #2 IT-2 pg. 38. 867 B.C.E. Jehoash begins his rule[16-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha, see Jehoash #2 IT-1 pg. 1266. 881 B.C.E. Jehoahaz begins his rule [17-yrs.] Jehoash evidently became associated with his father, Jehoahaz in the kingship. See Jehoahaz #2 IT-1 pg. 1265. 909 B.C.E. Jehu begins his rule [28-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha [Jehu, a military chief, assassinated Jehoram and then began to rule as king, however it seems that his years of kingship counted from c. 904 B.C.E.] See Jehu #3 IT-2 pgs. 22-5. 921 B.C.E. Jehoram begins his rule [12-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha [Jehoram, son of Ahab began to rule as king of Israel; but in at least one text the brief reign of his brother Ahaziah who died sonless, also may have been credited to Jehoram.] See Jehoram #2 IT-1 pg. 1270. 922 B.C.E. Ahaziah begins his rule [2-yrs.] Prophet: Elijah [Ahaziah, son of Ahab "became king" evidently his father was still living, Ahaziah's years may count from c. 919 B.C.E.] See Ahaziah #1 IT-1 pgs. 62-3. 940 B.C.E. Ahab begins his rule [22-yrs.] Prophets: Elijah, Micaiah [Ahab marries wicked Baal worshipper Jezabel] See Ahab #1 IT-1 pgs. 59-60. 951 B.C.E. Omri begins his rule [12-yrs.] Omri, chief of the army, began to rule as king. Tibni became king over part of the people, further dividing the nation c. 951 B.C.E., Omri overcame Tibni's opposition and became sole ruler of Israel c. 947 B.C.E., Samaria became Omri's capitol. See Omri #3 IT-2 pg.554. 951 B.C.E. Zimri begins his rule [7-days] Zimri, a military chief, assassinated Elah and then began to rule as king. See Zimri #3 IT-2 pg. 1235. 953 B.C.E. Elah begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Elah #3 IT-1 pg. 701. 976 B.C.E. Baasha begins his rule [24-yrs.] Baasha assassinated Nadab and then began to rule as king. See IT-1 pg. 234. 977 B.C.E. Nadab begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Nadab #4 IT-2 pg. 460. 997 B.C.E. Jeroboam begins his rule [22-yrs.] Prophet: Ahijah, See Jeroboam #1 IT-2 pgs. 37-8. 607 B.C.E. Beginning of the "Gentile Times" or "The Appointed Times of the Nations" [to last 2,520 years, as prophesied in Ezekiel 21:25-27. Jerusalem destroyed by Babylon, land left desolate for 70-years] Book of Lamentations written 607B.C.E.; Book of Jeremiah written 580 B.C.E.; Books of 1st & 2nd Kings completed in one roll 580 B.C.E. ~ See IT-1 pgs.132-5, also yw pgs. 104-127 & 264-307. 617 B.C.E. Zedekiah begins his rule [11-yrs.] Prophets: Jeremiah, Ezekiel / High Priest: Seraiah [Nebuchadnezzar II invaded Judah again, seige of Jerusalem began in 609 B.C.E., walls of Jerusalem were breached on the 9th day of the 4th month of 607 B.C.E., Jerusalem and its temple were burned on the 10th day of the 5th month of 607 B.C.E., lastly Jews abandoned Judah about the middle of the 7th month of 607 B.C.E.] See Zedekiah #4 IT-2 pgs. 1226-7. 618 B.C.E. Jehoiachin begins his rule [3-mos., 10-days] Nebuchadnezzar II took Jewish captives and temple treasures to Babylon. See IT-1 pg. 1267. 628 B.C.E. Jehoikim begins his rule [tributary to Egypt for 11-yrs.] Prophets: Habakkuk (?), Jeremiah [Book of Habakkuk perhaps written c.628 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 1268-9. 628 B.C.E. Jehoahaz begins his rule [3-mos.] See Jehoahaz #3 IT-1 pg. 1265. c. 633 B.C.E. Nineveh falls to Medes and Caldeans BABYLON now in line to become THIRD WORLD POWER. [Book of Nahum written b.632 B.C.E.] See IT-2 pgs. 503-5, also IT-1 pgs. 235-9, also bf pg. 295. 659 B.C.E. Josiah begins his rule [31-yrs.] Prophets: Zephaniah, Jeremiah, the prophetess Hulda / High Priest: Hilkiah [Book of Zephaniah written b. 648 B.C.E.] See Josiah #1 IT-2 pgs. 117-8. 661 B.C.E. Amon begins his rule [2-yrs.] See Amon #2 IT-1 pg. 96. 716 B.C.E. Manasseh begins his rule [55-yrs.] Book of Proverbs completed c. 716 B.C.E.; Book of Micah written b. 716 B.C.E. See Manasseh #4 IT-2 pg. 307. 746 B.C.E. Hezekiah begins his rule [29-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah / High Priest: Azariah (II or III) [Book of Isaiah written c. 732 B.C.E.] See Hezekiah #1 IT-1 pgs. 1102-5. 762 B.C.E. Ahaz begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah / High Priest: Urijah (?) [Ahaz evidently became tributary to Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria.] See Ahaz #2 IT-1 pgs. 61-2. 777 B.C.E. Jotham begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah, see Jotham #3 IT-2 pgs. 118-9. 829 B.C.E. Uzziah begins his rule [52-yrs.] Prophets: Hosea, Joel (?), Isaiah / High Priest: Azariah (II) [Book of Joel perhaps written c. 820 B.C.E.; Book of Amos written c. 803 B.C.E.] See Uzziah #3 IT-2 pg. 1146. 858 B.C.E. Amaziah begins his rule [29-yrs.] Jehoash of Israel captured Amaziah, breached the walls of Jerusalem, and took treasure from the temple, Book of Jonah written c. 844 B.C.E. See Amaziah #2 IT-1 pg. 88. 898 B.C.E. Jehoash begins his rule [40-yrs.] High Priest: Jehoiada, see Jehoash #1, IT-1 pgs. 1265-6. 904 B.C.E. Queen Athaliah usurped the throne and ruled [6-yrs.] see IT-1 pg. 209. 906 B.C.E. Ahaziah begins his rule [1-yr.] High Priest: Jehoiada, see IT-1 pgs. 62-3. 913 B.C.E. Jehoram begins his rule [8-yrs.] Prophet: Elijah, see Jehoram #3, IT-1 pgs. 1270-1. 936 B.C.E. Jehoshaphat begins his rule [25-yrs.] Prophets: Jehu (son of Hanani), Eliezer, Jahaziel / High Priest: Amariah, see Jehoshaphat #3, IT-1 pgs. 1271-2. 977 B.CE. Asa begins his rule [41-yrs.] Prophets: Azariah, Oded, Hanani [Zerah the Ethiopian came against Judah in war 967 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 183-5. 980 B.C.E. Abijah begins his rule [3-yrs.] Prophet: Iddo, see IT-1 pgs. 22-3. TEN-TRIBE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL [exist 257-years] TWO-TRIBE KINGDOM OF JUDAH [exist 390-years] 997 B.C.E. KINGDOM DIVIDED 997 B.C.E. Rehoboam begins his rule [17-yrs.] Prophets: Shemeiah, Iddo [Shishak of Egypt invaded Judah and took treasures from the temple in Jerusalem]. See IT-2 pgs. 767-8. 1034 B.C.E. BEGINNING OF TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION See IT-2 pgs. 1076-83. 1037 B.C.E. Solomon begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophets: Nathan, Ahijah, Iddo / High Priest: Abiathar, Zadok [Construction of temple begins 1034 B.C.E., construction completed 1027 B.C.E., Song of Solomon complete c. 1020 B.C.E., Book of Ecclesiastes complete b. 1000 B.C.E.] See IT-2 pgs. 986-93. 1077 B.C.E. David begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophets: Nathan, Gad, Zadok / High Priest: Abiathar [Gad & Nathan complete writing 2-Samuel c. 1040 B.C.E.] See IT-1 pgs. 585-91. Book of Ruth c. 1090 B.C.E.; Book of 1-Samuel completed c. 1078 B.C.E.] For detail of the kings, see IT-2 pgs. 170-4. 1117 B.C.E. Saul begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophet: Samuel / High Priest: Ahijah, Ahimelech [Samuel completes Book of Judges c. 1100 B.C.E.; Samuel completes 1473 B.C.E. Conquest of Canaan [Israel is ruled by Jehovah, 13-judges i.e. Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Barak, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, and Eli. Total 356-years] Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. & Deuteronomy written by Moses 1473 B.C.E.; Book of Joshua written by Joshua c. 1450 B.C.E.; Book of Job written by Moses c. 1473 B.C.E. ~ See IT-2 pgs. 134-6. c. 1500 B.C.E. [Hinduism originates in the Indus River Valley (now part of Pakistan) had its beginnings when an Indo-European people known as the Aryans moved into this area about 1500 B.C.E.] See g89 4/8 pgs. 24-27, also See sh pgs. 95-128. 1513 B.C.E. EXODUS FROM EGYPT Book of Genesis written by Moses 1513 B.C.E.; Books of Exodus & Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. written by Moses 1512 B.C.E. a. 1600 B.C.E. Egypt attains prominence as FIRST WORLD POWER. See IT-1 pgs. 686-99, also bf pg. 60. b. 1613 B.C.E. Job's trial [Job tested by Satan when Chaldeans raid Job's 3,000 camels] See IT-2 pg. 81. 1750 B.C.E. Joseph sold into slavery in Egypt, See IT-2 pgs. 106-11. 1711 B.C.E. Jacob dies 1858 B.C.E. Jacob born, see Jacob #1 IT-1 pgs. 1242-7. 1738 B.C.E. Isaac dies 1918 B.C.E. Isaac born, see IT-1 pgs. 1216-8. 1843 B.C.E. Abraham dies 1943 B.C.E. ABRAHAMIC COVENANT, see IT-1 pgs. 520-5. 2018 B.C.E. Abraham born, see IT-1 pgs. 28-32. 1943 B.C.E. Terah dies 2148 B.C.E. Terah born, see Terah #1 IT-2 pg. 1087. 2029 B.C.E. Nahor dies 2177 B.C.E. Nahor born, see Nahor #1 IT-2 pg. 462. 1977 B.C.E. Serug dies 2207 B.C.E. Serug born, see IT-2 pgs. 898-9. 2000 B.C.E. Reu dies 2239 B.C.E. Reu born, see IT-2 pg. 795. 2030 B.C.E Peleg dies a. 2239 B.C.E. Tower of Babel [During the days of Peleg, Jehovah God confused the language of the people working on the Tower of Babel and the building of a mighty city in opposition to Jehovah, the people were scattered taking their god-defying, false religious practices with them. Thus was the beginning of Babylon the Great, the mother of (spiritual) harlots and of the disgusting things of the earth.] See IT-1 pgs. 234-5, also bf pgs. 11-45. 2269 B.C.E. Peleg born, see IT-2 pg. 595. 1839 B.C.E. Eber dies 2303 B.C.E. Eber born, see Eber #1 IT-1 pg 673. 1900 B.C.E. Shelah dies 2333 B.C.E. Shelah born, see Shelah #1 IT-2 pg. 918. 1930 B.C.E. Arpachshad dies 2368 B.C.E. Arpachshad born, see IT-1 pg. 179. 2370 B.C.E. GLOBAL FLOOD ~ [begins in November], see Deluge IT-1 pgs. 609- 12. 1868 B.C.E. Shem dies 2468 B.C.E. Shem born, see IT-2 pgs. 919-20. 2020 B.C.E. Noah dies 2970 B.C.E. Noah born, see Noah #1 IT-2 pgs. 506-8. 2375 B.C.E. Lamech dies 3152 B.C.E. Lamech born, see Lamech #2 IT-2 pg. 192. 2370 B.C.E. Methuselah dies ~ [global flood begins in November] 3339 B.C.E. Methuselah born, see IT-2 pg. 389. 3039 B.C.E. Enoch ~ [transferred so as not to experience the pangs of death] 3404 B.C.E. Enoch born, see Enoch #2 IT-1 pg. 729. 2604 B.C.E. Jared dies 3566 B.C.E. Jared born, see IT-1 pg. 1256. 2736 B.C.E. Mahalalel dies 3631 B.C.E. Mahalalel born, see Mahalalel #1 IT-2 pg. 295. 2791 B.C.E. Kenan dies 3701 B.C.E. Kenan born, see IT-2 pg. 145. 2886 B.C.E. Enosh dies 3791 B.C.E. Enosh born, see IT-1 pgs. 729-30. 2984 B.C.E. Seth dies 3896 B.C.E. Seth born, see IT-2 pg. 899. 3096 B.C.E. Adam dies Exact Year Hidden - Eve created from Adam's rib (It is believed that it is unknown and "hidden" so that we wouldn't understand "EXACTLY" what God's timetable would be for Armageddon to arrive) 4026 B.C.E. Adam created, see Adam #1 IT-1 pgs. 44-6.
Exact date unknown - Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. is formed (and protected as a sanctuary for later human life from dinosaurs that still exist) (Cherub who would later become Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. placed in charge of it) (He was 3rd ranking in the Universe after Michael the Archangel and "very beautiful")
Dinosaurs created and walk the Earth (the largest ones being God's Giant "Lawnmowers" for early pre-cambrian years lush vegetation.)
Creation account of Genesis
...Billions of years pass.....
Birth of the Moon (video) / Thea crashes into the Earth... both cool. Orbits are stabilized.
Michael the Archangel .. creates the Earth (great video)
Planets begin to form. Interplanetary gas and asteroids are cleaned up out of the Solar System by the sun igniting.
Our Sun ignites (video)
...Billions of years pass....
Our Milky Way Galaxy begins to form out of hydrogen gas (Video)
Hydrogen gas exists all over the known expanding Universe ....
(See also the following video regarding The Big Bang)
The "Big Bang".......Expanding Universe / Entropy is started..... (see also: Cosmological Constant)
....How much Time?..... Billions of our years?....
Michael the Archangel creates the Heavens alongside His Father Jehovah. Jehovah being the Architect and Michael the Archangel (Jesus) the Master Builder (See Proverbs 8)
Michael the Archangel creates all the other angels one of whom would later become Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content.
Michael the Archangel creates "time" as we understand it. (The expanding universe is what gives us "Time" therefore the "Big Bang" might have happened here before the angels were created or after. They live outside of our "realm" (using the Cosmological Constant)
Billions of years ago before the Universe was created Jesus, then known as Michael the Archangel was created by Jehovah using His Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. (See Colossians 1 - "The Firstborn of ALL creation")
Jehovah God has / had no beginning....He exists for time infinitum (see also this post regarding the Lambda above
By The Librarian
<---- Genesis 50 Exodus 2 --->
Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob.
2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah,
3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin,
4 Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.
5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.
6 And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation.
7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them.
8 Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.
9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we:
10 Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land.
11 Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses.
12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And they were grieved because of the children of Israel.
13 And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:
14 And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour.
15 And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah:
16 And he said, When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then ye shall kill him: but if it be a daughter, then she shall live.
17 But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men children alive.
18 And the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them, Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men children alive?
19 And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwives come in unto them.
20 Therefore God dealt well with the midwives: and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty.
21 And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that he made them houses.
22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.
So, I am reading in Matthew about how many generations there we're from the deportation from Babylon until the Christ, 14 generations. The way I do math 607 divided by 14 equals 43.3 years. This is how Scripture measures a generation.The way I see it since 1914 we have had 2 complete generations and are now working on a 3rd. According to Jesus shouldn't the end have come by now?
Why did Jack cry? Maybe it was because he realized the old will get young again....JWs do have the Truth...and soon everyone will see that.....
Could Someone Be Disfellowshipped For Not Believing In The "Overlapping Generation" JW Doctrine AFTER Being Baptized?By PeterR
You would be asking the wrong question Anna.
You need to ask him whether someone could be disfellowshipped for NOT believing it after baptism.
If he says no, he is either misinformed, forgetful, or lying.
Now I grant you, not every elder will apply the letter of the law (although in a JC it's more likely because of the group dynamics). But that there are procedures in place to allow for DF'ing someone who refuses to believe in particular teachings is very real.
Let me ask you Anna - if I could prove beyond doubt that this was true would you accept it, or would you continue to make light of it?
If you are determined to see only what you want to see I have no agenda to change that. But I can assure you that I do not speak from a position of ignorance or partial information in this regard.
By Outta Here
Since 2009 there has been a great deal of discussion around the concept of an "overlapping generation" in connection with Jesus words at Matt. 24:34.
I don't see anything particularly difficult about the idea myself.
I mean, you have a two stage relay. Start point: 1914 CE on one end. Finish point: the "great tribulation" on the other end. The track between is the stream of time.
As it is impossible for one team of runners to span the distance from the start, 1914 CE, to the finish, the "great tribulation", there are two teams of "anointed" Christians. Starting the race, those who saw the year 1914 eventually meet up with those (born later) who will see the outbreak of the great tribulation. The baton is passed and the race completed by the second group.
The entire group are seen as the (anointed) generation of the last days in Jesus prophecy. Not really rocket science is it?
But, in all the discussion around this, I see a phrase in Jesus words at Matt 24:34 I find intriguing. He said that "this generation will by no means pass away" (NWT)
Other translations render this differently, many saying simply "will not pass" or words to that effect. Why does the NWT render it in this particular manner?
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